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Maxilla bone

Hamulus

Hamulus

Hamulus

Maxillary tuberosity

Maxillary tuberosity

Maxillary tuberosity .

Maxillary sinus/floor of the sinus .

Maxillary sinus/floor of the sinus .

Maxillary sinus/floor of the sinus .

Maxillary sinus .

Septum of maxillary sinus .

Septum of maxillary sinus The tendency for the maxillary sinus to pneumatize and form multiple lobes may give rise to the appearance of radiopaque lines extending from the floor of the sinus into the radiolucent interior. Because these walls subdivide the sinus they are termed sinus septa or septum (singular). . These white lines represent cortical extensions of the wall of the sinus and represent the wall of a smaller compartment within the sinus.

Zygomatic bone Zygomatic process of Maxilla b. .

Temporal bone .Maxilla bone Zygomatic process of maxilla Zygomatic bone Zygomatic arch Zygomatic process of temporal b.

.Zygomatic process of Maxilla b.

White arrows denote the zygomatic process (generally over the first molar) Black arrows delineate the lower border of the zygomatic arch .Zygomatic process of Maxilla b.

Zygomatic arch .

Zygomatic arch .

Nasal fossa .

Nasal fossa .

Nasal fossa .

Nasal fossa .

Anterior nasal spine .

Anterior nasal spine .

Anterior nasal spine .

Median palatal suture .

Median palatal suture .

line at the midline (white arrows). You can also see the more radiopaque inverted triangle at the top of the image that represents the anterior nasal spine. or radiolucent. .Median palatal suture The mid-palatine suture appears in this central incisor periapical projection as a dark.

Median palatal suture .

Incisive nerve foramen .

.Incisive nerve foramen The incisive foramen is the opening in the midline of the palate just posterior to the central incisors.

Incisive foramen 1 .Nasal septum .Incisive Foramen 2 .

Shadow of the nose .

Shadow of the nose .

Shadow of the nose .

Lip line .

Lip line .

Lip line .

Mandible .

Coronoid process .

Coronoid process This is the thin triangular prominence off the upper part of the mandible .

Coronoid process Black arrows delineate margin of coronoid process .

Coronoid process .

Inferior alveolar canal .

through the body of the mandible under the roots of the molar teeth. .Inferior alveolar canal The mandibular canal extends from the mandibular foramen. on the lingual aspect of the ramus.

Inferior alveolar canal .

Its contents are the inferior alveolar nerve. . is outlined by thin opaque edges to the canal.Inferior alveolar canal The inferior alveolar canal or mandibular canal runs from the lingular area of the mandible to the mental foramen and radiographically. artery and vein.

External oblique ridge .

but is located on the facial.External oblique ridge The external oblique ridge is a ridge of bone located along the facial of the mandible. It runs in the same direction as the internal oblique ridge. or external surface of the mandible To distinguish radiographically between the internal and external oblique ridges. note that the external ridge is always superior to the internal oblique ridge . which extends from the superior aspect of the posterior body of the mandible down to the necks of the molar teeth.

Submandibular fossa

Submandibular fossa

Directly below the internal oblique ridge is a depression in the lingual aspect of the mandible
called the submandibular fossa. This concavity is visible radiographically since the thickness of
bone is substantially reduced in this area. The submandibular fossa is the location of the
submandibular salivary gland,

Submandibular fossa

Genial tubercles .

.Genial tubercles The genial tubercles are small bony spines found on the lingual aspect of the mandible adjacent to the midline at the attachment of the geniohyoid and genioglossus muscles.

Genial tubercles .

Mental ridge .

Mental ridge The mental ridges are elevated ridges of bone located along the anterior aspect of the mandible .

Mental ridge .

Mental ridge .

Tooth and surrounding area .

Lamina dura .

Lamina dura .

Dentin .

Dentin .

Enamel .

Enamel .

Pulp space .

Pulp space .

Periodontal ligament space .

Periodontal ligament space .

Primary tooth .

Other Anatomical Findings .

that is trabeculation. chicken wire.” . the bony structure of most areas.Boney trabeculation “Notice the whitish junk down there.

Nutrient canals .

Nutrient canals .

also found in walls of sinuses.” .Nutrient canals Radiographically. nutrient canals. Sometimes these canals can be seen running toward the apices of teeth as accessory branches of the inferior alveolar canal. show up in lower anterior. “Slightly dark line going up and down between teeth. The margin of these lines is often slightly more radiopaque than the adjacent bone. nutrient canals appear as uniform thin radiolucent lines.

Chin soft tissue .

Chin soft tissue .

Chin soft tissue White arrows delineate border of soft tissues of the chin "shelf" .

Basic Pathology .

Mandibular tori .

or singularly. a mandibular torus. . This fairly common feature is a hard. bony enlargement of the alveolar cortex.Mandibular tori The rounded protuberances on the lingual surfaces of the alveolar process are called mandibular tori.

Mandibular tori .

Mandibular tori .

Occlusal caries .

Anterior carries .

Posterior carries .

Caries .

Attrition .

Attrition .

Cervical Abrasion .

Cervical Abrasion .

Periapical radiolucency .

.Pulp stone Sperical calcification within the dental pulp lying free or attached to the pulpal surface of the tooth.

Osteosclerosis/sclerotic bone Here an irregular radiopacity extends from the crest to the inferior alveolar canal between the molars. Two small areas of radiolucency are in it. . one just below the crestal cortex.

.Sclerosed Socket Residual socket has a sclerotic or radiopaque appearance relative to surrounding marrow.

Impacted teeth .

Retained root tip .

Foreign Objects .

Surgical hardware Retention pin Post and core .

Jewelry .

Calculus .

Restorations .

Amalgam Completely radiopaque .

Porcelain Appears slightly radiopaque with a thin out line of the tooth preparaton due to the cement securing restoration .

Base/liner Some base and pulp capping materials contain Barium Sulfate or similar radiopaque materials .

Endodontic treatment Gutta percha .

Composite • Tend to be radiolucent and simulate caries .

Stainless Steel Crown Less radiopaque than gold. contour and shape usually does not follow tooth anatomy since it is usually a temporary restoration .

PFM Crown The metal portion appears as a totally radiopaque center and the porcelain appears slightly radiopaque around the occlusal. and sometimes visible on cervical areas . incisal.

totally opaque. usually follows contour of teeth and smooth borders .Gold Crown Radiopaque approximately same density as amalgum.

you are looking at backside of the film.” . That’s how you determine if you are looking at front or back of film. but as a dimple. and to know if you are looking at right or left side of the mouth.Film orientation dot “If it bumps up. you are looking at correct orientation.

Overlapping contacts .

Bend in film Black linear lines or artifacts or black crescent-shaped creases would be seen on the processed radiograph. These black artifacts occur because there is a break in the emulsion before the film is processed. .

This is due to exposure error. .Cone cut In a partial image part of the film is clear.

.Static electricity Static electricity presents as tree-like marks.

unc.commnet.edu/common/facul ty/turcotte/radio_restorations.Credits • http://www.pdf .html • http://www.edu/~jbl/norm-anat-start .ucla.edu/sod/depts/ora l_rad/courses/DS451c/topic2/ • http://tunxis.dent.