You are on page 1of 51

Chapter 3

Measures of Central Tendency

© McGraw-Hill, Bluman, 5th ed, Chapter
3

1

Chapter 3 Overview
Introduction

3-1 Measures of Central Tendency

3-2 Measures of Variation

Bluman, Chapter 3

2

Chapter 3 Objectives
1. Summarize data using measures of
central tendency.
2. Describe data using measures of
variation.

Bluman, Chapter 3

3

Introduction
Traditional Statistics
Average
Variation

Bluman, Chapter 3

4

3.1 Measures of Central Tendency

A statistic is a characteristic or measure
obtained by using the data values from a
sample.

A parameter is a characteristic or
measure obtained by using all the data
values for a specific population.

Bluman, Chapter 3

5

.What is a measure of Central Tendency? • Numbers that describe what the average of the distribution is • You can think of this value as where the middle of a distribution lies.

Chapter 3 7 .Measures of Central Tendency General Rounding Rule The basic rounding rule is that rounding should not be done until the final answer is calculated. Bluman. Use of parentheses on calculators or use of spreadsheets help to avoid early rounding error.

Measures of Central Tendency: Mean  The mean is the quotient of the sum of the values and the total number of values. X 1  X 2  X3 L  X N  N Bluman. the Greek letter μ (mu) is used Xfor the mean. Chapter 3  N 8 . X  n  n For a population. X   The symbol X 1  X 2 isX 3used  L  for X n sample  X mean.

35. Bluman.Example 3-1: Days Off per Year The data represent the number of days off per year for a sample of individuals selected from nine different countries. 30 X1  X 2  X 3  L  X n X  n X n The mean number of days off is ___ years. 26. Find the mean. 23. 20. 42. 36. 24. 40. Chapter 3 9 .

Chapter 3 10 .Measures of Central Tendency: Mean for Grouped Data  fidi X = AM + N i Where: AM= Assumed mean (Xmid of the class interval assumed to be containing the mean) F= frequency of a class interval d= number of deviations of the class intervals from the assumed mean i= size of the class intervals N= total number of scores Bluman.

xA d= i Bluman. Chapter 3 11 .Measures of Central Tendency: Mean for Grouped Data  fidi X = AM + N i where xi .

Measures of Central Tendency: Mean for Grouped Data  The mean for grouped data is calculated by multiplying the frequencies and midpoints of the classes. Chapter 3 12 . Bluman.

Find the mean.5 .5 .5 25.40.30.Example 3-3: Miles Run Below is a frequency distribution of miles run per week.5 .20.5 30.5 15.5 .5 1 2 3 5 4 3 2 f = 20 Bluman.5 10. Class Boundaries Frequency 5.25.5 20.35.5 .15.10.5 . Chapter 3 13 .5 35.5 .

f Midpoint.Example 3-3: Miles Run Class Intervals 6-10 11-15 16-20 21-25 26-30 31-35 36-40 Frequency. Xm 1 2 3 5 4 3 2 f = 20 Bluman. Chapter 3 8 13 18 23 28 33 38 f ·Xm 8 26 54 115 112 99 76  f ·Xm = 14 .

Chapter 3 15 .  The median will be the average of two data values if there is an even number of values. The symbol for the median is MD.  The median will be one of the data values if there is an odd number of values.Measures of Central Tendency: Median  The median is the midpoint of the data array. Bluman.

311. 401.Example 3-4: Hotel Rooms The number of rooms in the seven hotels in downtown Pittsburgh is 713. 311. 300. 713 Select the middle value. 596. 300. Bluman. Sort in ascending order. Find the median. 618. Chapter 3 16 . MD = 401 The median is 401 rooms. 618. 595. 401. and 292. 292.

1132. 764. The number of tornadoes that have occurred in the United States over an 8year period follows. 856. 1303 764  856 1620 MD    810 2 2 The median number of tornadoes is 810. 1133. Chapter 3 17 . 684.S. 1303 Find the average of the two middle values. 856. 1133. Find the median. 702. 764. 702. 656. 656.Example 3-6: Tornadoes in the U. Bluman. 1132. 684.

Median for grouped data ( N / 2)  Cf Median  L  i f Where: L = lower real limit of the median class N = total number of scores in the distribution Cf = cumulative frequency of the class interval before reaching the median class starting from the lowest class interval f = frequency of the class interval containing the median i = size of the class interval Bluman. Chapter 3 18 .

or many modes (multimodal). Chapter 3 19 . one mode (unimodal).Measures of Central Tendency: Mode  The mode is the value that occurs most often in a data set. two modes (bimodal). Bluman.  It is sometimes said to be the most typical case.  There may be no mode.

Chapter 3 20 . 11.0.0.5 Select the value that occurs the most. 34. 12. 12.4. 10.3.4.5. The mode is 10 million dollars. 10. 14. 10.0. 10. Bluman.0. 18. The bonuses in millions of dollars are 18. 34. 10.Example 3-9: NFL Signing Bonuses Find the mode of the signing bonuses of eight NFL players for a specific year.3. 11. 10 You may find it easier to sort first. 14.

84. 1162. There is no mode. 118. 110. 1977. Bluman. 1031. Chapter 3 21 . 20.Example 3-10: Coal Employees in PA Find the mode for the number of coal employees per county for 10 selected counties in southwestern Pennsylvania. 103. 752 No value occurs more than once. 731.

Example 3-11: Licensed Nuclear Reactors The data show the number of licensed nuclear reactors in the United States for a recent 15-year period. Bluman. The data set is said to be bimodal. Chapter 3 22 . 104 104 104 104 104 107 109 109 109 110 109 111 112 112111 111109 109 104 and 109 both occur the most. Find the mode. The modes are 104 and 109.

5 – 40.5 4 30. Chapter 3 23 . Bluman.5 3 35. Class Frequency 5.5 – 35.5 – 25.5 1 10. is 23 miles per week.Example 3-12: Miles Run per Week Find the modal class for the frequency distribution of miles that 20 runners ran in one week.5 2 The modal class is 20.5 2 15.5 5 25.5 – 15.5.5 – 10.5 – 30.5 – 20.5 – 25.5 3 20. The mode. the midpoint of the modal class.

Mode for Grouped Data d1 Mo = Lmo + i d1 + d 2 Where : Mo =mode L = lower class boundary of the modal class d1= difference between the frequency of the modal class and the frequency of the class next lower in value d2= difference between the frequency of the modal class and the frequency of the class next higher in value Bluman. Chapter 3 i= class width 24 .

Bluman.The following is the distribution of length of service in years of 50 employees of United Laboratories Inc. median and mode. Length of Service (Years) Number of Employees 1-5 5 6-10 7 11-15 12 16-20 13 21-25 6 26-30 4 31-35 3 Compute for the mean. Chapter 3 25 .

Answers:  x = 810/50 = 16. 18 + [(-18/50) 5]  Mdn = 15.2 .13 Bluman.5 + {[(50/2)-24] / 13}5 = 15. Chapter 3 26 .5 + {[1/ (1+7)] 5} = 16.88  Mo = 15.

Scores Number of Employees 21-30 8 31-40 11 41-50 15 51-60 18 61-70 20 71-80 12 81-90 9 91-100 7 Bluman. Compute the measures of central tendency.The following is a frequency distribution of an entrance examination. Chapter 3 27 .

5 Bluman.5 + {[(100/2) -34] / 18}10 = 59.39  Mo = 60.3  Mdn = 50. Chapter 3 28 .Answers:  x = 5930 / 100 = 59.5 + [2/ (2+8)]10 = 62.

Measures of Central Tendency: Weighted Mean  Find the weighted mean of a variable by multiplying each value by its corresponding weight and dividing the sum of the products by the sum of the weights. Chapter 3 29  wX w . w1 X 1  w2 X 2  L  wn X n X  w1  w2  L  wn Bluman.

w Grade. Chapter 3 30 . Course Credits.Example 3-17: Grade Point Average A student received the following grades.7 33 4  2 12 The grade point average is 2. X English Composition 3 A (4 points) Introduction to Psychology 3 C (2 points) Biology 4 B (3 points) Physical Education 2 D (1 point) wX  X w 3 4 3 2 4 3 2 1  32    2. Find the corresponding GPA. Bluman.7.

usually not one of the data values  Cannot be used with open-ended classes  Affected by extremely high or low values. Chapter 3 31 . called outliers  Bluman.Properties of the Mean Uses all data values.  Varies less than the median or mode  Used in computing other statistics. such as the variance  Unique.

Chapter 3 32 .Properties of the Median Gives the midpoint  Used when it is necessary to find out whether the data values fall into the upper half or lower half of the distribution.  Bluman.  Affected less than the mean by extremely high or extremely low values.

Properties of the Mode Used when the most typical case is desired  Easiest to compute  Can be used with nominal data  Not always unique or may not exist  Bluman. Chapter 3 33 .

and mean may all be calculated. but the median is preferred if the distribution is skewed.) For interval-ratio variables. The median provides more information (taking into account the ranking of categories. For ordinal variables. the mode is the only measure that can be used.Considerations for Choosing a Measure of Central Tendency    For a nominal variable. the mode and the median may be used. . median. The mean provides the most information about the distribution. the mode.

It may not accurately represent the data Bluman. There may be no mode at all 3. Chapter 3 35 .Measure of Central Tendency Advantages Disadvantages Mean All the data are used to find the central tendency Can be affected by outliers Median Very big and very small values don’t affect it Takes a long time to calculate for a very large set of data Mode The only measure of 1. There may be central tendency to be more than one used for nonmode numerical data 2.

The values of 19 houses in San Marcelino Street are as follows: Value per house a. Chapter 3 36 .000 8 Php 900. Which measure of central tendency is most suitable for this set? Why? Bluman.100. Number of Houses Php 300.000 6 Php 1.000 4 Find the mean and median values of these houses. b.000 1 Php 700.

Bluman. Chapter 3 37 .

Chapter 3 38 .Bluman.

Chapter 3 39 .Bluman.

Chapter 3 40 .Distributions Bluman.

1 41 .

2 42 .

3 43 .

4 44 .

5 45 .

1 46 .

2 47 .

3 48 .

4 49 .

5 50 .

Chapter 3 51 .Assignment: Quiz tomorrow: Measures of Central tendency Bluman.