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DOCKING

FACILITIES

DOCKS
• Docks are enclosed areas for berthing the
ships to keep them afloat at a uniform
level to facilitate loading and unloading
cargo and passengers.

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CLASSIFICATION OF DOCKS
Docks can be classified into following two
categories:
 Wet docks.
 Dry docks.
Wet docks: Docks required for berthing of ships or
vessels to facilitate the loading and unloading of
passengers and cargo are called wet docks.
These are also known as harbor docks.
Dry docks: The docks used for repairs of ships are
known as dry docks.

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Classification of wet docks
• Wet docks in tidal basins: Ports in open sea coast
protected by an out lying breakwater, basins are
provided within the shelter to reduce the changes
in water level due to tides
• Wet docks enclosed or impounded basins: Docks
are enclosed and are shut off by entrances or
locks and gates to maintain a fairly uniform level
of water.

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Advantages of tidal basins:
• Vessels can come in and berth or leave at all
times.
• Costly arrangements like lock gates are not
required.

Disadvantages of tidal basins:
• If the range of tide is more, the operations of
loading and unloading are seriously affected
• The fluctuations inwater level will cause the
rubbing effect of sides of ships against berths.

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Advantages of enclosed wet docks:
• Uniform level of water is maintained which is very
convenient ' for handling cargo.
• Prevents the rubbing of the ships' sides against
the quay walls.
• Effect of storms in the outer sea and harbour do
not obstruct the dock enclosure.

Disadvantages of enclosed wet docks:
• Requirement of costly arrangements like locks
and lock gates.
• Time required for entry and exit of ship is greater

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Classification of dry docks
Dry docks are classified in the following five
categories:
 Graving or dry docks.
 Floating dry dock.
 Marine railway dock.
 Ship lift dry docks.
 Slip ways.

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Form and arrangements of
basins and docks
 Approaches to basin and docks



Should be sheltered.
Must have adequate length.
Dredging may be required to keep the approach navigable.
In certain ports docks are approached only during high tide
because of very low water level during low tides.

 Depth of docks and basins
 Should be able to accommodate the largest ships visiting
a port.
 Should be able to deepen the basins if required without
disturbing the foundations of the dock walls.

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• Shape of docks and Basins:
Shape of dock or basin should be straight to
facilitate the ships to stand along them, as curved
shape is not convenient for ships to stand along
side.
• The following are the shapes may be adopted as
per site conditions:
o
o
o

Rectangular dock
Diamond dock
Inclined Quay type.

Rectangular dock: The length and breadth should
be adjusted in such a way as to give maximum
quayage.

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Diamond Dock:
For the same perpendicular distance between long
sides, the long side could be extended conveniently.
Inclined Quay dock:
It consists of a number of projecting quays into the dock
or basin.

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 Location of dock:
Docks can be located on inland ports of
rivers or at estuaries or open sea coasts. A proper
piloting service is necessary. The river approaches
to the dock have to be maintained.

 Internal arrangements:
Generally different docks are required for
different types of cargo. For example coal and oil
should be deal with separate way from food or
general cargo.

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Other aspects or
requirements
• Approaches must be of sufficient depth and
sheltered. In many cases approach channels both
on the open coast and island docks have to be
dredged frequently.
• Availability of fresh water to replace fouled and
leaked water from docks.
In inland to replace the fouled water from
docks, separate canals from the rivers have to be
provided, if alternate sources of water supply are
not available. In case of sea coast docks, the sea
water could be used for cleaning and replenishing
the dock.
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Design and construction of
basin or dock walls
• Dock walls are designed as gravity retaining wall
sections. It should satisfy the following conditions:
 Dock empty to withstand pressure of back fill.
 Dock full with back fill removed.
 Thickness at top should be sufficient to resist the shock
of contact with ships.
 Dock walls have to carry additional concentrated loads
like crane foundations, and capstans or bollard fixtures
for mooring ships.
 Surcharge loads in the shape of loaded vehicles or
trains on the quay adjacent to the wall.

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2.10 m

7m

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Other aspects of construction
details
• Basin walls have to be of much great height than
dock walls to allow for the variation In water levels
due to tides.
• As the water level has to be kept constant the sides
and bottom should be made impervious and
arrangements must be made to supply any loss of
water by leakage.
• The front face is generally straight or has a very
slight batter for ships to stand close to the wall.
• The front face is given a granite fending surface or
timber or steel fender to protect the face of the wall
from abrasion of ships.
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• Material for construction:
Dock walls are constructed of masonry,
brickwork or concrete or a combination of these
materials (with construction joints as in the case of
concrete walls).

Dock entrances
Ships can enter a dock either directly or through
Jocks. In either case gates are provided for the dock
entrances.
The types of gates used are:
• Wooden or Iron gates.
• Caissons.

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1. Wooden or iron gates
o
o
o
o
o

Adopted for locks.
Two pairs o gates are required for operation.
Iron gates is suited for large gates and can be easily adapted.
Wood is elastic and cane undergo sudden shocks.
Iron is liable to rapid corrosion in sea water and is prevented by careful
painting.
o Wood is liable to teredo (marine borers) attacks and is prevented by
using greenheart wood.

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Caissons for dock entrances:
Two kinds of caissons are employed:
o Sliding caisson.
o Ship caisson.

• Sliding caisson: It consists of a box shaped steel structure
stiffened internally with proper bracing. It is provided with
steel keels sliding on smooth granite floor. Instead of the
keel, the caissons could be moved on rollers and rails. The
entrance is opened by hauling the caisson into a recess
provided in the side of the dock. The caisson also serves
as a bridge across the dock entrance.

Ship caisson: Resembles the outline of a ship in crosssection and is constructed of steel with stiffeners at proper
intervals. It is floated into position and sunk into specially
prepared grooves in the dock sides and sill. The sinking
and raising of this caisson is done by ballasting and
unballasting respectively.
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Sizes of dock entrances
Sizes of dock entrances: The width of entrances
depends on the largest ship the dock has to receive.
Modern ships have widths up to 30m nearly, and to
accommodate the largest ship the entrance will
have to be sufficiently wide for this purpose.

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Difference between
Port,Harbour and Dock
• Dock:

A dock is an enclosed area of water
used for loading, unloading, building or
repairing ships. Such a dock may be created by
building enclosing harbour walls into an existing
natural water space, or by excavation within what
would otherwise be dry land.

• Harbour: A  harbour or haven, is a body of
water where ships, boats, and barges can seek
shelter from stormy weather, or else are stored
for future use.
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• Port:A port is a location on a coast or shore
containing one or more harbuors where ships can
dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land.
Port locations are selected to optimize access to
land and navigable water, for commercial
demand, and for shelter from wind and waves.
Ports with deeper water are rarer, but can handle
larger, more economical ships.
Harbors and ports are often confused with
each other. A port is a facility for loading and
unloading vessels; ports are usually
located in harbors

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