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Motor development refers to
the development of a child's bones,
muscles and ability to move around and
manipulate his or her environment. 
Motor development can be divided
into two sections: gross motor
development and fine motor


INFANCY • Reflexes: earliest movements can be elicited in new born infants. Moro reflex 3. Tonic Neck reflex 6. Palmar reflex 4. Rooting reflex 2. Plantar/ Babinski reflex 5. Swimming reflex . it is also the involuntary actions triggered by external stimuli • Pathological Reflexes indicate the possibility of some kind of irregular neural function. Examples: 1.

• In normal infants. the eyes will look down ward the chin.OTHER EXAMPLES OF REFLEX 7. this reflex is quickly replaced soon after birth with voluntary eye movements . Doll-eye movements • Common to premature babies and occurs during the first days of life • If the infant’s head is tipped forward. the eyes will tend to look upward and if the head is held backward.

same way when the head is moved. the hips will turn in the same direction .OTHER EXAMPLES OF REFLEX 8. Righting Reflexes of the Head and Body • The head will turn the same direction as hips are turned.

The Labyrinthine Righting Reflex • The attempt of an infant to look upward on its stomach. Later the head is aided by the supportive reaction of the arms.OTHER EXAMPLES OF REFLEX 9. • More common during the middle of first year but first seen in 2nd month after birth .

indicating a readiness to support himself. . Supporting Reactions of Arms and Legs • The human infant at about 4 months will react when brought towards surfaces by reflexively extending the arms.OTHER EXAMPLES OF REFLEX 10.

OTHER EXAMPLES OF REFLEX 11. . Pull-up Reaction of the Arms • Occurs several months after birth • If held upright by either hand and tipped off to one side or the other. the infant will tend to flex the appropriate arm and try to resume the original upright position.

• Involves a distinct lift but does not involve other body parts.OTHER EXAMPLES OF REFLEX 12. . The Walking Reflex • About 58% of infants on the 2nd week after birth. They can also “climb” stairs while supported in this manner and also be walk upside down. they will “walk” if held in an upright position with their feet permitted to touch a level of horizontal surface.

OTHER EXAMPLES OF REFLEX 13. • Leads to voluntary creeping . The Crawling Reflex • If the infant is placed face down on a surface and pressureis alternatively applied to the bottoms of the feet. he/she will perform a crawling pattern with the upper and lower limbs.

. which manifest a reflex similar to vertical climbing. Climbing Movements • This reflex resembles later the voluntary attempts to move in a horizontal plane.OTHER EXAMPLES OF REFLEX 14.

walking and kicking.THE PHASING OUT OF REFLEXES AND THE PHASING IN OF VOLUNTARY MOVEMENT Gross Motor Skills • Involves the large muscle of the body and include locomotor function such as sitting upright. (Upton. It depends on the tone and strength of the muscles. 2011) .


Creeping • Occurs when the infant has been allowed to remain in a front lying position for prolonged periods of time. Independent Locomotion 1.GROSS MOTOR SKILLS Voluntary. 2. with feet drawn up under the hips • Moves in a contralateral extremities . Crawling • Begins to develop after the creeping • The first attempts are resulted from a bent-elbow posture.

furniture) • Proceeds walking .  4.GROSS MOTOR SKILLS 3. • Steps: • Back-lying position • By turning his/her head to its stomach (front-lying position) • He/she begins to reach for objects and bring the feet under the body • Sitting position • Standing up by hanging onto things (e.g. Sliding • Some infants develop an unusual method of locomotion involving a slide forward in a seated position using the hills with which to “dig in”. Standing up • This movement is the results of the aggregated reflexes and locomotor movements.

feet turned outward. Upright gait • Early attempts: wide stances.GROSS MOTOR SKILLS 5. knees are slightly flexed .

not genetic influence • Modern theories on m.s.) is common without being atypical • Environmental factors influence the timing of m..d.d.GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Motor skills advance in definite sequence *norms • Distinct pattern (cephalocaudal and proximodistal) • Individual variation (2-4 mos. emphasize the interaction between nature and nurture .s.

d. well-coordinated action systems • Development is seen as a self-organizing system • Infant is driven by curiosity. increases in neurological connections. they are progressively modified and refined until the components fir together. • Child’s active role in own m.DYNAMIC SYSTEMS THEORY • Constructivist approach • Both nature and nurture influence m.s.d. resulting in smooth. motor skills are reliant on innate reflexes.s. gradually the reflexes are reorganized into new and more complex actions • Initial motor behaviors are likely to be tentative. • At first. sensory stimuli and parenting behaviors all play a role in motor skill development . motivating them for locomotion • Improving physical strength. disjointed and coordinated • However.

2011) . drawing and fastening clothing rely upon motor skills. (Upton.FINE MOTOR SKILLS Involves small muscles of the body that enable functions such as grasping and manipulating small objects. Writing.

FINE MOTOR SKILLS (3-5 MONTHS) • Child’s ability to reach out and manipulate objects changes significantly over the first year of life • Voluntary reaching and grasping usually develops at 3 months • Prior to this. the voluntary transferring of objects from hand to hand. It is clumsy and claw like • It eventually develops into the pincer grasp which is far superior and comes with the development of dexterity . uncoordinated swipes that rarely result in the capture of the objects • Capacity for interaction with the environment • At 4-5 months. palmar reflex is replaced by ulnar grasp.

New Jersey 07632. 2011 . 1979 • Upton.REFERENCES • Cratty. Englewoods Cliffs. Perceptual and Motor Development in Infants and Children 2nd Edition. Critical Thinking in Psychology: Developmental Psychology. Upton. Learning Matters Ltd. Penney. Inc.. .. Bryant J. Dominic. Prentice-Hall..


and hop • Can participate in throwing and catching games with larger balls • Can push themselves around with their feet while sitting on a riding toy.EARLY CHILDHOOD (2-3 YEARS) GROSS MOTOR SKILLS FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Stop “toddling” and develop a smoother gait in walking • Develops ability to run. • Can build towers out of blocks and mold clay into rough shapes • Can turn the pages of a book • Can scribble with a crayon or pen (random scribbling at age 2 and controlled scribbling at age 3) • Often begin showing a preference for using one hand more often than the other . jump.

HANDEDNESS (HAND PREFERENCE) • Seems to have a strong genetic basis • Studies have shown that adopted children’s handedness is related to their biological (not their adoptive) parents’ handedness • Prenatal ultrasound scans show that most fetuses show a preference of their right hand in sucking their thumbs • This strongly suggests that hand preference develops before sociocultural influences can have effect * Ambidexterity can be developed through practice .

left handedness does increase the likelihood of right hemisphere dominance for language processing .HANDEDNESS (HAND PREFERENCE) • Right hand preference dominates in most cultures at a ratio of approximately 9:1 • Handedness is traditionally though to have been strongly linked to brain organization (right handed. right sphere language dominant) • 90 % of right handed people are left sphere language dominant. left sphere language dominant. so are more than 50% of left handed people • According to Knecht et al. left handed. however. left handedness is neither a precursor nor a necessary consequence of right hemisphere language dominance • However. (2000).

• Left handed people tend to have exceptional visual-spatial skills • They also have a tendency to score higher on intelligence tests • However. they are also more likely to have reading problems than right handed people. Pablo Picasso. . and Johann Sebastian Bach. which might be related to the way they process language. Leonardo da Vinci.HANDEDNESS (HAND PREFERENCE) • Left handedness is often seen in artistic and creative individuals such as musicians and artists • Famous left handed artists include: Michaelangelo. Lewis Carroll.

FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Start to manipulate clothing fasteners. like zippers and buttons • Continue to gain independence in dressing and undressing themselves. they tend to turn around and scoot down the stairs backwards. young children may still need some "back-up" assistance to prevent falls in case they become unsteady in this new skill. • Can also begin using scissors to cut paper (not very well). • Will be stumped when it's time to go back down the stairs. .EARLY CHILDHOOD (3-4 YEARS) GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Can climb up stairs using a method of bringing both feet together on each step before proceeding to the next step • However.

steering and pedaling a tricycle • Continue to refine their eating skills and can use utensils like forks and spoons • Can also use larger writing instruments. . in a writing hold rather than just grasping them with their fist. like fat crayons. • Begins skipping • Riding.EARLY CHILDHOOD (3-4 YEARS) GROSS MOTOR SKILLS FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Can jump and hop higher as their leg muscles grow stronger. Many can even hop on one foot for short periods of time.

• Can also kick a larger ball placed directly in front of their bodies.EARLY CHILDHOOD (3-4 YEARS) GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Develop better upper body mobility. As a result. FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Can also use a twisting motion with their hands. useful for opening door knobs or twisting lids off containers. their catching and throwing abilities improve in speed and accuracy.  .

however. squares. and large letters.. and can drive them faster. Drawing more complex shapes. • Continue to refine fine motor skills and build upon earlier skills. • Artistic skills improve. • Can button and unbutton their clothes by themselves. • Running continues to smooth out and increase in speed. • Have more control when riding their tricycles (or bicycles). may take longer.EARLY CHILDHOOD (4-5 YEARS) GROSS MOTOR SKILLS FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Can go up and down the stairs alone in the adult fashion (i.e. taking one step at a time). and they can draw simple stick figures and copy shapes such as circles. . • Can skip better and add spin to their throws.



• Can step sideways. . • Running even faster and can start to ride bicycles with training wheels for added stability. • Often start jumping rope. skating. hitting balls with bats. • Able to use paints. • Begin mastering new forms of physical play such as the jungle gym. such as printing letters and numbers and creating shapes such as triangles. and begin to use the seesaw. and swing on their own. and so on.EARLY CHILDHOOD (5-7 YEARS) GROSS MOTOR SKILLS FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Continue to refine earlier skills. • Begin to show the skills necessary for starting or succeeding in school. slide. pencils and crayons with better control.

or dance. or swimming • Often like to participate in physical extracurricular activities such as karate. . • Can also independently feed themselves without an adult's immediate supervision or help. such as brushing their teeth and combing their hair.EARLY CHILDHOOD (5-7 YEARS) GROSS MOTOR SKILLS FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Enjoy learning to play organized sports such as soccer. gymnastics. * Children continue to refine and improve their gross motor skills through age 7 and beyond. basketball. • Can also complete other self-care tasks beyond dressing and undressing.

boys develop these skills slightly faster than do girls. except for skills involving balance and precise movements such as skipping. • In contrast to how gross motor skills develop. .MIDDLE-LATE CHILDHOOD (7-12 YEARS) GROSS MOTOR SKILLS FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Continue to build on and improve gross motor skills. girls tend to develop fine motor skills slightly faster than do boys. • Continue to hone their fine motor skills which can be distinguish from gross motor skills in that they require hand-eye coordination. the large-scale body movement skills such as walking and running that they first learned during earlier developmental stages. • In general. jumping and hopping.

.g. .MIDDLE-LATE CHILDHOOD (7-12 YEARS) GROSS MOTOR SKILLS FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Run faster than previously possible • Can also jump higher and farther • No two children will develop physical skills in exactly the same pattern or time frame. "script" forms of handwriting).  • Show dramatic improvements with regard to their printed handwriting and ability to write in cursive letters (e.

such as drawing farther away objects smaller) and 3D elements. which requires a combination of balance. and strength) FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Develop the ability to draw complex and detailed pictures that for the first time begin to incorporate depth cues (i.g. their ability to change their body's position... skip. reflexes. balance. their range of movement in joints and muscles). and agility (e. .. They are able to gain this improved control and coordination due to increases in their flexibility (e. and jump. throw.g. • Often.e. learning to master where they hop. coordination. children's artistic ability can truly begin to shine during this stage as improved fine motor skills and imagination combine.MIDDLE-LATE CHILDHOOD (7-12 YEARS) GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Refine their control over gross motor skills. speed.

MIDDLE-LATE CHILDHOOD (7-12 YEARS) GROSS MOTOR SKILLS FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Learn how to synchronize the movement of their body's various parts. and good at using simple tools such a hammer or a hand mixer) .g. scrap booking. • Become capable of executing complex detailoriented craft projects (beading. more coordinated wholebody movement routines such as are needed for participating in organized sports (e. • Learn how to use their hands to successfully accomplish manual activities other than drawing or writing. allowing for the development of smoother. or dribbling a basketball). batting a baseball.. building models. sewing. throwing a football.

MIDDLE-LATE CHILDHOOD (7-12 YEARS) GROSS MOTOR SKILLS FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Due to their progress with regard to the growth and maturity of motor. many children will now become capable and competitive participants on sports teams. • Learning to touch type becomes a serious possibility at this time. and social skills. . cognitive. • Commonly become quite skillful at playing complicated games involving hand-eye coordination. including video and computer games.

(2011). Critical Thinking in Psychology: Developmental Psychology. . Learning Matters D. John S.php?type=doc&id=1 2755&cn=462 • http:// sevencounties. New York : McGraw-Hill Higher Education • Upton. and Upton.php?type=doc &id=37676&cn=1272 • Dacey. Human development across the • http:// bhcmhmr. (2009). P.


Motor Development GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Motor skills that involve large-muscle activities (milestones achieved) • Infancy • • • • Development of posture Locomotion and crawling Learning to walk Help of caregivers important. cultural variation exists • More skilled and mobile in second year .

running.Motor Development GROSS MOTOR SKILLS • Childhood • Improved walking. climbing.Skills continue to improve • Adulthood • Peak performance of most sports before 30 • Biological functions decline with age . learn organized sports’ skills • Positive and negative sport outcomes • Movement smoother with age • Adolescence . jumping.

arm. fingers move together . • Infancy: Reaching and grasping • Size and shape of object matters • Experience affects perceptions and vision • Early Childhood: Pick up small objects • Some difficulty building towers • Age 5: hand.Motor Development FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Involves more finely tuned movements. such as finger dexterity.

but most use compensation strategies • Older adults can still learn new motor tasks . improve • Steadier at age 7. can do quality crafts.Motor Development FINE MOTOR SKILLS • Childhood and adolescence: • Writing and drawing skills emerge. master difficult piece on musical instrument • Adulthood: • Speed may decline in middle and late adulthood. more precise movements • By 10-12.

PHASE AGE Reflex Rude STAGE Prenatal Birth 6 month Infancy 2 years 6 years 12 years 18 years Fund Early Childhood Sport Late Childhood Refine Adolescence Peak Adulthood 30 years Regression Older Adulthood 70 years From Gabbard. 1996 .

.ADOLESCENCE – PERIOD OF INTEGRATING MOTOR SKILLS (15-20 YEARS) • As adolescents continue to mature they become better able to move their bodies with greater skill and precision. Adolescents can do more complex and strenuous activities compare when they were in their middle childhood. • Gross and fine motor skills improve continuously during adolescence.

BEYOND INFANCY: MOTOR DEVELOPMENT IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE • Boys and girls are nearly equal in physical abilities until puberty. nor do they adequately explain the declining performance of girls. • Jacqueline Herkowitz (1978) believes that the apparent physical decline of adolescent girls is a product of gender-role socialization. . who continue to grow taller and heavier. when boys continue to post gains on tests of large-muscle activities. between ages 12 and 17. • Biological developments do not account for all the difference in large-muscle performance between boys and girls. whereas girls level off or decline.

• Early adulthood : forming working motor
skills, climax of sports activity, stage of motor
performance culmination with majority of
• Middle adulthood: stage of stabilized
efficiency, gymnastic activity decreases, it is
replaced by healthy walks of lower intensity
• Late adulthood: stage of decreased motor
efficiency, the repertory of locomotive skills
decreases, period of balancing.

• Old age
Motor condition: motor abilities regress more
dramatically (mainly with speed abilities), less
dramatic regression of static-power abilities,
endurance abilities decrease by approx. 50 %;
such decrease, however, can be positively
influenced by training (70-year old marathoners),
length of step shortens (up to 1/4), bad arm
coordination, extreme leg raising, axis shift.

• Upright static balance is maintained by postural swaying.
• Postural swaying deteriorates gradually and by the time we are
80 years of age our ability to maintain static upright balance is
like a 6 year old child.
• Postural sway increases with age.
• Poor vision increases postural sway and decreases balance.
• Incident of fall is related to postural sway and static balance.
• Half of elderly who fall and break a bone never regain functional
• Men seem to experience a greater mortality rate from falling that
• Falls are due to a deterioration of balance associated with walking

. • Adopting a slower pace reduces strength in lower limbs. • Stride length decreases with greater tendency to toe-out to improve lateral stability. • Greater flexion of the hip when taking a stride with less ankle extension at the end of stance phase in walking which reduces stride length.• Walking speed is slower because they adopt a conservative pattern of walking to prevent falling. • Step height decreases.

MOVEMENT SPEED IN ADULTHOOD Welford(1982) found: •Spatial transpositions (simple reaction time situations) develop early in life and resist decline where as symbolic translations (choice and discriminate reaction time situations) decline. •Sense organs and loss of brain cells reduced signal levels which causes slower motor movements. •Aged is willing to sacrifice speed of movement for accuracy and therefore more cautious. . •Threshold of excitation of the muscles decline.

” . “Aging is inevitable but the process is very variable. Thus.THAT’S IT. THANK YOU. the key is to experience a slow rate of aging.

google.e du%2Fmrose%2FHandouts%2FLifespan%2520Develo pment%2FMedia%2520Presentations%2FBiologica l.ncbi.php ?type=doc&id=41154&cn=1310 http://www.References: 105/ &esrc=s&source=web&cd=15&cad=rja&uact=8&ved =0CFQQFjAEOAo&url=http%3A%2F%2Fiws.pptx&ei=Hbc-VMC nOMPkuQSO8oDYCQ&usg=AFQjCNFPMTAbY6i3B9RBClo .

FACTORS AFFECTING MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT  Tone . hypotonic or hypertonic . .Cerebral palsy .Can be normal.Ongoing contraction and state of the muscle at rest.

The ability to maintain the exertion required for an activity • -Involves many factors such as muscle tone and strength. heart and lung function.FACTORS AFFECTING MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT  Strength • -The force of a muscle contraction purposefully exerted against resistance to carry out an activity  Endurance • . and motivation .

body-position awareness. crawling.Sensory input includes vision. and muscle strength and tone. .FACTORS AFFECTING MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT  Balance .These factors all work together to allow your child to maintain an upright posture and to move between positions needed for activities such as sitting. walking. and reaching .The delicate interaction of equilibrium(or vestibular) centers in the brain with sensory input .

The complex. sequencing.Motor planning requires the coordination of the systems that regulate perception. and often intuitive. speed.FACTORS AFFECTING MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT  Motor Planning . ability to know how to carry out the steps needed to complete a physical activity . and intensity of movements .

Children may have a different threshold for responding to sensory input .FACTORS AFFECTING MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT  Sensory Integration .The ability to accurately interpret sensory input from the environment and to produce an appropriate motor response .They may exhibit a reduced (under stimulation) or heightened (over stimulation) response to sensory information .

Genetic makeup .Typical American children roll over at 3 months.FACTORS AFFECTING MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT  Environmental - Living conditions Parental involvement Educational experiences Growth  Cultural . sit at 6 months and walk at 12 months • .

children who view their abilities as a reflection of their aptitude tend to have a negative reaction when they have trouble mastering a skill. gender .FACTORS AFFECTING MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT  Social . . less likely to become discouraged and more likely to positively react to learning experiences. self-perception and selfmotivation.Personality. However.Albert Bandura: children who believe they can acquire new skills are more likely to try harder when challenged.

Down syndrome .Cerebral palsy .FACTORS AFFECTING MOTOR SKILLS DEVELOPMENT  Diseases .Autism Spectrum Disorder .Dyspraxia .

com/article/1005763-environmental-cultural-social-factors-influencemotorskill-development-children/ •http://www.html • •http://www.htm • .REFERENCES •http://www.down-syndrome.html • •http://ncld.