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# Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

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Learning Objectives

Chapter 7

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used when the subgroup size is not constant • Used to evaluate fraction defective • Control limits are based on Binomial Distribution Chapter 7 4 .P Control Chart • The most versatile and widely used attributes control chart -.

P Control Chart P CONTROL CHART ALCAS PEFLOW SOLDER MACHINE 90 PERCENT DEFECTIVE 80 70 UCL PERCENT 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 2 4 Chapter 7 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 SUBGROUP NUMBER 20 22 24 26 5 .

P Chart • Compute the control limits   UCL  P  3   P (1  P ) n P (1  P )  LCL  P  3 n  • The UCL and LCL are not straight lines. they rise and fall with respect to the subgroup size Chapter 7 6 .

– When screening multiple characteristics for potential monitoring on variable control charts.The P Chart • When to use: – Only when variable data cannot be obtained. – When tracking the quality level of a process before any rework is performed. Chapter 7 7 . – When charting fraction rejected as nonconforming from a varying sample size.

– The higher the quality level. the larger the sample size must be to contain rejects. if 20% of a product is rejectable. there should be some rejects in each observed sample. a sample of 1.• How The P Chart – By counting the number of defective items from a sample and then plotting the percent that are defective.000 will give an average of only one reject per sample if 0.1% of the product is rejectable. However. For example. • Conditions – In order to be of help. Chapter 7 8 . a sample size of 5 will be needed.

The P Chart Table 1 Formulas for the P Chart Chart p Control limits P (1  P ) UCL  P  3 n P (1  P ) LCL  P  3 n Chapter 7 Centerline Summation of plot po int s p Number of plot po int s Plot point Sample size Number of defective units p in a sample Sample size(n) Varying 9 .

The centerline is the average fraction defective in series of samples.The P Chart • To calculate Plot Points – The p plot point is the fraction defective in a sample. Chapter 7 10 . Figure 1 is a cross section showing countersunk holes for rivet installation.

and the bucking process. A P chart is used to track the first-time-through fraction defective.The P Chart • To calculate Plot Points – In a sheet metal assembly shop a common process is bucking rivets. the drilled holes. After the rivets in an assembly have been bucked into place they are checked for nonconformity. there are quality problems. Because of the combined variation in the rivets. Chapter 7 11 .

Figure 1 • Cross section of sheet metal plates with countersunk holes for rivet installation Chapter 7 12 .

P Chart Chapter 7 13 .

P Chart TOTALS Chapter 7 14 .

X Relay Chapter 7 15 .

Fluorocarbon Leak Test FLUOROCARB. LEAK TEST P Chart (%) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 UCL 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 9 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 28 29 Chapter 7 16 .

NP Control Chart • Number of defectives • Used when subgroup size is constant (n) • The actual number of defects is represented by pn (or np) Chapter 7 17 .

NP Control Chart • NP Control Chart plating defects of assembled parts 15 14 13 12 11 UCL 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Chapter 7 LOT NUMBER 18 .

NP Control Charts • Computations – Control limits are based on the Binomial Distribution Pn  1) Central line: nP  K 2) UCL  nP  3 nP (1  P ) 3) LCL  nP  3 nP (1  P ) Chapter 7 Where Pn  P n 19 .

NP Charts Chapter 7 20 .

4 Steps in control chat for Fraction Rejected I II III IV Preparatory Decisions Starting the control chart Continuing the control chart Reports and Action based on control chart Chapter 7 21 .

I. Preparatory Decisions • • • • • Purpose Select Quality Characteristic Selection of subgroup P or NP chart Control limit calculated Chapter 7 22 .

Starting the control chart • Recording data r r  • p  n .II. p  n Calculation  • Trial limits • Plotting points i i i i i Chapter 7 23 .

III Continuing the control chart P0  P • • • • • If chart in control UCL  P0  3 P0 1  P0  ni Selection of P0 Calculation of control limits Plotting the points/limits Interpretation of lack of control Periodic Review/Revision of Pi Chapter 7 24 .

1% requires 1000s Chapter 7 25 .IV Reports and Action based on control chart • Action to bring process into control-Pareto. • Review of Design and specification • Information to Management(Quality level) • Sensitivity of p chart : 0. high spot/low spot.

240 0.140 0.Example of Attribute control chart LOT 1 2 3 4 5 Total Number Number of inspecting defectives 500 27 50 12 800 12 100 14 150 15 1600 80 Chapter 7 P 0.100 26 .015 0.054 0.

3 9 280 33 11.9 15. 4.7 14.0 4. 2 220 18 8. 3 210 23 10.0 17. (100)  % LCL  P  3 n P 100  P  UCL  P  3 n P 100  P  27 .Example of Attribute Control Chart Subgrou p Subgrou p Size n # of Defectiv es Percent Defectiv e P (%) UCL(%) LCL 1 115 15 13.3 Total 2550 243 P 15.0 15.6 3.8 10 330 42 12.7 14. 6 365 15 4.0 15.. 5 255 18 7.4 3.7 1. 4.2 15.1 7 255 44 8 300 13 4.4 3. 4 220 22 10.0 Totlal defective  Total inspected Chapter 7 4.

• Purpose of maintaining attribute charts is to continuously improve the processes for defect free production by highlighting the key problems. • How to work on getting desirable pattern Recommend working on 3 top problems for the day or week of month as the time permits and solve by a systematic problem solving method namely (1) Define problems (2) Find key causes (3) Solution to cure the key causes demonstrated by statistics Chapter 7 28 .

Chapter 7 29 .

Chapter 7 30 .

Chapter 7 31 .

Chapter 7 32 .

Chapter 7 33 .

Chapter 7 34 .

Chapter 7 35 .

Chapter 7 36 .

Chapter 7 37 .

Chapter 7 38 .

Chapter 7 39 .

Chapter 7 40 .

Design of the Fraction Nonconforming Chart • Three parameters must be specified 1. The sample size 2. The frequency of sampling 3. The width of the control limits • • Common to base chart on 100% inspection of all process output over time Rational subgroups may also play role in determining sampling frequency Chapter 7 41 .

Chapter 7 42 .

Chapter 7 43 .

Chapter 7 44 .

Chapter 7 45 .

Chapter 7 46 .

Average sample size approach Chapter 7 47 .

Chapter 7 48 .

Chapter 7 49 .

Chapter 7 50 .

Chapter 7 51 .

Chapter 7 52 .

Chapter 7 53 .

Chapter 7 54 .

Chapter 7 55 .

U charts: average number of nonconformities per unit (defects per TV set) Chapter 7 56 .Charts for Nonconformities C cart and U chart • Often times there is interest in knowing how many defects an item has -.C charts: total number of nonconformities in subgroups of fixed size (defects per square yard of cloth) -.

Charts for Nonconformities • Used during inspection of complex assemblies • Control limits based on Poisson Distribution Chapter 7 57 .

C Control Chart • UCL and LCL are straight lines because of fixed sample sizes CL= c UCL= c  3 c LCL= c  3 c Where c is the central line and equal to Total Defects Number of Subgroups Chapter 7 58 .

the total number of defects is plotted on the C chart. Box 1 has nine defects and box 2 has twelve. Chapter 7 59 .The data in table 2 represent the types of defects found on the first two boxes. Notice that the types and quantity of defects are different for the two boxes. nevertheless.

To get started. this data can be analyzed on an attribute chart to get ideas (using the Pareto analysis) on the characteristics.Note: A C chart (as well as any other attribute chart) should only be used when there is absolutely no way to obtain variable data from the characteristic in which measurable data is available. Chapter 7 60 .

UCL and LCL varies CL= u UCL= LCL= 3 u u n 3 u u n • where u is the central line and equal to Total Defects Total Units Chapter 7 61 .U Control Chart • As the subgroup size varies.

Chapter 7 62 .The U Chart When to use: • Only when variable data cannot be obtained. • When screening multiple characteristics for potential monitoring on variable control charts. How: • Each unit is examined and the average number of defects found are plotted. • When plotting the average number of defects found per unit.

but the sample size would be 12.3 square-feet of material is inspected. Unit size is different from samples size. but any convenient number of units per plot point. 12. one unit could be defined as 1 square-foot of material.The U Chart Conditions: • Constant unit size. For example. Chapter 7 63 .3. The plot point would represent the average number of defects per unit. • On a particular day.

or various electrical faults on a circuit board. but none of which would necessarily render the part a defective. an area of material. an assembly of several parts.The U Chart • There are potentially several different types of defects per unit. Chapter 7 64 . A unit can be single part. • For example: paint blemishes on a skin panel. or any rational grouping in which the likelihood of defect(s) is constant from unit to unit.

• In order for this type of analysis to be of help. Chapter 7 65 . there should be some defects in each observed unit.

The U Chart • To Calculate Plot Points: • The u plot point is the average number of defects per unit in a sample of n units. Figure 6-17 shows a roll of composite material/dyed cloth with potential multiple defects. The centerline is the average of all the plot points on the chart. Chapter 7 66 .

Chapter 7 67 . the number of rolls inspected also changes daily. Since different amounts of the material are used each day. the number of rolls inspected for defects. • Prior to lay up. are used each day.The U Chart • Composite materials are generally made up of several layers of materials that are bonded to form the desired characteristics.

Attribute Control Charts Chart type Names/remarks Central line Control Limits p 1  p  n p 1  p  LCL p  p  3 n UCL p  p  3 P Fraction defective P np Number defectives np UCLnp  np  3 np 1  p  C UCLc  c  3 c LCLc  c  3 c c Number of defects per subgroup u Number of defects per inspection unit Chapter 7 u LCLnp  np  3 np 1  p  UCLu  u  3 u n LCLu  u  3 u n 68 .

Attribute data Variable data N>50 N not constant Fraction defective N>50 N is constant Fraction defective n1 n not constant Defects per unit X-bar chart R chart P chart np chart n<6 n>6 n>25 X-bar chart S chart X-bar chart S2 chart u chart n=1 n1 Is constant Defects per unit Individual chart c chart Chapter 7 69 .

Chapter 7 70 .

Chapter 7 71 .

Chapter 7 72 .

Chapter 7 73 .

Chapter 7 74 .

Chapter 7 75 .

Chapter 7 76 .

Chapter 7 77 .

Chapter 7 78 .

Chapter 7 79 .

Chapter 7 80 .

Chapter 7 81 .

Chapter 7 82 .

Chapter 7 83 .

Chapter 7 84 .

Chapter 7 85 .

Chapter 7 86 .

Chapter 7 87 .

Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7

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Chapter 7 91 .

Chapter 7 92 .

Chapter 7 93 .

Chapter 7 94 .

Chapter 7 95 .

Chapter 7 96 .

Low Defect Levels Chapter 7 97 .

Chapter 7 98 .

Chapter 7 99 .

Chapter 7 100 .

Chapter 7 101 .

Chapter 7 102 .

Chapter 7 103 .

Chapter 7 104 .

Chapter 7 105 .

Chapter 7 106 .

Chapter 7 107 .

Actions taken to improve a process Chapter 7 108 .

Chapter 7 109 .

Chapter 7 110 .

Learning Objectives Chapter 7 111 .