William G. Zikmund

Chapter 13: Measurement

Concept
A generalized idea about a class of objects, attributes, occurrences, or processes

Operational Definition
Specifies what the researcher must do to measure the concept under investigation

Media Skepticism conceptual definition
• Media skepticism - the degree to which individuals are skeptical toward the reality presented in the mass media. Media skepticism varies across individuals, from those who are mildly skeptical and accept most of what they see and hear in the media to those who completely discount and disbelieve the facts, values, and portrayal of reality in the media.

Media Skepticism Operational Definition
Please tell me how true each statement is about the media. Is it very true, not very true, or not at all true? • 1. The program was not very accurate in its portrayal of the problem. • 2. Most of the story was staged for entertainment purposes. • 3. The presentation was slanted and unfair.

Scale
• Series of items arranged according to value for the purpose of quantification • A continuous spectrum

Nominal Scale

Ordinal Scale

Interval Scale

Ratio Scale

Scale Properties
• • • • Uniquely classifies Preserves order Equal intervals Natural zero

Nominal Scale Properties
• Uniquely classifies
– Sammy Sosa # 21 – Barry Bonds # 25

Ordinal Scale Properties
• Uniquely classifies • Preserves order • Win, place, & show

Interval Scale Properties
• Uniquely classifies • Preserves order • Equal intervals
– Consumer Price Index (Base 100) – Fahrenheit temperature

Ratio Scale Properties
• Uniquely classifies • Preserves order • Equal intervals
– Natural zero – Weight and distance

Index Measures
• ATTRIBUTES A single characteristic or fundamental feature that pertains to an object, person, or issue • COMPOSITE MEASURE A composite measure of several variables to measure a single concept; a multi-item instrument

The Goal of Measurement Validity

Validity
The ability of a scale to measure what was intended to be measured

Reliability
The degree to which measures are free from random error and therefore yield consistent results

Reliability and Validity on Target

Old Rifle Low Reliability (Target A)

New Rifle High Reliability (Target B)

New Rifle Sun glare Reliable but Not Valid (Target C)

Validity
V F A C E O R C C CO R N I T O N C U a lid E R N R PR it y T O I RE EN N C V O A N L S I D T IR T UY DT I C T I V E C T

Reliability
R S T E T S A T B R I L E I T Y E L I N I A T A B E L I L R E I T N A Y L L F C O N I MN S SG I S H

TE E Q S U T I V

NS TP

IO T R T

Sensitivity
• A measurement instrument’s ability to accurately measure variability in stimuli or responses.