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Cuevas, Anne Nicole E.

What is



• a vague feeling of
dread or
• a response to
external or internal
stimuli that can
have behavioral,
cognitive, and
physical symptoms

actions • re-experiencing of traumatic events • unexplainable or overwhelming worry .Clients • panic without reason suffering • unwarranted fear of objects from anxiety or life conditions disorders • uncontrollable repetitive such as.

E Y G O L O I T .

Biologic Theories Genetic Theories Anxiety may have an inherited component because first degree relatives of clients with increased anxiety have higher rates of developing anxiety. . Heritability refers to the proportion of a disorder that can be attributed to genetic factors.

3 to 0.3 mean that genetics are negligible as a primary cause of the disorder. • Moderate heritabilities are 0.5 and suggest an even greater influence of genetic and nongenetic factors. • Heritabilities less than 0. .Biologic Theories Genetic Theories • High heritabilities are greater than 0.6 and indicate that genetic influences dominate.

including agoraphobia. GAD and OCD tend to be more common in families. but still require further indepth study (McMahon & Kassem.Biologic Theories Genetic Theories Moderate Heritability Panic disorder and social and specific phobias. indicating a strong genetic component. 2005) .

thus decreasing the rate of neuronal firing . functions as the body’s natural antianxiety agent by reducing cell excitability.Biologic Theories Neurochemical Theories Gamma-aminobutyric acid (aminobutyric acid [GABA]) is the amino acid neurotransmitter believed to be dysfunctional in anxiety disorders. GABA. an inhibitory neurotransmitter.

thus decreasing the rate of neuronal firing. an inhibitory neurotransmitter. . functions as the body’s natural antianxiety agent by reducing cell excitability.Biologic Theories Neurochemical Theories GABA.

Biologic Theories Neurochemical Theories Serotonin. . and it also affects aggression and mood. panic disorder. and GAD. An excess of norepinephrine is suspected in panic disorder. GAD. has many subtypes. & Charney. 5Hydroxytryptamine type 1a plays a role in anxiety. Bonne. and posttraumatic stress disorder (Neumeister. the indolamine neurotransmitter usually implicated in psychosis and mood disorders. Serotonin is believed to play a distinct role in OCD. 2005).

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Levels of Anxiety Anxiety has both healthy and harmful aspects depending on its degree and duration as well as on how well the person copes with it. .

Levels of Anxiety • Mild anxiety is a sensation that something is different and warrants special attention. and protect himself or herself. . think. Sensory stimulation increases and helps the person focus attention to learn. solve problems. feel. act.

solve problems. the person can still process information. In moderate anxiety. . and learn new things with assistance from others. He or she has difficulty concentrating independently but can be redirected to the topic. the person becomes nervous or agitated.Levels of Anxiety • Moderate anxiety is the disturbing feeling that something is definitely wrong.

or uses other similar emotional– psychomotor means to release tension. irritable. The person paces. is restless. . Muscles tighten and vital signs increase.Levels of Anxiety • Severe anxiety has trouble thinking and reasoning. and angry.

Pupils enlarge to let in more light. flight.Levels of Anxiety • Panic the emotional– psychomotor realm predominates with accompanying fight. or freeze responses. Adrenaline surge greatly increases vital signs. and the only cognitive process focuses on the person’s defense. .


resulting in maladaptive behaviors and emotional disability. .Anxiety disorders are diagnosed when anxiety no longer functions as a signal of danger or a motivation for needed change but becomes chronic and permeates major portions of the person’s life.

Types of anxiety disorders include the following: • Agoraphobia with or without panic disorder • Panic disorder • Specific phobia • Social phobia • OCD • Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) • Acute stress disorder • Posttraumatic stress disorder. .

Symptoms include prominent anxiety. phobias. a medication. . panic attacks. or exposure to a toxin.• Substance-induced anxiety disorder Is anxiety directly caused by drug abuse. obsessions. or compulsions.

• Separation anxiety disorder is excessive anxiety concerning separation from home or from persons. It occurs when it is no longer developmentally appropriate and before 18 years of age. parents. or caregivers to whom the client is attached. #SepAnx .

• Adjustment disorder is an emotional response to a stressful event. or a relationship problem. that results in clinically significant symptoms such as marked distress or impaired functioning. such as one involving financial issues. medical illness. .


Mental Health Promotion For many people. anxiety is a warning they are not dealing with stress effectively. . Learning to heed this warning and to make needed changes is a healthy way to deal with the stress of daily events.

.Mental Health Promotion Stress and resulting anxiety are not associated exclusively with life problems.

crying. • Learn to relax. • Communicate assertively with others: talk about your feelings to others and express your feelings through laughing. and so forth. • Accept there are events you cannot control.Mental Health Promotion Tips for managing stress include the following: • Keep a positive attitude and believe in yourself. .

• Eat well-balanced meals.Mental Health Promotion • Exercise regularly. • Limit intake of caffeine and alcohol. • Get enough rest and sleep. .

. and meditation. practice them as part of your daily routine. • Learn stress management techniques. such as relaxation.Mental Health Promotion • Set realistic goals and expectations and find an activity that is personally meaningful. guided imagery.

.Mental Health Promotion GOAL Effective management of stress and anxiety Not the total elimination of anxiety.

it does not solve or eliminate the problem entirely.Mental Health Promotion Although medication is important to relieve excessive anxiety. .

Mental Health Promotion .

Mental Health Promotion Learning anxiety management techniques and effective methods for coping with life and its stresses is essential for overall improvement in life quality .


muscle tension. fatigue. and sleep alterations. . Unable to control this focus on worry. More people with this chronic disorder are seen by family physicians than by psychiatrists. difficulty thinking. The quality of life is diminished greatly in older adults with GAD. irritability. the person has three or more of the following symptoms: uneasiness.GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER A person with GAD worries excessively and feels highly anxious at least 50% of the time for 6 months or more.

2006). .GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER Buspirone (BuSpar) and SSRI antidepressants are the most effective treatments (Starcevic.


After the traumatic event. severe startle response. . the person reexperiences all or some of it through dreams or waking recollections and responds defensively to these flashbacks. New behaviors develop related to the trauma. and agitation.POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER Posttraumatic stress disorder can occur in a person who has witnessed an extraordinarily terrifying and potentially deadly event. thinking difficulties. hypervigilance. such as sleep difficulties.


The person has a sense that the event was unreal.ACUTE STRESS DISORDER Acute stress disorder is similar to posttraumatic stress disorder in that the person has experienced a traumatic situation but the response is more dissociative. believes he or she is unreal. . and muddled obliviousness to the environment. and forgets some aspects of the event through amnesia. emotional detachment.

Videbeck . Sheila L.SOURCE PsychiatricMental Health Nursing 5th Edition.