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Financial Statement

An Introduction

Outline    Meaning of Financial Reporting and Financial Statement Analysis Significance and role of Financial Reporting and Financial Statement Analysis Types of Financial Statements     Statement of Comprehensive Income Statement of Financial Position .Balance Sheet Statement of Changes in Equity Statement of Cash Flow .

Meaning of Financial Reporting & Financial Statements    Financial reporting refers to the way companies show their financial performance to investors. Financial statements are summaries of the operating. and other interested parties by preparing and presenting financial statements. According to the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB). the financial statements of a firm should provide sufficient information that is useful to  investors and  creditors  in making their investment and credit decisions in an informed way. financing. and investment activities of a firm. creditors. .

   The financial statements are expected to be prepared in accordance with a set of standards known as generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). The financial statements of publicly traded firms must be audited at least annually by independent public accountants. The auditors are expected to attest to the fact that these financial statements of a firm have been prepared in accordance with GAAP. .

Financial statement analysis helps identify     a firm’s strengths and weaknesses so that management can take advantage of a firm’s strengths and make plans to counter weaknesses of the firm.Significance of Financial Reporting & Financial Statements    Wall Street analysts and other sophisticated investors prefer such financial disclosure documents as 10-Ks. The strengths must be understood if they are to be used to proper advantage and weaknesses must be recognized if corrective action needs to be taken . which contain more detailed information about the company Financial statements summarize and provide an overview of events relating to the functioning of a firm.

does the firm have too much or too little invested in plant and equipment? Financial statement analysis provides answers to all of these questions. are inventories adequate to support the projected level of sales? Does the firm have too heavy an investment in account receivable? Does large account receivable reflect a lax collection policy? To ensure efficient operations of a firm’s manufacturing facility.     For example. .

Types of Financial Statements and Reports  Statement of Financial Position Balance Sheet  Statement of Comprehensive Income  Statement of Changes in Equity  Statement of Cash Flows  Notes to Financial Statements .

& Additional paid-in capital Capital Lease Retained Earnings Obligation) Current Liabilities (Accounts Payable. Wages and salaries. Account Receivable. Assets (Resources of the business enterprise) = Fixed Assets (Plant. Marketable Securities. usually at the end of the firm’s fiscal year. Inventories) Liabilities (Obligations of the business) + Equity (ownership left over Residual) Long-term Common stock outstanding (Notes. and equity of a business at a particular point in time.The Balance Sheet  A summary of the assets. Short-term loans Any portion of long-term Indebtedness due in one-year) . Machinery. liabilities. Equipment Buildings) Current Assets (Cash. bonds.

administrative and general expenses (advertising. usually either one month. three months. Summarizes the results of the firm’s operating and financing decisions during that time. Operating decisions of the company apply to production and marketing such as sales/revenues. office salaries) Provides operating income/earnings before interest and taxes (EBIT) . or one year. cost of goods sold.Statement of Comprehensive Income     An income statement is a summary of the revenues and expenses of a business over a period of time.

Results of financing decisions are reflected in the remainder of the income statement. the result is net income available to shareholders.  When interest expenses and taxes are subtracted from EBIT.  Net income does not necessarily equal actual cash flow from operations and financing.  .

THE STATEMENT OF CASH FLOWS  The statement is designed to show how the firm’s operations have affected its cash position and to help answer questions such as these:    Is the firm generating the cash needed to purchase additional fixed assets for growth? Is the growth so rapid that external financing is required both to maintain operations and for investment in new fixed assets? Does the firm have excess cash flows that can be used to repay debt or to invest in new products? .

Step 3: Process the data. . Prepare exhibits such as graphs and common-size balance sheets. and what resources and how much time are available to perform the analysis. Acquire the company's financial statements and other relevant data on its industry and the economy. Step 2: Gather data. suppliers. Determine what questions the analysis seeks to answer.Steps in the financial statement analysis framework    Step I: State the objective and context. and customers. Calculate ratios. and visit company sites. Ask questions of the company's management. Make any appropriate adjustments to the financial statements. the form in which this information needs to be presented.

Repeat these steps periodically and change the conclusions or recommendations when necessary. Step 6: Update the analysis.Steps in the financial statement analysis framework    Step 4: Analyze and interpret the data. . Be sure the report and its dissemination comply with the Code and Standards that relate to investment analysis and recommendations. Step 5: Report the conclusions or recommendations. Prepare a report and communicate it to its intended audience. Decide what conclusions or recommendations the information supports. Use the data to answer the questions stated in the first step.