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lawfully or Onor the global level. more precisely. Issues surrounding this type of crime have become high-profile. The international legal system is attempting to hold actors accountable for their actions. and child grooming. child porn. Netcrime refers. both governments and non-state actors otherwise.Computer crime refers to any crime that involves a computer and a network. and other cross-border crimes sometimes referred to as cyber warfare. to criminal exploitation of the Internet . where the computers may or may not have played an instrumental part in the commission of the crime (Moore 2000). copyright infringement. financial theft. with the ability to engage   in such activities as espionage. continue to grow in importance. with the International Criminal Court among the few addressing this threat Summary : . There are also problems of privacy when confidential information is lost intercepted. particularly those surrounding hacking.


however limits on unsolicited electronic communications have existed in some forms for some time. is unlawful to varying degrees.SPAM : Spam. . specific antispam laws are relatively new. As applied to email. or the unsolicited sending of bulk email for commercial purposes.

or by entering unauthorized instructions or using unauthorized processes. usually to conceal unauthorized transactions: this is difficult to detect. or stealing output. altering or misusing existing system tools or software packages. or altering or writing code for fraudulent purposes. Other forms of fraud may be facilitated using computer systems. destroying. and .FRAUD : Computer fraud is any dishonest misrepresentation of fact intended to let another to do or refrain from doing something which causes loss.[citation needed] In this context. identity theft. extortion. the fraud will result in obtaining a benefit by: altering computer input in an unauthorized way. altering. This requires real programming skills and is not common. altering or deleting stored data. suppressing. This requires little technical expertise and is not an uncommon form of theft by employees altering the data before entry or entering false data. including bank fraud.

libelous or slanderous. or inflammatory material that tends to incite hate crimes.OBSCENE OR OFFENSIVE CONTENT : The content of websites and other electronic communications may be distasteful. and even within nations. seditious. blasphemous. It is a sensitive area in which the courts can become involved in arbitrating between groups with entrenched beliefs. politically subversive. Many jurisdictions place limits on certain speech and ban racist. The extent to which these communications are unlawful varies greatly between countries. One area of Internet pornography that has been the target . obscene or offensive for a variety of reasons. In some instances these communications may be illegal.

cyber stalking. nationality. Online predator. and by sending hate e-mail to interested parties (see cyber bullying. through newsgroups. harassment directs obscenities and derogatory comments at specific individuals focusing for example on gender. and stalking). race. harassment by computer. sexual orientation.HARASSMENT: Whereas content may be offensive in a non-specific way. This often occurs in chat rooms. hate crime. religion. Any comment that may be found derogatory or offensive is considered harassment. .

DRUG TRAFFICKING: Drug traffickers are increasingly taking advantage of the Internet to sell their illegal substances through encrypted e-mail and other Internet Technology. The rise in Internet drug trades could also be attributed to the lack of face-to-face communication. and swap recipes for amphetamines in restricted-access chat rooms. traditional drug recipes were carefully kept secrets. this . The sketchy effects that are often associated with drug trades are severely minimized and the filtering process that comes with physical interaction fades away. But with modern computer technology. use courier Web sites to track illegal packages of pills. Furthermore. These virtual exchanges allow more intimidated individuals to more comfortably purchase illegal drugs. [citation needed] Some drug traffickers arrange deals at internet cafes.

can be defined as an act of terrorism committed through the use of cyberspace or computer resources (Parker 1983). But there is a growing concern among federal officials [who?] that such intrusions are part of an organized effort by cyberterrorists. cyberterrorists may use the Internet or computer resources to carry out an actual attack. As such. As well there are also hacking activities directed towards individuals. a simple propaganda in the Internet. .CYBERTERRORISM: Government officials and Information Technology security specialists have documented a significant increase in Internet problems and server scans since early 2001. that there will be bomb attacks during the holidays can be considered cyberterrorism. and the information stored on them. network. A cyberterrorist is someone who intimidates or coerces a government or organization to advance his or her political or social objectives by launching computer-based attack against computers. At worst. foreign intelligence services. Cyberterrorism in general. or other groups to map potential security holes in critical systems.

Russia again allegedly conducted cyber attacks. this time in a coordinated and synchronized kinetic and non-kinetic campaign against the country of Georgia. the concept of cyberspace operations impacts and will be adapted by warfighting military commanders in the future. allegedly by Russian hackers. . Department of Defense (DoD) notes that cyberspace has emerged as a nationallevel concern through several recent events of geo-strategic significance.CYBER WARFARE : The U.S. Among those are included the attack on Estonia's infrastructure in 2007. "In August 2008. Fearing that such attacks may become the norm in future warfare among nation-states.

The term "virus" is also commonly used. The original virus may modify the copies. to refer to many different types of malware and adware programs. COMPUTER VIRUS : A computer virus is a computer program that can copy itself and infect a computer without permission or knowledge of the user.HACKING : Computer security hacking where someone attempts to defeat or exploit the security capabilities of a computer system. A virus can only spread from one computer to . albeit erroneously. or the copies may modify themselves. as occurs in a metamorphic virus.

frequency data. which allcryptography depend on cryptography. . A cipher (or cypher) is a pair of algorithms which creates the encryption and the reversing decryption. i. examples include the security of ATM cards. and is affiliated closely with information theory.e. referred almost commerce. Cryptography is used in applications present in technologically advanced societies. computer security. universal patterns. moving from unintelligible ciphertext to plaintext. is called Crypto linguistics. and engineering. computer passwords. etc. Decryption is the reverse. exclusively to encryption. letter combinations. cryptography is considered a branch of both mathematics and computer science. The study of characteristics of languages which have some application in cryptology.CRYPTOGRAPHY : In modern times. and electronic Until modern times. the process of converting ordinary information (plaintext) into unintelligible gibberish(cipher text).

the copyright to allow. lasted for three hours. 7 February 2000. which was The Yahoo! website was attacked at something which Newscorp did not have 10:30 PST on Monday. About fifty computers at Stanford University. Yahoo was pinged at the rate of one gigabyte/second. The original motivation of the hackers was to watch Star Trek re-runs in Germany. and also computers at the University of California at Santa Barbara. started by MafiaBoy. were amongst the zombie computers sending pings in DDoS attacks. The attack. .Reported cyber crime cases : The Newscorp satellite pay to view encrypted SKY-TV service was hacked several times between 1995 and 1998 during an on-going technological arms race between a pan-European hacking group and Newscorp.

Spanish investigators total of 66 counts was enough. and Yahoo. Outlaw. The "botnet" of infected computers included PCs inside more than half of the Fortune 1. infected a document on a victim's computer. but prosecutors decided that a On 2 March MafiaBoy had also attacked other the Melissa worm according to investigators.000 companies and more than 40 major banks. eBay. then automatically sent that document and copy of the virus via e-mail to other people. MafiaBoy busted 3 in infection of over 13 million pleaded not guilty. In 26 March 1999.Reported cyber crime cases : On 3 August 2000. Dell Computer. plus a total of ten counts of mischief to data for his attacks on Amazon. . computers around the world. Canadian federal prosecutors charged MafiaBoy with 54 counts of illegal access to computers.

The most common method of virus detection is using a list of virus signature definitions. Operating system reinstallation : Reinstalling the operating system is another approach to virus removal.The second method is to use a heuristic algorithm to find viruses based on common behaviours. It involves simply reformatting the OS partition and installing the OS from its original media. This method has the ability to detect Recovery Methods :security firms have viruses that anti-virus Oneapossibility yet to create signatureon for.BASIC SECURITY MEASURES : Antivirus software : Many users install anti-virus software that can detect and eliminate known viruses after the computer downloads or runs the executable.Windows Me. . which restores the registry and critical system files to a previous checkpoint. Windows XP and Windows Vista is a tool known as System Restore. or imaging the partition with a clean backup image. 38/2/201. 2010 . 23. http://www.References : Mann and Sutton 1998: >>Netcrime: More change in the Organization of Thieving. British Journal of Criminology. "CYBER WARFARE AND THE CRIME OF AGGRESSION: THE NEED FOR INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY ON TOMORROW’S BATTLEFIELD" Duke Law and Technology Review. Pictures taken from Feb. Jonathan A.http://bjc.