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Aerated Autoclaved

Noaina Hassan Khan---Tanzeel Ahmed--- Reema Khan
Nadia Ali --- Atia Khursheed

is one of the many building products being “environmentally friendly.  AAC now accounts for over 40% of all construction in the United Kingdom and more than 60% of construction in . AAC is used in a wide range of commercial. industrial. AAC is a lightweight manufactured building stone. and residential applications.” touted as “green” or  Developed in Sweden in the 1920s in response to increasing demands on timber supplies.Introduction  Autoclaved aerated concrete (“AAC”).  . Comprised of all natural raw materials.

cement. The hydrogen bubbles cause the concrete to expand to roughly five times its original volume. steel rebar or mesh is also placed in the mould. then cut into which are further steam and pressure cured in an autoclave.  The hydrogen subsequently evaporates. and pouring it into a mould.  Once added to the concrete. resulting in the formation of millions of microscopic hydrogen bubbles. the aluminium powder reacts with the silica.Manufacturing Process  AAC is a precast product manufactured by combining silica (either in the form of sand.  In structurally reinforced AAC products like lintels or roof panels. lime. and an expansion agent . water. .aluminium powder. leaving a highly closed-cell aerated concrete. or recycled fly ash).


are limited to low-rise construction. floor.  Cladding and large panels are available to take advantage of AAC’s insulative. as opposed to the traditional cement-based mortar. measuring up to 20 feet long. . also called “units” which are stacked using thin-set mortar. however.  Complete load bearing applications.  The remainder of the AAC system consists of blocks. are also used in load-bearing capacities and are common in commercial and industrial applications. fire proofing. and roof panels. and other benefits on mid.and high-rise projects. and in various thicknesses. 2 feet wide. non-load bearing and cladding applications.  The large wall.Product Types  AAC products consist of load bearing.

.  STANDARD BLOCKS .Types of Blocks The blocks are available in a variety of sizes and types. 4 inch vertical core at one end of the block to form a continuous vertical core through the wall that is then filled with rebar and concrete. 8 inches high.typically measuring 24 inches long. which are used adjacent to corners and openings and have a centred. and in thicknesses between 6 (non-load-bearing) and 12 inches  CORED BLOCKS – also known as O-blocks.

 U-BLOCKS.which reduce construction time. AAC lintels with integrated structural support are also manufactured and are an alternative to using the U-block system for headers. .which have a channel running the length of the block that once filled with concrete. provides structural support as headers and on the top course of each floor (the “bond beam”). JUMBO BLOCKS .

 AAC consumes approximately 50%-20% less energy than that needed to produce CMUs. produces no waste or pollution and the final product is completely recyclable. and chemical treatments. while also lowering operating costs .  The manufacturing process.  Due to its light weight and dimensional accuracy.  AAC is approximately 80% air. AAC can be assembled with minimal waste and a reduced need for additional equipment. pesticides. eliminating the need for repair materials.Product Advantages AAC reduces additional material use and minimizes waste and pollution.  The product is virtually maintenance free. the finished product is up to 5 times the volume of the raw material consumed in its production.  AAC production raw materials are generally locally sourced and may consist of recycled materials.

AAC Has High Thermal Efficiency  AAC structures result in solid wall construction with integrated insulation. AAC Reduces Noise Pollution and Improves Indoor Air Quality  Its millions of independent air cells dampen sound transmission.  Because AAC construction has very low air infiltration and is mold resistant.  AAC benefits from low thermal conductivity value. preventing thermal bridging. . creating an airtight building envelope. minimizing uncontrolled air changes. indoor air quality of AAC structures is improved.

 Light weight also makes it easy to handle. and Other Natural Disasters  It receives a 4 hr. UL fire rating and has a melting point of over 2900° F. Earthquakes. the same as traditional materials.  AAC’s light weight helps lower shipping costs.  The higher initial cost must be balanced against savings due to lower operating and maintenance costs. .  AAC is also termite and mold resistant. AAC Structures Are Price Competitive  AAC buildings constructed near a supplier’s manufacturing facilities cost approx. Easily workable  Less time consuming due to large size of blocks.AAC Structures Are Well-Suited to Withstand Fires. and nearly fireproof. the structure’s longer lifespan.

Product Disadvantages Scarcity of Manufacturing Plants. which requires less precision in its application. and trained masons must adjust to using thin-set mortar as opposed to traditional cement-based mortar.  Projects far from manufacturing facilities will suffer from higher initial costs. . Familiarity with Product  Few contractors are a currently familiar with the product.

 O-block units used to build pilasters.  Receiving and distribution of AAC wall units.c. Installation Guide  Check foundation. o.Design Considerations General considerations AAC masonry components(block units) can be used to build load bearing or non load bearing walls.  Control joints on AAC reinforced walls must be placed at maximum 16 ft. .  U-block units used to build bond beams and lintels.

 Installation requirements.  Thin bed mortar 1/16” inch to 1/8” Anchoring vertical reinforcement to foundation .  Corner blocks are laid first and the first course should be completed before second course installation.  Laying the first course (levelling course).  Once corner blocks are placed apply thin bed mortar.  Lay the first course over a semi-dry cement mortar levelling bed.  Tools  Equipment  Other materials  Installing O-block for pilasters in first course. to the vertical joints for other blocks.½” to 2” thick.

 Minimum overlapping of vertical joints between layers should be 4”.  Placing control joints in first course  These are vertical joints taken through the full wall thickness.  Metal strip ties should be placed every two courses at – 1) connection of secondary walls to main walls – 2) connection of walls to concrete columns. and from bottom to top. .  3/8” to ½” thick.  V-shaped metal strips should be set at every two courses unless there are two pilasters on both sides of control joints and less than 2” from the joint.  Maximum spacing between control joints should be 15 ft.  Once the wall is built fill the gap using backer rod and seal with caulking.  Control joints in subsequent layers.  Laying the subsequent courses  For subsequent courses use only thin bed mortaring on all joints between AAC blocks. Cutting blocks (adjustments and chases )  A hand saw or band saw to cut the blocks to specific lengths.

 Utilities installation after the walls are built:  For electrical conduits and piping installation.  Lay U-block course applying thin bed mortar on all joints.  At each pilaster location.  Install temporary supports before putting U-blocks in place apply thin bed mortar to the vertical joints.  Building on site lintels using U-blocks.  Before pouring concrete place rebar and anchor bolts according to construction drawings. additional O-blocks are used to lodge the pipes or interrupt wall continuity.  Installing U-blocks to build bond beams. drill a hole in the bottom side so the vertical bars can be attached in the bond beam.  When required depth of chase is bigger than maximum depth recommended. Bond beam and pilaster connection .  Once U-block are set. Fill up pilasters by pouring concrete. place rebars according to construction drawings and with concrete. the chase are filled with repair mortar or cement sand mortar. a chase is cut using an electrical router or a chasing tool.  After installation.


 Finishes:  AAC masonry walls can be finished with stucco .  Fiber glass mesh: This should be installed directly over one layer of render in all control joints. acrylic texture coats. around windows.  A rubber float is commonly used to smooth the wall surface.  Surface must be cleaned using a scrub brush and any loose or damaged material be removed. ceramic or clay tiles. or a combination of both. Renders and finishes  Surface patching: rasp block joints and other areas where AAC surface is out of plane. also laminated stones. concrete pieces and ornamental products. . doors and utility locations.

 Use power drills to make holes for fasteners.  Screws: minimum length of screw is defined by anchor length plus thickness of the finish layer and the element to be fixed. lead.  The anchor shall penetrate tightly to avoid rotation when placing the screw. Wood. and are directly hammered into it. Anchoring to AAC:  Fasteners: Anchors used with AAC shall be made of plastic or nylon. Percussion drilling or inverting the rotation direction when drilling shall be avoided. metal or expansion anchors are not recommended. fiber. .  Hebel AAC nail: Galvanized nails are designed specifically to provide definitive anchorage in the AAC.