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4.1 INTRODUCTION

In this chapters.

The dynamics, related

with accelerations,

loads, masses and

__

__

__

__

inertias.

F m a

T I

acceleration relationships for a rigid body.

In Actuators.

The actuator can be accelerate a robots links for exerting enough

forces

and torques at a desired acceleration and velocity.

By the dynamic relationships that govern the motions of the

robot,

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

4.2 LAGRANGIAN MECHANICS: A SHORT OVERVIEW

Lagrangian mechanics is based on the differentiation

energy terms

only, with respect to the systems variables and time.

Definition: L = Lagrangian, K = Kinetic Energy of the system, P =

Potential

linear

motion,

motion, T = the summation of all torques in a rotational

L K P

x = System variables

L L

Fi

t xi xi

L L

Ti

t i i

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

Example 4.1

system.

system.

2

1 2 1

1

K mv m x , P kx 2

2

2

2

Solution

Lagrangian

mechanics

.

.

.. L

d

m x, ( m x ) m x,

kx

.

dt

x

xi

..

F m x kx

system.

2

1 1 2

L K P m x kx

2

2

Newtonian

__

__

mechanics

F m a

F kx ma F ma kx

freedom

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

Example 4.2

system.

In this system.

It requires two coordinates, x and .

It requires two equations of motion:

1. The linear motion of the system.

2. The rotation of the pendulum.

system.

Solution

F m1 m2 m2l cos

T m l cos m l 2

2

2

..

0

0

2

kx

x

.

2 m2 gl sin

.

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

Example 4.4

Using the Lagrangian method, derive the equations of motion for the

two-degree of freedom robot arm.

Solution

Calculates the velocity of the center of

mass of link 2 by differentiating its position:

The kinetic energy of the total system is the

sum of the kinetic energies of links 1 and 2.

The potential energy of the system is the

sum of the potential energies of the two

links:

Fig. 4.6 A two-degree-of-freedom robot

arm.

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

4.3 EFFECTIVE MOMENTS OF INERTIA

To Simplify the equation of motion, Equations can be

rewritten in

symbolic form.

.

..

. .

2

T1 Dii Dij i

Diii Dijj 1

Diii Dijj 1 2 Di

T D D .. D D . 2 D D . . D

2 ji jj j jii jjj 2 jii jjj 2 1 j

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

4.4.1 Kinetic Energy

potential

energies of the links and the joints, by defining the Lagrangian and

by

differentiating

equation with respect to the joint

The kinetic energythe

of aLagrangian

rigid body

with motion in three dimension :

variables.

1

1 __

2

K mV h G

2

2

in planar motion

1

1

2

mV I 2

2

2

Fig. 4.7 A rigid body in three-dimensional motion

and

in plane motion.

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

4.4.1 Kinetic Energy

The velocity of a point along a robots link can be defined by differentiating

the position equation of the point.

pi RTi ri 0Ti ri

The velocity of a point along a robots link can be defined by differentiating

the position equation of the point.

1 n i i

1 n

T

K i Trace U ip J iU ir q p q r I i ( act ) q i2

2 i 1 p 1 r 1

2 i 1

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

4.4.2 Potential Energy

The potential energy of the system is the sum of the potential energies of each link.

n

i 1

i 1

P pi [ mi g T ( 0Ti ri )]

The potential energy must be a scalar quantity and the values in the gravity

matrix are dependent on the orientation of the reference frame.

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

4.4.3 The Lagrangian

1 n i i

L K P Trace U ip J iU irT q p q r

2 i 1 p 1 r 1

n

1 n

2

I i ( act ) q i [ mi g T ( 0Ti ri )]

2 i 1

i 1

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

4.4.4 Robots Equations of Motion

The Lagrangian is differentiated to form the dynamic equations of motion.

The final equations of motion for a general multi-axis robot is below.

n

j 1

j 1 k 1

n

Trace (U

where, Dij

pj

J pU Tpi )

p max( i , j )

Dijk

Trace (U

p max( i , j , k )

n

Di m p g T U pi rp

p i

pjk

J pU Tpi )

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

the two-degree of freedom robot arm. The two links are assumed to be

of equal length.

Example 4.7

Write the A matrices for the two links;

Develop the Dij , Dijk and Di for the robot.

Fig. 4.8 The two-degree-of-freedom robot arm of

Example 4.4

Solution

The final equations of motion without the actuator inertia terms are the same as below.

1

1 2 4

3

2

3

T1

1

1

1

2

2

2

1

1

1

1

m2l 2 m2l 2C2 1 m2l 2 2 m2l 2 S 2 m2 glC12 I 2 ( act )1

2

3

2

2

T2

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

4.5 STATIC FORCE ANALYSIS OF

ROBOTS

Robot

Control means Position Control and Force Control.

Position Control: The robot follows a prescribed path without any reactive force.

Force Control: The robot encounters with unknown surfaces and manages to

handle the task by adjusting the uniform depth while getting the reactive force.

Ex) Tapping a Hole - move the joints and rotate them at particular rates to

create the desired forces and moments at the hand frame.

Ex) Peg Insertion avoid the jamming while guiding the peg into the hole and

inserting it to the desired depth.

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

4.5 STATIC FORCE ANALYSIS OF

ToROBOTS

Relate the joint forces and torques to forces and moments generated at the

W f x

fx

fy

fz

mx

my

F D T D

T H

fy

fz

mx

T H J T H F

my

mz

mz

along the axes of the hand frame.

The total virtual work at the joints

must be the same as the total work

at the hand frame.

dx

dy

dz

f x dx L L mz z

x

y

z

Referring to Appendix A

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

4.6 TRANSFORMATION OF FORCES AND MOMENTS BETWEEN COORDINATE

FRAMES

An equivalent force and moment with respect to the other coordinate frame

by the principle of virtual work.

F T f x

f y f z mx m y mz

DT d x

dy dz x y z

F

D

B

fx

dx

fy

dy

fz

B

dz

mx

my

mz

The total virtual work performed on the object in either frame must be the same.

W F D T

T

T B

Chapter 4

Dynamic Analysis and Forces

4.6 TRANSFORMATION OF FORCES AND MOMENTS BETWEEN COORDINATE

FRAMES

Displacements relative to the two frames are related to each other by the

following relationship.

D J D

B

The forces and moments with respect to frame B is can be calculated directly

from the following equations:

B

fx n f

m x n [ f p m ]

fy o f

m y o [ f p m ]

fy o f

m z a [ f p m ]

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