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# Chapter 4

## Dynamic Analysis and Forces

4.1 INTRODUCTION
In this chapters.
The dynamics, related
with accelerations,
loads, masses and
__
__
__
__
inertias.
F m a
T I

## Fig. 4.1 Force-mass-acceleration and torque-inertiaangular

acceleration relationships for a rigid body.

In Actuators.
The actuator can be accelerate a robots links for exerting enough
forces
and torques at a desired acceleration and velocity.
By the dynamic relationships that govern the motions of the
robot,

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces
4.2 LAGRANGIAN MECHANICS: A SHORT OVERVIEW
Lagrangian mechanics is based on the differentiation
energy terms
only, with respect to the systems variables and time.
Definition: L = Lagrangian, K = Kinetic Energy of the system, P =
Potential
linear
motion,

## Energy, F = the summation of all external forces for a

motion, T = the summation of all torques in a rotational

L K P

x = System variables

L L
Fi

t xi xi

L L
Ti

t i i

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces
Example 4.1

system.

## Fig. 4.2 Schematic of a simple cart-spring

system.
2

1 2 1
1
K mv m x , P kx 2
2
2
2

Solution

Lagrangian
mechanics
.

.
.. L
d
m x, ( m x ) m x,
kx
.
dt

x
xi

..

F m x kx

system.
2

1 1 2
L K P m x kx
2
2
Newtonian
__
__
mechanics

F m a

F kx ma F ma kx

## The complexity of the terms increases as the number of degrees of

freedom

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces
Example 4.2

## Derive the equations of motion for the two-degree of freedom

system.

In this system.
It requires two coordinates, x and .
It requires two equations of motion:
1. The linear motion of the system.
2. The rotation of the pendulum.

system.

Solution

F m1 m2 m2l cos
T m l cos m l 2
2
2

## x.. 0 m2l sin

..
0
0

2
kx

x
.

2 m2 gl sin
.

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces
Example 4.4

Using the Lagrangian method, derive the equations of motion for the
two-degree of freedom robot arm.

Solution

## Follow the same steps as before.

Calculates the velocity of the center of
mass of link 2 by differentiating its position:
The kinetic energy of the total system is the
sum of the kinetic energies of links 1 and 2.
The potential energy of the system is the
sum of the potential energies of the two
links:
Fig. 4.6 A two-degree-of-freedom robot
arm.

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces
4.3 EFFECTIVE MOMENTS OF INERTIA
To Simplify the equation of motion, Equations can be
rewritten in
symbolic form.
.

..
. .

2
T1 Dii Dij i
Diii Dijj 1
Diii Dijj 1 2 Di
T D D .. D D . 2 D D . . D
2 ji jj j jii jjj 2 jii jjj 2 1 j

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces

## 4.4 DYNAMIC EQUATIONS FOR MULTIPLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM ROBOT

4.4.1 Kinetic Energy

## complicated, but can be found by calculating the kinetic and

potential
energies of the links and the joints, by defining the Lagrangian and
by
differentiating
equation with respect to the joint
The kinetic energythe
of aLagrangian
rigid body
with motion in three dimension :
variables.

1
1 __
2
K mV h G
2
2

## The kinetic energy of a rigid body

in planar motion

1
1
2
mV I 2
2
2
Fig. 4.7 A rigid body in three-dimensional motion
and
in plane motion.

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces

## 4.4 DYNAMIC EQUATIONS FOR MULTIPLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM ROBOT

4.4.1 Kinetic Energy
The velocity of a point along a robots link can be defined by differentiating
the position equation of the point.

pi RTi ri 0Ti ri
The velocity of a point along a robots link can be defined by differentiating
the position equation of the point.

1 n i i
1 n
T
K i Trace U ip J iU ir q p q r I i ( act ) q i2
2 i 1 p 1 r 1
2 i 1

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces

## 4.4 DYNAMIC EQUATIONS FOR MULTIPLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM ROBOT

4.4.2 Potential Energy
The potential energy of the system is the sum of the potential energies of each link.
n

i 1

i 1

P pi [ mi g T ( 0Ti ri )]
The potential energy must be a scalar quantity and the values in the gravity
matrix are dependent on the orientation of the reference frame.

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces

## 4.4 DYNAMIC EQUATIONS FOR MULTIPLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM ROBOT

4.4.3 The Lagrangian

1 n i i
L K P Trace U ip J iU irT q p q r
2 i 1 p 1 r 1
n
1 n
2
I i ( act ) q i [ mi g T ( 0Ti ri )]
2 i 1
i 1

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces

## 4.4 DYNAMIC EQUATIONS FOR MULTIPLE-DEGREE-OF-FREEDOM ROBOT

4.4.4 Robots Equations of Motion
The Lagrangian is differentiated to form the dynamic equations of motion.
The final equations of motion for a general multi-axis robot is below.
n

j 1

j 1 k 1

## Ti Dij q j I i ( act ) qi Dijk q j q k Di

n

Trace (U

where, Dij

pj

J pU Tpi )

p max( i , j )

Dijk

Trace (U

p max( i , j , k )
n

Di m p g T U pi rp
p i

pjk

J pU Tpi )

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces

## Using the aforementioned equations, derive the equations of motion for

the two-degree of freedom robot arm. The two links are assumed to be
of equal length.

Example 4.7

## Follow the same steps as before.

Write the A matrices for the two links;
Develop the Dij , Dijk and Di for the robot.
Fig. 4.8 The two-degree-of-freedom robot arm of
Example 4.4

Solution

The final equations of motion without the actuator inertia terms are the same as below.

1
1 2 4

3
2
3

T1

1
1
1

## m2l 2 S 2 22 m2l 2 S 2 12 m1 glC1 m2 glC12 m2 glC1 I1( act )1

2
2
2

1
1

1
1
m2l 2 m2l 2C2 1 m2l 2 2 m2l 2 S 2 m2 glC12 I 2 ( act )1
2
3

2
2

T2

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces
4.5 STATIC FORCE ANALYSIS OF
ROBOTS
Robot
Control means Position Control and Force Control.
Position Control: The robot follows a prescribed path without any reactive force.
Force Control: The robot encounters with unknown surfaces and manages to
handle the task by adjusting the uniform depth while getting the reactive force.
Ex) Tapping a Hole - move the joints and rotate them at particular rates to
create the desired forces and moments at the hand frame.
Ex) Peg Insertion avoid the jamming while guiding the peg into the hole and
inserting it to the desired depth.

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces
4.5 STATIC FORCE ANALYSIS OF
ToROBOTS
Relate the joint forces and torques to forces and moments generated at the

W f x

fx

fy

fz

mx

my

F D T D
T H

fy

fz

mx

T H J T H F

my

mz

mz

## f is the force and m is the moment

along the axes of the hand frame.
The total virtual work at the joints
must be the same as the total work
at the hand frame.

dx
dy

dz
f x dx L L mz z
x
y

z

Referring to Appendix A

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces
4.6 TRANSFORMATION OF FORCES AND MOMENTS BETWEEN COORDINATE
FRAMES

An equivalent force and moment with respect to the other coordinate frame
by the principle of virtual work.

F T f x

f y f z mx m y mz

DT d x

dy dz x y z

F
D
B

fx

dx

fy

dy

fz
B

dz

mx

my

mz

The total virtual work performed on the object in either frame must be the same.

W F D T
T

T B

Chapter 4
Dynamic Analysis and Forces
4.6 TRANSFORMATION OF FORCES AND MOMENTS BETWEEN COORDINATE
FRAMES

Displacements relative to the two frames are related to each other by the
following relationship.

D J D
B

The forces and moments with respect to frame B is can be calculated directly
from the following equations:
B

fx n f

m x n [ f p m ]

fy o f

m y o [ f p m ]

fy o f

m z a [ f p m ]