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Data and Computer

Communications
(M ng v truy n d li u nng cao)
Chapter 1
Data Communications and
Networks Overview

Simplified Communications
Model - Diagram

Generate
Convertsdata
datatointo
be transmitted
transmittable signals
CarriersConverts
data
received signal intoTakes
data income data

Communications Tasks
Transmission system utilization: Make
efficient use of transmission facilities shared
among a number of communicating devices.
Various techniques (i.e., multiplexing) are used
to allocate the total capacity of a transmission
medium among a number of users.
Congestion control techniques can be required.

Interfacing
In order to communicate, a device must
interface with the transmission medium.

Communications Tasks
Signal generation
This task is required to make sure that the
transmitted signal is suitable for the underline
transmission medium (copper wire, wireless)

Synchronization
Synchronization is needed between the
transmitter and receiver so that the receive
knows when the signal arrives, ends as well as
the signal duration.

Communications Tasks
Exchange management: manage the
signaling information exchanged between
two parties before communication.

A telephone conversion example:


Dial the number -> a signal generated resulting in
the ringing of the called phone.
The called party lift the phone, another signal is
generated to complete the connection.

Data transmission example: various signaling


are exchanged to determine:
Simplex or duplex transmission mode
The amount of data to be sent at one time
What to do in the case of error.

Communications Tasks
Error detection and correction
Transmitted signals are always distorted to
some extent before reaching their destination.

Flow control
To assure that the source does not overwhelm
the destination by sending data to fast.

Addressing and Routing


When there are more than two devices,
addressing is needed to make sure that the
data arrives at the correct destination.
Routing is used to route the data through the
network.

Communications Tasks
Recovery
Different from error correction.
Recovery is needed in situations where an
information exchange is interrupted due to a
fault in the system.

To resume the transmission at the point of interruption


To restore the system to the condition prior to the
interruption.

Message formatting

To assure that both sides use the same form of


data before transmission.

Communications Tasks
Security
Data is received by the right receiver.
Data has not been altered in transit.
Data comes from the purported sender

Network management
Configure the system
Monitor the system status
React to failures and overloads.

Simplified Data
Communications Model
Email example

m:email message
Source: PC

The transmitter converts the incoming bit


The received signal
differs from
s(t)convert
due g(t)
Ther(t)
destination
(PC)
stream
g(t)
into
analog
signal
s(t),
suitable
for
The PC converts
email
message
into bit
to errors
caused
by
them
transmission
into
email
messagemedium.
m.
the
transmission
system.
stream g(t),The
sending
to
the
transmitter.
receiver produces
acorrection
bit streamisg(t)
Error
donebased
here
The
transmission
system
can
be
wired
or
Transmitter:
a
modem
(ADSL
modem).
on r(t).
wireless (i.e., ADSL or wireless LAN)

Networking
Point to point communication not usually
practical
Devices are too far apart
Large set of devices would need impractical
number of connections

Solution is a communications network


Wide Area Network (WAN)
Local Area Network (LAN)

Networking

Wide Area Networks


Large geographical area
Implemented using below technologies
Circuit switching
Packet switching
Frame relay
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

Circuit Switching
Dedicated communications path
established for the duration of the
conversation
e.g. telephone network

Packet Switching
Data sent out of sequence
Small chunks (packets) of data at a time
Packets passed from node to node
between source and destination
Used for terminal to computer and
computer to computer communications

Frame Relay
Packet switching systems have large
overheads to compensate for errors
Modern systems are more reliable
Errors can be caught in end system
Most overhead for error control is stripped
out

Asynchronous Transfer Mode

ATM
Evolution of frame relay
Little overhead for error control
Fixed packet (called cell) length
Anything from 10Mbps to Gbps
Constant data rate using packet switching
technique

Local Area Networks


Smaller scope
Building or small campus

Usually owned by same organization as


attached devices
Data rates much higher
Usually broadcast systems
Now some switched systems and ATM are
being introduced

LAN Configurations
Switched
Switched Ethernet
May be single or multiple switches

ATM LAN
Fibre Channel

Wireless
Mobility
Ease of installation

Metropolitan Area Networks

MAN
Middle ground between LAN and WAN
Private or public network
High speed
Large area

Networking
Configuration