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Oil in History

History of Offshore Oil


Extraction

The need for


light

The petroleum industry grew through the 1800s ~ becoming


a leading
1st commercial
international industry as the 20th century progressed.
Todays top 3 oil producing countries:

oil well drilled


Saudiin
Arabia
Poland.
Russia
United States

Timeline

1858
1st North
American
oil well
drilled in
Ontario,
Canada

80% of the worlds accessible reserves are in the Middle East.

Saudi Arabia
United Arab Emirates
Iraq
Qatar
Kuwait

5 years later in 1896 ~ 1st ocean submerged oil wells drilled in California.

1891 oil was found


off-shore.
The 1st submerged
wells were drilled
from platforms in
Ohio.

Kansas 1911 ~

note all the wooden barrels.

1919 Tanker used by Texaco

1911~ 1st true off-shore oil rig set on a fixed


platform in 14 feet of water
(but only 1 mile off-shore).
In 1933 the process of
locating oil
(exploratory drilling)
was revolutionized when
a barge-mounted rig was
designed to be moved
from one location to the
next with relative ease.
This was the first mobile
drilling unit.

1947
1st

beyond the horizon

oil rig.

11 fields

By 1949,
exploratory wells.

were found in the Gulf of Mexico with 44

Compared to today

3,858

active platforms

Semi-submersible platform

CUSS 1 drillship
drillship

Deepwater Horizon
was a
semi-submersible
oil rig.

There are
specific
platforms
that
perform
better in
particular
water
depths.

Harsh conditions ~ remote locations

Environmental risks

Largest Offshore Oil Rig


Spills

Montara,
Australia, 2009:
An oil well in
the Timor
Sea, off the coast of
Western
Australia, began leaking,
and the platform
subsequently
caught fire. The well
spewed oil for more than
two months, leaking as
much as 2,000 barrels a
day (6,216,000 gallons)
for 74 days before it was
capped, making it one of
the worst spills in
Australian history.

Nowruz oil field, Persian Gulf, 1983:


A tanker hit a rig off the
coast of Iran, and the rig
began leaking 1,500 barrels
a day. Because Iran
and Iraq were at war, the oil
flow was not stopped, and
the platform
was later attacked by Iraqi
warplanes. Later, a second
platform was attacked, and
initially spilled 5,000 barrels
a day before slowing to
1,500. Two years passed
before Iran capped the wells,
but by then over 733,000

Santa Barbara, Calif., 1969:


A blowout at a well five
miles off the coast of Santa
Barbara caused a leak that
flowed for 11 days and
80,000 to 100,000 barrels
(46,200,000 gallons) were
released. According to a
report by the University of
California, Santa Barbara,
the spill affected 800
square miles of ocean and
coated 35 miles of
coastline with oil.

Ixtoc I oil spill, Gulf of Mexico, 1979:


Generally considered the
fourth largest oil spill in
history, the Ixtoc spill
occurred when the Mexican
state-owned Pemex was
drilling an exploratory well in
shallow water in the Bay of
Campeche. The Ixtoc suffered
a blowout, and more than 3
million barrels (126,000,000
gallons) of oil gushed from
the well for more than nine
months before engineers
were able to cap it. The spill
contaminated more than 162

Gulf of Mexico, 2010:


The Deepwater Horizon
drilling rig exploded due to
a methane gas release on
April, 20, 2010,
immediately killing 11 and
injuring 17 platform
workers. On July 15, 2010,
the leak was stopped,
however 206 million gallons
of oil had already spilled
into the Gulf. In addition to
the oil, more than 1.8
million gallons of dispersant
were released into the Gulf.

List of Oil Spills:


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_oil_spills