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Section 3.

4
Castings
Rev. 4
8/20/01

Overview
Casting Fundamentals
Pouring and Feeding Castings
Foundry Technology
Inherent Discontinuities

Part 1- Casting Fundamentals

The Casting Process


Starts with a pattern representing the
finished part.
A mold is constructed from the pattern.

PATTER N

P A T T E R N IN S O L ID M O L D

The Casting Process


The mold cavity is filled with molten
material.
After soldification, the mold is opened
and excess metal removed.

C O M P L E T E D C A S T IN G W IT H
A T T A C H E D G A T IN G S Y S T E M
M O L D C A V IT Y W IT H G A T IN G S Y S T E M

The Casting Process

Process is then checked by inspection.

Solidification

First Phase:

Heat is given up to the mold material.


Outside liquid is first to cool.
Crystal growth starts at the surface

Solidification

Second Phase:

Solidification occurs at a slower rate.


The rate of temperature decrease slows.
Crystals grow in a columnar shape toward
the center of the heavy section of the
casting.

Solidification

Third Phase:

As the wall thickness of frozen metal


increases, the cooling rate of the remaining
liquid decreases even further.
Grains grow to large size.

Grain Characteristics

Influenced by cooling rates:

Outside grains: fine equaxed.


Outside grains to center grains: columnar
and dendritic.
Center grains: weakest structure with large
equaxed grains.

Segregation

Term used to describe the condition


wherein differences in chemical
composition occur during solidification
of a casting or ingot.

Microsegregation: within or around the


grains themselves.
Macrosegregation: across the whole ingot
or casting.

Shrinkage

Three types:

Shrinkage in the liquid


Shrinkage during the transformation from
liquid to solid (solidification shrinkage)
Shrinkage that occurrs after solidification
takes place (contraction in the solid state)

Shrinkage

1 .1 %

3%

1 .7 %

S H R IN K A G E
C A V IT Y
S H R IN K P E R C E N T A G E S A P P R O X IM A T E O N L Y F O R C A S T IR O N

T H R E E S T A G E S O F M E T A L C O N T R A C T IO N

Shrinkage

Shrinkage in the Liquid

Metal is superheated to a temperature


above the melting temperature.
Some superheat is lost during transfer of
the liquid metal from the crucible to the
mold.
Loss of superheat results in contraction
and increased density but usually causes
few serious problems in casting.

Shrinkage

Solidification Shrinkage

Occurs during the transformation from


liquid to solid.
Localized shrinkage develops random
voids called microporosity or
microshrinkage.

Shrinkage

Solidification Shrinkage

As gas is evolved before and during


solidification, they may form pocket of their
own or may enter voids to enlarge them.
The evolved gas is usually hydrogen which
may combine with oxygen to form water
vapor.
These randomly dispersed large openings
in the solid metal are called macroporosity.

Shrinkage

Contraction in the Solid State

Occurs after solidification takes place.


Primary cause of dimensional change.

Part 2- Pouring and Feeding


Castings

Solidification

Progressive vs. directional solidification


Progressive: freezing of a liquid from the
outside towards the center.
Directional: freezing from one end to the
other end.

Hot Spots
Focal points for solidification.
Defects are most likely at hot spots
created by section or geometry changes
and where gates and risers have been
connected to the castings.
May disturb good directional
solidification and cause defects.
Usually controlled by proper design.

Pouring & Pouring Rate


If metal enters the cavity too slowly, it
may freeze before the mold is filled.
If the pouring rate is too high, it will
cause erosion of the mold walls.

The Gating System

Consists of:

Pouring basin,
Down sprues,
Runners,
Ingates, and
Channels and openings.

Risers

Wells of materials, attached to the


outside of the casting, supply liquid
metal as needed to compensate for
shrinkage before solidification is
complete

Chills
Initiate solidification.
Choice of internal chills critical.

Part 3- Foundry Technology

Sand molding

Green sand

green refers to moisture.


Mixture of sand, clay, and moisture.
Sand grains held together by clay.

Dry Sand.

Elimination of moisture reduces casting


defects.

Permanent Mold Casting

Permanent Mold Casting

Good accuracies and finishes


Metal molds (mostly cast iron and steel)
used primarily for low melting point alloys
Used most for the shaping of aluminum,
copper, magnesium, and zinc alloys

Die Casting

Die Casting

Differs from the permanent molds casting in


that pressure is applied to the liquid metal.
The mold is made of metal, has parting
lines, and is constructed with small draft
angles on the walls.
May be either Hot chamber (low pressure) or
Cold chamber (high casting quality with good
surface finish and high material properties).

Investment/Precision Casting

Investment/Precision Casting

The working pattern destroyed during


casting a new wax pattern is needed for
every piece cast.
Duplicate parts start with a master pattern.
Process limited to small castings.
High quality at high price.

Part 3- Inherent
Discontinuities

Inherent Discontinuities

Discontinuities which are related to the


melting and original solidification of the
metal or ingot

Inherent Discontinuities

Cold Shut

Cause: the meeting of two streams of liquid


metal that do not fuse together
Location: surface or subsurface

Pipe

Cause: an absence of molten metal during


the final solidification process
Location: subsurface

Inherent Discontinuities

Hot Tears

Cause: restraint from the core or mold


during the cooling process
Location: surface

Blowholes and Porosity

Cause: entrapped gases during the


solidification of metal.
Location: surface or subsurface

Inherent Discontinuities

Nonmetallic Inclusions

Cause: contaminants introduced during the


casting process
Location: surface or subsurface

Segregation

Cause: localized differences in material


composition
Location: surface or subsurface

Inherent Discontinuities

Microshrinkage

Cause: withdrawal of the low melting point


constituent from the grain boundaries while
the metal is in a plastic or semi-molten
state
Location: subsurface

Other Inherent Discontinuities


Misruns
Unfused Chaplets