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Section 3.

5
Hot and Cold Working
Rev. 4
8/20/01

Overview
Wrought Technology
Final Fabrication
Primary Processing Discontinuities

Part 1- Wrought Technology

Plastic Deformation
However the work metal is to be
processed, it must still start off with the
casting of a simple shape, an ingot.
The ingot undergoes processing to
cause plastic deformation, and is then
said to be either strain hardened, cold
worked, or work hardened.

Cold Working
When deformation is performed at room
temperature or substantially below the
recrystallization temperature.
The change in properties associated
with cold working are due to the strained
and unstable position of atoms in the
crystalline structure.

Cold Working

These changes may be reversed by


supplying energy in the form of heat,
which causes the atoms, through
recrystallization, to rearrange
themselves into an unstrained condition.

Cold Working

These changes may be reversed by


supplying energy in the form of heat,
which causes the atoms, through
recrystallization, to rearrange
themselves into an unstrained condition.

Hot Working
When deformation is performed above
the recrystallization temperature, it is
termed hot working.
Because recrystallization proceeds with
the strain hardening, continuous
deformation can be performed.

Wrought Technology
Recrystallization Temperatures
Material
C
F
Aluminum (pure)
80
175
Aluminum (alloy)
316
600
Copper (pure)
120
250
Copper (alloy)
316
600
Iron
400
750
Low carbon steel
540
1000
Magnesium (pure)
65
150
Magnesium (alloy)
232
450
Zinc
10
50
Tin
-4
25
Lead
-4
25

Directional Properties
Deformation processes cause different
amounts of plastic flow in different
directions- as a result, material
properties become different in different
directions.
In addition, defects are elongated in the
direction of flow, a factor which requires
consideration during inspection.

Wrought Technology

G R A IN S IZ E

L O W TE M P

L O W TE M P

HO T
W O RK

HO LD

CO LD
W O R K

R E C R Y S T A L IZ A T IO N

HO LD

Common Forging Processes


Open Die Forging
Closed Die Forging
Hot Upset Forging
Rolling
Extrusion
Cold Rolling
Cold Drawing

Open & Closed Die Forging


In forging ingots, open die forging
alternately confines the work metal in
different directions with the final result
that three-dimensional control is gained.
With closed impression dies, the work
material is fully confined at least at the
completion of the operation in a manner
similar to casting except for the state of
the material.

Hot Upset Forging


Essentially a process for enlarging part
of the cross sectional are of a bar, tube,
or other product of uniform, usually
round, section.
Accomplished by holding the heated
forging stock between grooved dies, and
applying pressure to the end of the
stock in the direction of its axis, which
spreads the end by metal displacement.

Rolling
Consists of passing a hot ingot between
two horizontal, parallel steel cylinders
which rotate about their axis in different
directions.
The gap is smaller than the thickness of
the ingot so that the ingot is reduced in
thickness and increased in length, by
increased little in width.

Extrusion
Begins with either a round ingot or a prerolled billet that has been heated to an
appropriate temperature and placed in an
open-ended cylinder.
The ram of a large hydraulic press projects
through one end of this cylinder, and the
other end is closed by a plate in which a
central hole has been machined.
As the press ram advances, metal is
extruded out of the hole in the die plate.

Cold Rolling
After an ingot has been hot rolled, it
may be subsequently cold rolled and
shipped to the fabricator as coils or cut
into lengths as sheet.
Annealing is commonly used at
intermediate stages of reduction or after
final reduction, to reduce the amount of
strain hardening that has occurred.

Cold Drawing
Used principally to manufacture wire.
The feed stock (a hot rolled bar or rod)
is pulled through a die plate in which a
hole has been cut, the section of the
hole being small than that of the feed
stock.

Part 2- Final Fabrication

Final Fabrication
Once the basic shape (bars, sheet,
castings) has been produced, the work
metal must be fabricated into a useable
product.
This shaping may be performed by hotworking (above the recrystallization
temperature), or cold working.

Forming of Steel Sheet, Strip, &


Plate

Blanking

A shape cut from flat or preformed


stock, typically performed in a
mechanical or hydraulic press.

Piercing

The cutting of holes in sheet metal


generally by removing a slug of metal,
with a punch and die.

Coining
A closed die operation in which a design
or form is pressed or hammered into the
surface of a metal part.
Used for forming flanges, rolled rims,
cups, cones, and double curved
surfaces such as bells.

Three-Roll Forming

A process for forming plate, sheet, bars,


angles, or pipe into various shapes by
passing the work metal between three
properly spaced rolls.

Stretch Forming
The forming of sheet bars and rolled or
extruded sections over a form block of
the required shape while the work piece
is held in tension.
The work metal is stretched just beyond
its yield point to retain the contour of the
form block.

Explosive Forming

Explosive forming changes the shape of


a metal blank or preform by
instantaneous high pressure that results
from the detonation of an explosion.

Shearing of Plate and Flat


Sheet
An operation where metal sheet or plate
is cut between two hardened steel shear
blades.
Involves the failure of the metal by
controlled loading.

Electromagnetic Forming
Process for forming metal by the direct
application of an intense, transient
magnetic field.
The work piece is formed by the
passage of a pulse of electric current
through a forming coil.

Forming of Bars, Tube, and


Wire

Bending of Bars

Accomplished by four basic methods:


Draw Bending,
Compression Bending,
Roll Bending, and
Stretch Bending.

Bending of Tubing
Performed with similar methods as bars,
although internal support is often
needed.
May be performed with or without
mandrels, based on wall thickness and
the desired radius.

Spinning

Method of forming sheet metal or tubing


into seamless hollow cylinders,
hemispheres, or or circular shapes by a
combination of rotation and force.

Swagging
Similar to hammer forging since metal is
deformed in compression; however a
series of rapid blows is used.
Produces parts of circular cross section
and is limited to parts of relatively small
diameter.

Part 3- Primary Processing


Discontinuities

Primary Processing
Discontinuities
The processing of a wrought product by
rolling, forging, casting, or drawing may
introduce specific discontinuities into the
product.
Inherent discontinuities that were at one
time undetectable or insignificant may
propagate through hot or cold working
and become detrimental.

Primary Processing
Discontinuities

Seams

Cause: elongation of unfused surface


discontinuities in rolled products.
Location: surface.

Laminations

Cause: elongation and compression of


inherent discontinuities during the rolling
process.
Location: subsurface.

Primary Processing
Discontinuities

Stringers

Cause: elongation and compression of


inherent discontinuities during the rolling
process.
Location: subsurface

Cupping

Cause: internal stresses during cold


drawing.
Location: subsurface.

Primary Processing
Discontinuities

Cooling Cracks

Cause: uneven cooling of cold drawn


products.
Location: surface.

Laps

Cause: material folded over and


compressed.
Location: surface.

Primary Processing
Discontinuities

Bursts

Cause: forming processes at excessive


temperatures.
Location: surface or subsurface.

Hydrogen Flakes

Cause: an abundance of hydrogen during


the forming process.
Location: surface or subsurface.