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BEARING DEFECT

INSPECTION BASED ON
MACHINE VISION

GUIDED BY : DR. T.D JOHN

SUBMITTED BY: VARUN KUMAR


ROLL NO:16
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S1 M.TECH

CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. INSPECTION TECHNIQUE
3. MACHINE VISION
4. APPLICATIONS
5. ADVANTAGES
6. M/C VISION EXPERIMENT AND PARAMETERS
7.RESULTS
8.CONCLUSION
9.REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION
Bearings Are Important Components That Connect
Different Machine Parts To Reduce Friction.
The Quality Of Bearings Can Directly Influence The
Performance Of Many Machines And Can Even Cause
Serious Disaster.
Bearings Are Widely Used In Ac,cars And Many Other
Rotating Machines.
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INSPECTIONS
Inspection Measures Are Classified Into 3
Steps:
1. Material Inspection
2. Assembling Inspection
3. Final Goods Inspection
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Material Inspection mainly focuses on the dimension and surface


inspection of receiving material.
Assembling inspection is used to inspect the defects that are
caused by assembling process including surface inspection.
The final goods inspection is mainly focused on the surface
defects giving full inspection before packing.
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Machine vision has been


defined by the Machine
Vision Association of the
Society of Manufacturing
Engineers and the Automated
Imaging Association as
The use of devices for
optical, noncontact sensing
to automatically receive and
interpret an image of a real
scene in order to obtain
information and/or control
machines or process.

WHAT IS MACHINE VISION ?

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF MACHINE VISION

APPLICATIONS

Inspecting of the surfaces of bathtubs for scratches.


Verifying that welds are strong enough.
Checking paper in the production process for flaws.
Finding irregularities on flat glass.
Reading license plates of cars.
Recognising and identifying persons.

The Quality of the product is increased.


Machine vision can lead to significant cost reductions.
Time for inspection can be significantly reduced.

ADVANTAGES

Pixel: smallest element of an image that can be


individually processed.
Grey scale: brightness of a pixel.
Thresholding: process of assigning white to each pixel in
the image with grey scale above a particular value , while
all pixels below this value become black . That value is
called threshold(T).
Image consisting of black & white is called binary image.
Blob :connected region in binary image .
Blob analysis: method of analyzing a image that has
undergone binarization processing ,it identifies segmented
object a/c to geometric parameters .

TERMS USED

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HOW IS BEARING DEFECT


INSPECTED?
1. Lighting and Image acquisition system
2. Inspection algorithms

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LIGHTING AND IMAGE ACQUISITION SYSTEM

The cover of a bearing is composed of 3 parts: inner ring, seal


and outer ring.
During the final inspection, many appearance defects needed to
be inspected like
1. Cracks, rusts on the inner and outer rings
2. Deformations, scratches, cracks, rusts on seal.

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The system consists of;


1.Area scan camera
2.Ring shaped white light illuminator
3.Lens
4.Light shield
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Lighting and image acquisition system


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In order to get enhanced


deformation information,3
bearings are captured in a
single image.
The left and right bearing are
used to inspect deformations
defects.
Centre bearing is used to
inspect other defects other
than deformations.

Common Defects In Bearings

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INSPECTION ALGORITHMS
The purpose of the system is to decide whether a bearing has
appearance defects.
The main procedure of inspection algorithms consists of 3 parts;
1. Center position inspection
2. Right position inspection
3. Left position inspection
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CENTER IMAGE INSPECTION


IMAGE
ACQUISITION

IMAGE
PREPROCESSIN
G

TEXT
DETECTION
AND
RECOGNITION

DIMENSION
DETECTION

DEFECT
INSPECTION

RESULTS RETURN

CENTER
BEARING
SEGMENTATIO
N

P2C
TRANSFORMATI
ON

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CENTER BEARING SEGMENTATION

PURPOSE: TO SEGMENT CENTER BEARING FROM


WHOLE IMAGE
Placing the bearing at the center.
Threshold methods are used to segment bearings from
background.
Using blob analysis to extract the center bearing from binary
image.
The edge points of inner ring and outer rings are sampled.
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P2C TRANSFORMATION

To facilitate the algorithms, the ring shaped image of


bearing is transformed into a rectangle image by P2C
transformation.

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DIMENSION DETECTION
After the rectangle image is obtained next is to segment
different parts of bearing and detect dimension defect.
The rectangle image is projected on the horizontal direction to
get the distribution curve.
Binary image based on thresholds, is calculated according to
the positions of projection valleys.
Dimension detection is mainly focused on the inspection of
chamfer dimension, sizes of rings , and seal.
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Since the contrast between text


regions and backgrounds is high,
the threshold algorithm is adopted
directly to segment the seal
region.
T(j)=(4/5)*(1/W)F(i,j)
j=1,2,3H
T(j)-threshold value.
W & H are width & height of seal.
F(i,j) grey scale value of original
value.

Text detection and Recognition

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DEFECT INSPECTION ON CENTER BEARING


Separate the image into various regions called ROI.

STEP 1: Adaptive threshold surface construction


STEP 2: Image segmentation
STEP 3: Feature extraction and classification
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SIDE BEARING INSPECTION

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Experiment:

Algorithm programmed
in C++.
Samples collected by
skilled human inspectors.
The restriction is set to
very high level to avoid
defective bearings being
recognized as good.
Compare proposed
machine vision inspection
with experienced human
inspection.

Implementation of inspection
algorithm

2 set of samples
collected.
Set 1: 821 good ,100
defective.
Set 2: 4713 good , 300
defective

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EVALUATION CRITERIA

Precision, Recall and F-measure are used.


Precision =TP/ (TP + FP ).
Recall=TP/ (TP + FN ).
TP: no: of good bearings.
FP: good bearings recognized as faulty ones.
FN: faulty bearings recognized as good one .
F-measure is weighted harmonic mean of precision and recall.

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RESULTS

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RESULT

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CONCLUSION

This study develops a machine vision system for inspection of


bearing surfaces. Experimental results show that the proposed
system can detect different defects on bearing covers with high
efficiency and accuracy. In conclusion, it is possible to apply the
machine vision system to the automatic production line, replacing
the human workers. However, there are still many other works
need to be done.

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REFERENCES
Hao Shen , Shuxiao Li, Duoyu Gu, Hongxing Chang,Bearing
defect inspection based on machine vision, Measurement 45
(2012) 719733
A. Srivania , M. Anthony Xavior , Investigation of Surface
Texture Using Image Processing Techniques, Procedia
Engineering 97 ( 2014 ) 1943 1947
Joe Derganc, Franjo Pernu, A Machine Vision System for
Inspecting Bearings
Understanding and applying Machine vision by Hello Zeuch,
(4-8,38-40,45-47,87-89)
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THANK YOU
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