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Introduction to

Ab Initio
Prepared By : Ashok Chanda

Accenture

Ab Initio Training

Ab initio Session 1

Introduction to DWH
Explanation of DW Architecture
Operating System / Hardware
Support
Introduction to ETL Process
Introduction to Ab Initio
Explanation of Ab Initio Architecture

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What is Data Warehouse

A data warehouse is a copy of transaction data


specifically structured for querying and
reporting.
A data warehouse is a subject-oriented,
integrated, time-variant and non-volatile
collection of data in support of management's
decision making process.
A data warehouse is a central repository for all
or significant parts of the data that an
enterprise's various business systems collect.

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Data Warehouse-Definitions

A data warehouse is a database geared


towards the business intelligence
requirements of an organization. The data
warehouse integrates data from the various
operational systems and is typically loaded
from these systems at regular intervals. Data
warehouses contain historical information that
enables analysis of business performance over
time. A collection of databases combined with
a flexible data extraction system.

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Data Warehouse

A data warehouse can be normalized


or denormalized. It can be a
relational database, multidimensional
database, flat file, hierarchical
database, object database, etc. Data
warehouse data often gets changed.
And data warehouses often focus on
a specific activity or entity.

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Why Use a Data


Warehouse?

Data Exploration and Discovery


Integrated and Consistent data
Quality assured data
Easily accessible data
Production and performance
awareness
Access to data in a timely manner

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Simplified Datawarehouse
Architecture

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Data warehouse
Architecture

Data Warehouses can be architected in many


different ways, depending on the specific needs
of a business. The model shown below is the
"hub-and-spokes" Data Warehousing architecture
that is popular in many organizations.
In short, data is moved from databases used in
operational systems into a data warehouse
staging area, then into a data warehouse and
finally into a set of conformed data marts. Data
is copied from one database to another using a
technology called ETL (Extract, Transform, Load).

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The ETL Process

Capture
Scrub or Data cleansing
Transform
Load and Index

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ETL Technology

ETL Technology is an important component of the


Data Warehousing Architecture. It is used to copy
data from Operational Applications to the Data
Warehouse Staging Area, from the DW Staging Area
into the Data Warehouse and finally from the Data
Warehouse into a set of conformed Data Marts that
are accessible by decision makers.
The ETL software extracts data, transforms values of
inconsistent data, cleanses "bad" data, filters data
and loads data into a target database. The scheduling
of ETL jobs is critical. Should there be a failure in one
ETL job, the remaining ETL jobs must respond
appropriately.

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Data Warehouse Staging


Area

The Data Warehouse Staging Area is temporary


location where data from source systems is
copied. A staging area is mainly required in a Data
Warehousing Architecture for timing reasons. In
short, all required data must be available before
data can be integrated into the Data Warehouse.
Due to varying business cycles, data processing
cycles, hardware and network resource limitations
and geographical factors, it is not feasible to
extract all the data from all Operational databases
at exactly the same time

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Examples- Staging Area

For example, it might be reasonable to extract sales data on


a daily basis, however, daily extracts might not be suitable
for financial data that requires a month-end reconciliation
process. Similarly, it might be feasible to extract "customer"
data from a database in Singapore at noon eastern standard
time, but this would not be feasible for "customer" data in a
Chicago database.

Data in the Data Warehouse can be either persistent (i.e.


remains around for a long period) or transient (i.e. only
remains around temporarily).

Not all business require a Data Warehouse Staging Area. For


many businesses it is feasible to use ETL to copy data
directly from operational databases into the Data Warehouse.

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Data warehouse

The purpose of the Data Warehouse in the overall Data


Warehousing Architecture is to integrate corporate
data. It contains the "single version of truth" for the
organization that has been carefully constructed from
data stored in disparate internal and external
operational databases.
The amount of data in the Data Warehouse is
massive. Data is stored at a very granular level of
detail. For example, every "sale" that has ever
occurred in the organization is recorded and related to
dimensions of interest. This allows data to be sliced
and diced, summed and grouped in unimaginable
ways.

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Data Warehouse

Contrary to popular opinion, the Data Warehouses


does not contain all the data in the organization.
It's purpose is to provide key business metrics
that are needed by the organization for strategic
and tactical decision making.
Decision makers don't access the Data
Warehouse directly. This is done through various
front-end Data Warehouse Tools that read data
from subject specific Data Marts.
The Data Warehouse can be either "relational" or
"dimensional". This depends on how the business
intends to use the information.

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Data Warehouse
Environment
In addition to a
relational/multidimensional database,
a data warehouse environment often
consists of an ETL solution, an OLAP
engine, client analysis tools, and
other applications that manage the
process of gathering data and
delivering it to business users.
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Data Mart

A subset of a data warehouse, for use by a


single department or function.
A repository of data gathered from operational
data and other sources that is designed to
serve a particular community of knowledge
workers.
A subset of the information contained in a data
warehouse.
Data marts have the same definition as the
data warehouse (see below), but data marts
have a more limited audience and/or data
content.

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Data Mart

ETL (Extract Transform Load) jobs extract data from the


Data Warehouse and populate one or more Data Marts for
use by groups of decision makers in the organizations. The
Data Marts can be Dimensional (Star Schemas) or relational,
depending on how the information is to be used and what
"front end" Data Warehousing Tools will be used to present
the information.
Each Data Mart can contain different combinations of tables,
columns and rows from the Enterprise Data Warehouse. For
example, an business unit or user group that doesn't require
a lot of historical data might only need transactions from
the current calendar year in the database. The Personnel
Department might need to see all details about employees,
whereas data such as "salary" or "home address" might not
be appropriate for a Data Mart that focuses on Sales.

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Star Schema

The star schema is perhaps the simplest


data warehouse schema.
It is called a star schema because the
entity-relationship diagram of this schema
resembles a star, with points radiating
from a central table.
The center of the star consists of a large
fact table and the points of the star are the
dimension tables.

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Star Schema continued

A star schema is characterized by one


or more very large fact tables that
contain the primary information in the
data warehouse, and a number of
much smaller dimension tables (or
lookup tables), each of which contains
information about the entries for a
particular attribute in the fact table.

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Advantages of Star
Schemas

Provide a direct and intuitive mapping


between the business entities being analyzed
by end users and the schema design.
Provide highly optimized performance for
typical star queries.
Are widely supported by a large number of
business intelligence tools, which may
anticipate or even require that the datawarehouse schema contain dimension tables
Star schemas are used for both simple data
marts and very large data warehouses.

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Star schema

Diagrammatic representation of star


schema

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Snowflake Schema

The snowflake schema is a more


complex data warehouse model than a
star schema, and is a type of star
schema.
It is called a snowflake schema because
the diagram of the schema resembles a
snowflake.
Snowflake schemas normalize
dimensions to eliminate redundancy.

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Snowflake Schema Example

That is, the dimension data has been grouped


into multiple tables instead of one large table.
For example, a product dimension table in a
star schema might be normalized into a
products table, a product_category table, and
a product_manufacturer table in a snowflake
schema. While this saves space, it increases
the number of dimension tables and requires
more foreign key joins. The result is more
complex queries and reduced query
performance.

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Diagrammatic
representation for
Snowflake Schema

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Fact Table
The centralized table in a star schema
is called as FACT table. A fact table
typically has two types of columns:
those that contain facts and those
that are foreign keys to dimension
tables. The primary key of a fact table
is usually a composite key that is
made up of all of its foreign keys.
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What happens during the


ETL process?

During extraction, the desired data is identified


and extracted from many different sources,
including database systems and applications.
Depending on the source system's capabilities
(for example, operating system resources), some
transformations may take place during this
extraction process. The size of the extracted data
varies from hundreds of kilobytes up to gigabytes,
depending on the source system and the business
situation. After extracting data, it has to be
physically transported to the target system or an
intermediate system for further processing.

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Examples of SecondGeneration ETL Tools

Powermart 4.5 Informatica Corporation

Ardent DataStage Ardent Software, Inc.

Progressively integrated with Microsoft

Ab Initio 2.2 Ab Initio Software

General-purpose tool oriented to data marts

Sagent Data Mart Solution 3.0 Sagent


Technology

Pioneer due to market share

A kit of tools that can be used to build applications

Tapestry 2.1 D2K, Inc

End-to-end data warehousing solution from a single vendor

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What to look for in ETL


tools

Use optional data cleansing tool to clean-up source data


Use extraction/transformation/load tool to retrieve,
cleanse, transform, summarize, aggregate, and load data
Use modern, engine-driven technology for fast, parallel
operation
Goal: define 100% of the transform rule with point and
click interface
Support development of logical and physical data models
Generate and manage central metadata repository
Open metadata exchange architecture to integrate
central metadata with local metadata.
Support metadata standards
Provide end users access to metadata in business terms

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Operating System /
Hardware Support

This section discusses how a DBMS


utilizes OS/hardware features such as
parallel functionality, SMP/MPP support,
and clustering. These OS/hardware
features greatly extend the scalability
and improve performance. However,
managing an environment with these
features is difficult and expensive.

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Parallel Functionality

The introduction and maturation of parallel


processing environments are key enablers of
increasing database sizes, as well as providing
acceptable response times for storing,
retrieving, and administrating data. DBMS
vendors are continually bringing products to
market that take advantage of multi-processor
hardware platforms. These products can
perform table scans, backups, loads, and
queries in parallel.

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Parallel Features
An overview of typical parallel functionality is given below :
Queries Parallel queries can enhance scalability for many
query operations
Data load Performance is always a serious issue when
loading large databases. Meeting response time
requirements is the overriding factor for determining the
best load method and should be a key part of a
performance benchmark
Create table as select This feature makes it possible to
create aggregated tables in parallel
Index creation Parallel index creation exploits the
benefits of parallel hardware by distributing the workload
generated by a large index created for a large number of
processors .

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Which parallel processor


configuration, SMP or
MPP ?

SMP and clustered SMP environments ,


have the flexibility and ability to scale in
small increments.
SMP environments are often useful for the
large, but static data warehouse, where
the data cannot be easily partitioned, due
to the unpredictable nature of how the
data is joined over multiple tables for
complex searches and ad-hoc queries.

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Which parallel processor


configuration, SMP or
MPP ?

MPP works well in environments where growth is potentially


unlimited, access patterns to the database are predictable,
and the data can be easily partitioned across different MPP
nodes with minimal data accesses crossing between them.
This often occurs in large OLTP environments, where
transactions are generally small and predictable, as opposed
to decision support and data warehouse environments,
where multiple tables can be joined in unpredictable ways.
In fact, data warehousing and decision support are the areas
most vendors of parallel hardware platforms and DBMSs are
targeting.
MPP does not scale well if heavy data warehouse database
accesses must cross MPP nodes, causing I/O bottlenecks
over the MPP interconnect, or if multiple MPP nodes are
continually locked for concurrent record updates.

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A Multi-CPU Computer
(SMP)

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A Network of Multi-CPU
Nodes

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A Network of Networks

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Parallel Computer Architecture

Computers come in many shapes and sizes:


Single-CPU, Multi-CPU
Network of single-CPU computers
Network of multi-CPU computers

Multi-CPU machines are often called SMPs (for


Symmetric Multi Processors).

Specially-built networks of machines are often called


MPPs (for Massively Parallel Processors).

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Introduction to Ab
Initio

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History of Ab Initio

Ab Initio Software Corporation was


founded in the mid 1990's by Sheryl Handler,
the former CEO at Thinking Machines
Corporation, after TMC filed for bankruptcy. In
addition to Handler, other former TMC people
involved in the founding of Ab Initio included
Cliff Lasser, Angela Lordi, and Craig Stanfill.
Ab Initio is known for being very secretive in
the way that they run their business, but their
software is widely regarded as top notch.

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History of Ab Initio

The Ab Initio software is a fourth generation


data analysis, batch processing, data
manipulation graphical user interface (GUI)based parallel processing tool that is used
mainly to extract, transform and load data.
The Ab Initio software is a suite of products
that together provides platform for robust
data processing applications. The Core Ab
Initio Products are: The [Co>Operating
System] The Component Library The
Graphical Development Environment

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What Does Ab Initio Mean?

Ab Initio is Latin for From the Beginning.

From the beginning our software was designed to


support a complete range of business
applications, from simple to the most complex.
Crucial capabilities like parallelism and
checkpointing cant be added after the fact.

The Graphical Development Environment and a


powerful set of components allow our customers
to get valuable results from the beginning.

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Ab Initios focus

Moving Data
move small and large volumes of data in an
efficient manner
deal with the complexity associated with
business data

High Performance

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scalable solutions

Better productivity

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Ab Initios Software

Ab Initio software is a generalpurpose data processing platform for


mission-critical applications such as:
Data warehousing
Batch processing
Click-stream analysis
Data movement
Data transformation

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Applications of Ab Initio
Software

Processing just about any form and volume of


data.

Parallel sort/merge processing.

Data transformation.

Rehosting of corporate data.

Parallel execution of existing applications.

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Ab Initio Provides For:

Distribution - a platform for applications to


execute across a collection of processors
within the confines of a single machine or
across multiple machines.

Reduced Run Time Complexity - the ability


for applications to run in parallel on any
combination of computers where the Ab
Initio Co>Operating System is installed
from a single point of control.

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Applications of Ab Initio
Software in terms of Data
Warehouse

Front end of Data Warehouse:

Transformation of disparate sources


Aggregation and other preprocessing
Referential integrity checking
Database loading

Back end of Data Warehouse:

Extraction for external processing


Aggregation and loading of Data Marts

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Ab Initio or InformaticaPowerful ETL

Informatica and Ab Initio both support parallelism. But Informatica


supports only one type of parallelism but the Ab Initio supports three
types of parallelism. In Informatica the developer need to do some
partitions in server manager by using that you can achieve parallelism
concepts. But in Ab Initio the tool it self take care of parallelism we have
three types of parallelisms in Ab Initio 1. Component 2. Data Parallelism
3. Pipe Line parallelism this is the difference in parallelism concepts.
2. We don't have scheduler in Ab Initio like Informatica you need to
schedule through script or u need to run manually.
3. Ab Initio supports different types of text files means you can read
same file with different structures that is not possible in Informatica, and
also Ab Initio is more user friendly than Informatica so there is a lot of
differences in Informatica and Ab initio.

8. AbInitio doesn't need a dedicated administrator, UNIX or NT Admin will suffice, where as other ETL tools do have administrative work.

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Ab Initio or InformaticaPowerful ETL-continued

Error Handling - In Ab Initio you can attach error and reject


files to each transformation and capture and analyze the
message and data separately. Informatica has one huge log!
Very inefficient when working on a large process, with
numerous points of failure.

Robust transformation language - Informatica is very basic


as far as transformations go. While I will not go into a
function by function comparison, it seems that Ab Initio was
much more robust.

Instant feedback - On execution, Ab Initio tells you how many


records have been processed/rejected/etc. and detailed
performance metrics for each component. Informatica has a
debug mode, but it is slow and difficult to adapt to.

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Both tools are


fundamentally different
Which one to use depends on the work at hand and
existing infrastructure and resources available.
Informatica is an engine based ETL tool, the power
this tool is in it's transformation engine and the
code that it generates after development cannot
be seen or modified. Ab Initio is a code based ETL
tool, it generates ksh or bat etc. code, which can
be modified to achieve the goals, if any that cannot
be taken care through the ETL tool itself.
Ab Initio doesn't need a dedicated administrator,
UNIX or NT Admin will suffice, where as other ETL
tools do have administrative work.

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Ab Initio Product
Architecture
User
UserApplications
Applications
Development
DevelopmentEnvironments
Environments
GDE
Shell
GDE
Shell
Component
Component
Library
Library

User-defined
User-defined
Components
Components

3rd
3rdParty
Party
Components
Components

Ab
AbInitio
Initio
EME
EME

The
TheAb
AbInitio
InitioCo>Operating
Co>OperatingSystem
System

Native
NativeOperating
OperatingSystem
System(Unix,
(Unix,Windows,
Windows,OS/390)
OS/390)
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Ab Initio ArchitectureExplanation

The Ab Initio Cooperating system unites the


network of computing resources-CPUs,storage
disks , programs , datasets into a production
quality data processing system with scalable
performance and mainframe class reliability.
The Cooperating system is layered on the top of
the native operating systems of the collection of
servers .It provides a distributed model for process
execution, file management ,debugging, process
monitoring , checkpointing .A user may perform all
these functions from a single point of control.

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Co>Operating System
Services

Parallel and distributed application execution

Control
Data Transport

Transactional semantics at the application


level.
Checkpointing.
Monitoring and debugging.
Parallel file management.
Metadata-driven components.

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Ab Initio: What We Do

Ab Initio software helps you build large-scale data


processing applications and run them in parallel
environments. Ab Initio software consists of two main
programs:
Co>Operating System:
which your system administrator installs on a host
Unix or Windows NT server, as well as on processing
computers.
The Graphical Development Environment
(GDE):
which you install on your PC ( GDE Computer) and
configure to communicate with the host.

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The Ab Initio
Co>Operating System

The Co>Operating System Runs


across a variety of Operating Systems
and Hardware Platforms including OS/390
on Mainframe, Unix, and Windows.
Supports distributed and parallel
execution. Can provide scalability
proportional to the hardware resources
provided. Supports platform independent
data transport.

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The Ab Initio
Co>Operating SystemContinued
The Ab Initio Co>Operating System
depends on parallelism to connect
(i.e.,
cooperate with) diverse databases. It
extracts,
transforms and loads data to and from
Teradata and other data sources.
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Co-Operating System Layer


Any OS

GDE

Top Layer
Solaris,
AIX, NT,
Linux,
NCR

GDE

Co-Op System

GDE

Same Co-Op Comman


On any OS.

Graphs can be moved from


One OS to another w/o any
Changes.

GDE

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The Ab Initio Co>Operating


System Runs on:

Sun Solaris
IBM AIX
Hewlett-Packard HPUX
Siemens Pyramid
Reliant UNIX
IBM DYNIX/ptx
Silicon Graphics IRIX

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Red Hat Linux


Windows NT 4.0
(x86)
Windows NT 2000
(x86)
Compaq Tru64 UNIX
IBM OS/390
NCR MP-RAS

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Connectivity to Other Software

Common, high performance database


interfaces:

IBM DB2, DB2/PE, DB2EEE, UDB, IMS


Oracle, Informix XPS,Sybase,Teradata,MS SQL
Server 7
OLE-DB
ODBC

Other software packages:

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Connectors to many other third party products


Trillium, ErWin, Siebel, etc.

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Ab Initio Cooperating
System
Ab Initio Software Corporation, headquartered in Lexington, MA,
develops software solutions that process vast amounts of data (well
into the terabyte range) in a timely fashion by employing many
(often hundreds) of server processors in parallel. Major corporations
worldwide use Ab Initio software in mission critical, enterprise-wide,
data processing systems. Together, Teradata and Ab Initio
deliver:
End-to-end solutions for integrating and processing data
throughout
the enterprise
Software that is flexible, efficient, and robust, with unlimited
scalability
Professional and highly responsive support
The Co>Operating System executes your application by creating and
managing the processes and data flows that the components and
arrows represent.

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Graphical Development
Environment GDE

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The GDE
The Graphical Development Environment (GDE)
provides a graphical user interface into the
services of the Co>Operating System. The
Graphical Development Environment Enables
you to create applications by dragging and
dropping Components. Allows you to point and
click operations on executable flow charts. The
Co>Operating System can execute these
flowcharts directly. Graphical monitoring of
running applications allows you to quantify data
volumes and execution times, helping spot
opportunities for improving performance.
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The Graph Model

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The Component Library:

The Component Library: Reusable


software Modules for Sorting, Data
Transformation, database Loading Etc. The
components adapt at runtime to the
record formats and business rules
controlling their behavior.
Ab Initio products have helped reduce a
projects development and research time
significantly.

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Components

Components may run on any computer


running the Co>Operating System.
Different components do different jobs.
The particular work a component
accomplishes depends upon its parameter
settings.
Some parameters are data transformations,
that is business rules to be applied to an
input (s) to produce a required output.

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3rd Party Components

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EME

The Enterprise Meta>Environment (EME) is a highperformance object-oriented storage system that


inventories and manages various kinds of information
associated with Ab Initio applications. It provides
storage for all aspects of your data processing
system, from design information to operations data.
The EME also provides rich store for the applications
themselves, including data formats and business
rules. It acts as hub for data and definitions .
Integrated metadata management provides the
global and consolidated view of the structure and
meaning of applications and data- information that is
usually scattered throughout you business .

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Benefits of EME
The Enterprise Meta>Environment provides a rich
store for applications and all of their associated
information including :
Technical Metadata-Applications related business
rules ,record formats and execution statistics
Business Metadata-User defined documentations of
job functions ,roles and responsibilities.
Metadata is data about data and is critical to
understanding and driving your business process
and computational resources .Storing and using
metadata is as important to your business as
storing and using data.
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EME-Ab Initio Relevance

By integrating technical and business


metadata ,you can grasp the entirety
of your data processing from
operational to analytical systems.
The EME is completely integrated
environment. The following figure
shows how it fits in to the high level
architecture of Ab Initio software.

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Stepwise explanation of Ab
Initio Architecture

You construct your application from the building


blocks called components, manipulating them
through the Graphical Development Environment
(GDE).
You check in your applications to the EME.
The EME and GDE uses the underlining functionality
of the Co>Operating System to perform many of
their tasks. The Cooperating System units the
distributed resources into a single virtual computer
to run applications in parallel.
Ab Initio software runs on Unix ,Windows NT,MVS
operating systems.

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Stepwise explanation of Ab
Initio Architecture continued

Ab Initio connector applications extract


metadata from third part metadata
sources into the EME or extract it from the
EME into a third party destination.
You view the results of project and
application dependency analysis through a
Web user interface .You also view and edit
your business metadata through a web
user interface.

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EME :Various users


constituency served
The EME addresses the metadata
needs of three different
constituencies:
Business Users
Developers
System Administrators

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EME :Various users


constituency served

Business users are interested in exploiting


data for analysis, in particular with regard
to databases ,tables and columns.
Developers tend to be oriented towards
applications ,needing to analyze the
impact of potential program changes.
System Administrator and production
personnel want job status information and
run statistics.

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EME Interfaces

We can create and manage EME


through 3 interfaces:
GDE
Web User Interface
Air Utility

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Thank You
End of Session 1

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