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Managing Public

Enterprises
First session
naveed@lrk.szabist.edu.pk

Nature of the class


Interactive
Thoughtful
Challenging
Open
Six discussion teams for case studies

Summary, lessons, application

Noble Thoughts

What is Public Administration?


PA may be defined as all processes,

organizations and individuals associated


with carrying out laws and other rules
adopted or issued by legislatures,
executives and courts.
Inclusive definition: administrators are the
foremost, but not the only individuals in PA
Gordon/Milakovich (authors)

Other definitions of PA
Public administration is detailed and

systematic execution of the law


Woodrow Wilson
includes only the administrator
excludes policy formulation as well as
elected officials

Still other definitions


Whatever governments do for good

or ill. It is public administrations


political context that makes it public-that distinguishes it from private or
business administration.
Shafritz and Russell
Both inclusive and confusing

Summary of the Most of the


Definitions
Formulation and
Implementation of
Public Policies

Follow order of
Executive Branch of
Government

Implement laws made by


Executive , Legislature and
Courts

What can we conclude about PA? in more Simple


words :
It is conveys activity
Concerned with public service (what

government can give to people)


Tends to be concentrated in the executive

branch
Usually connected with implementing the law

PA is also a field of study


People take undergraduate and graduate

courses to learn how to manage public


programs and respond to public needs

Also learn how to operate in a public rather

than a private environment

Evolution of Public Administration


Political Administration ( 1887)
Science of Management (1900s)
Organizational Behaviors (1920 onwards)
Administrative Behavior by Simons 1940s : overall
application
Post War Development and Modernization in PA , Riggs

New Era of Public Administration

Major Themes of New Public


Administration
Relevance

Values

Equity
Change

Relevance: It says that traditional Public Administration has little to


say about contemporary problems.
Values: It says value-neutrality in Public Administration is an
impossibility. It is less neutral and more normative.
Social Equity: Public Administration fails to work for changes which
try to redress the deprivation of minorities;therefore, will likely be
eventually used to repress those minorities.
Change: It attacks on the status quo and deep rooted power in
permanent institutions. It requires positive, proactive and responsive
administrators rather than authoritarian and ivory tower bureaucrats.
Equity: It focus more on democratic norms than operating in down
top structure.
Involvement: Involving orgs members and its clients in decision
making process.

Managerial View vs. Subject


Matter View
Idea By
Luther
Gulick

POSDCoRB

Idea By
Walker

Administrative
Theory
&
Applied
Administration

How are Public and Private administration


different?
Punctuality, motivation, job security, team

work, power ( public), high incentives( public)


Knowledge, work environment, political
influence, qualifications, Corruption, Values
Scope of organization,
Structure
Hiring policies
Check and balance
Advance technology

How are Public and Private administration


different?
Goals
Incentives
Flexibility
Performance
measures
Oversight
?
?
?
?
?
?

How to prepare a case write-up


Summary/Overview
Lessons
Connections

Bureaucracy
What do you think of when you think of

bureaucracy?
Bureaucracy is a way of organizing to

achieve work.
Bureaucracy is intended to maintain

control and coordination of large groups

Max Weber (1864-1920)


German economist and social historian
Wrote essay on bureaucracy in 1911
Remains the most influential statement

of what bureaucracy is, and what


problems are

Major elements of a bureaucracy


Fixed authority and official jurisdiction
specialization

written, formal rules


impersonal administration
hierarchy of offices
chain

of command
career service with employment based
on qualifications

Negative consequences
Monopolize information
Hard to destroy
Ambivalent about democracy
Dehumanizing of the bureaucrat
Ability of anyone to control
Powerful

Thinking about bureaucracy

Do you agree with all, some or none

of Webers negative consequences?


What examples do you have that
support or refute his arguments?
Why have bureaucracies come to
mean inefficient rather than efficient
organizations?

Feed for the thoughts


What could be the role of a

Good Administration in a State?


Do you think Public

Administration is Science or
Art?