Enfermagem – Língua Inglesa II – Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde Universidade Fernando Pessoa – UFP Autoras: Mariana Pinto nº 16865; Virginie Carvalho nº17223; Viviana Gonçalves nº 16364

“Allergy” is a word used to describe an exaggerated (excessive) response to a substance, which is normally harmless.

Intolerance or allergy? Allergy involves the immune system and tends to occur on each and every exposure. Many allergy tests measure specific factors triggered by allergies. Intolerance does not involve the immune system and so allergy tests will be useless. Sometimes the intolerance is scientifically understood (an enzyme deficiency and specific forms of food intolerance, for example), but more often the explanation is not clear.

Allergy tests When someone has a clinical history that indicates signs of allergies, has to do some tests. In medicine are many allergy tests, depending the nature of the allergy. The skin prick test is probably the most commonly use allergy test because can tested a lot of allergens. This test give similar results to the blood test, both detect IgE antibody.

Condition Asthma Conjunctivitis Rhinitis Urticaria rash)

Symptoms Shortness of breath

Possible allergic causes House dust mite Pollens, pet hair House dust mite

Possible nonallergic causes Dust, fumes, exercise , cold air Contact lenses Alcohol , infection

Swollen, red eyes Blocked and runny nose, sneezing (Nettle Itchy red rash with swelling (wheals)

Reaction to certain Sunshine heat or foods such as nuts extreme cold nut Side effect of certain drugs, such some blood pressure pills.
Skin prick test


Swelling of the Bee sting, tongue, throat, face allergy and lips

Example of an allergic overreaction

What’s happen when we have an allergy? An allergy develops when the allergy triggers, or allergens (substance that triggers the immune system to overreact) activate, the immune system. The immune system behaves as if the allergen is a dangerous invader and responds by producing an allergic antibody (Immunoglobulin E, or IgE). In parallel, allergen-reactive white blood cells develop. These include mast cells. IgE causes mast cells to release defence chemicals, which unfortunately cause unpleasant symptoms such as irritation and inflammation (allergic response).

The skin patch test is different from the other test because this one is especially useful in certain types of slow onset resctions, like eczema.

Angioedema Urticaria

Allergic and nonallergic reactions
Rhinitis Skin patch test

Asthma Conjunctivitis

Bibliography • The Royal College of Pathologists, Lay Advisory Committee (2005) – Allergy and allergy tests: A guide for patients and relatives. London • House of Commons, Health Committee (2004) – The Provision of Allergy Services. Sixth report of Session 2003-04. Volume I • Habif T., (2004), A Color Guide to Diagnosis and Therapy – Fourth Edition Mosby Philadelphia • Daniel C. (2002), Manual of Allergy and Immunology: Diagnosis and Therapy – Fourth Edition Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Pubishers New York

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