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Continental drift theory

Convection current theory
Sea-floor spreading theory

Plate Interactions: Plate tectonic theo

Divergent Boundary
Convergent Boundary
Transverse Boundary

Divergent Plate Boundary
Oceanic crust MOR

Continental crust

Convergent Plate Boundary O-O • Island arc O-C C-C • Volcanic mountai ns • Fold mountai ns .

O-O convergence .

O-C convergence .

C-C collision • Sediments from continental crusts of both plates + geo-syncline folded • Because of sediments of geosyncline – marine origin .

Transverse boundary Plate movement San Andreas fault. USA .

Landforms on earth Mountains Plateaus Plains .

Types of mountains mountain s Fold mountain s Block mountain s .

Fold mountains .

Alps) Compressive forces of plates )Youngest mountains on earth )True mountains Geomorph Fold mountains .Mountains created due to convergent boundaries of both 1) O-C (Rockies. Andes) 2) C-C (Himalayas.

Characteristics of Fold mountains 1)Extensive mountain chain 2) Great heights 3) Formed along unstable parts of the earth 4) Sedimentary deposits of marine origin (C-C) .

Phases of mountain building • Pull of descending limb of convection current • great pressure of compressive force exerted by the convection cells .

Geo-syncline • Elongated. narrow depression on continental margins • Here sediments from both land and ocean accumulate • Under intense pressure. sediments of geo-syncline folded .

C-C collision • Sediments from continental crusts of both plates + geo-syncline folded • Because of sediments of geosyncline – marine origin .

Fold mountains of the world .

Pamir Knot .

Hindu kush. Kirthar and Sulaiman Ranges .

List of mountains to locate 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) Alaska range Southern Alps Dinaric Alps Atlas mountains Pyrenees Caucasus Apennines Taurus Elburz and Zagros 9) Hindukush 10) Kirthar range 11) Kunlun Shan 12) Urals mountains 13) Appalachian mountains 14) Great Dividing Range .

Importance of mountain building process understanding of the origin and evolution of earth’s crust. At the time of the formation of the earth crust.breaking and melting . .a lighter continental crust developed. first basaltic crust of ocean . collide with one another = a larger land mass. The joints = fold-mountains.

Urals Mountains .

Types of mountains mountain s Fold mountain s Block mountain s .

Block mountains formation .

Block mountains • Fault-block mt. • Due to forces within interior of the earth • Uplifted part = horst • depressed part = Grabben • Horst => block mountains • Grabben => rift valley .

Phases of Divergent continental crust .

African rift valley – block mountains .

Example of block mountains Europe India .

O-C)  Differential erosion Folding of of horst of fault – sedimentary rocks looks like mountains .comparison Fold mountains Block mountains  Not true mountains True mountains  Tensile force Compressive force -faulting folding  Diverging plates Due to collision of (Conti) plates (C-C.

Landforms on earth Mountains Plateaus Plains .

Plateaus Meaning: Flat. higher than surrounding areas . upland. Table land.

Formation of Plateaus Raised land during mountains building process Deposition from lava Deposition from wind Eroded due to glaciers .

Types of plateau Intermontane plateau Bolivia plateau Tibetan plateau Columbia plateau Colorado plateau Anatolia Plateau (Turkey) Continental plateau Deccan plateau Katanga plateau Ozark plateau (USA) Ethiopian highland .

Types of Plateau Glacial plateau Lava plateau Columbia-snake Grahwal plateau plateau (USA) Deccan Plateau Laurentian Shan plateau plateau (Canada) (Myanmar) .

Bolivia plateau Columbiacolorado .

Ozark plateau Anatolia plateau .

Loess plateau Laurentian plateau .

Katanga Plateau • Origin of River Congo and Zambezi • Dense equatorial forest • Known for resources . Copper . diamonds.Gold.

Plateau of Mato Grasso, Brazil
• Equatorial region
• Dense rainforest
• Known for gold

Shan plateau,
• Plateau
crossed by
Salween river
• Irrawaddy river
passed in eastern
• Shan plateau- chief
source of lead, zinc
and silver Myanmar
• Known for teak
(Burmese Teak)

“Roof of the
Tibetan plateau

world” – highest
and largest
• Source of Indus,
Yangtse, Hwang
• Imp role in
Indian monsoon

cannot move upward • Backbone of fold mountains .Batholith • Granite • Less mobile.

Landforms on earth Mountains Plateaus Plains .

Erosion of plateau .Rivers .Plains • Meaning • Flat areas with low heights • Best for human habitation • Most populated areas of the world – alluvial plains of rivers • Depositional plains .Sea (sub-merged coast) • Erosional plains .

Lawrence Zambe Yukon zi Orang Mackenzie e .Colorado Paragua y Niger St.Irtysh (Russia) Don Mekong (SE Asia) South North America Ameri ca Amazon Mississippi – Missouri Congo Parana.Important river basins of the world Asia Europ Afric e a Indus Danube Nile Ganga – Brahmaputra Rhine Yangtze (China) Rhone Hwang He (China) Po Ob.

Yangtze river. China .

iron and steel Chengdu – oil and gas Three gorge dam Yun ho canal – connect Yangtze with Hwang He .Important locations Yangtze – 3th longest river in the world Navigable river – 35% of China’s population Sichuan basin – rice cultivation Shanghai – biggest port of China  Wuhan – Iron and steel Nanjing – textile.

Tigris river. Iraq .Euphrates.

Kirkuk. Mosul. Al Basra . Lake Urmia Important centers in Iraq: Baghdad.Locations near Euphrates-Tigris Lake Van.

Brazil .Amazon river.

Locations near Amazon river Largest. 2nd longest river Selvas – equatorial rain forest Tin. rubber in Selvas Sertao – ranching region Petroleum reserve at the mouth Manaus – Iron ore. navigable  plateau of Mato Grasso – gold reserve .

USA .Mississippi .

ship building . Pittsburg – iron and steel New Orleans – port. corn and cotton cultivation Important cites: Kansas – agriculture St.Locations near Mississippi basin Temperate grasslands – Prairies Wheat.

Murray-Darling basin. Australia .

Location near Murray-darling basin Temperate grassland – downs Wheat cultivation Sheep rearing .Animal husbandry Wool and dairy production .

Landforms on earth Mountains (fold and block) Plateaus Plains .

Natural Catastrophic events .

volcanism earthquake Tsunami .

complete sequence of processes of creation and movement of magma + creation of volcanic landforms Volcanism is not random Reason associated with volcanism is also not random Geomorph o Volcanism .

Distribution of Volcanism • 1st • Pacific Ring of Fire • O-O convergence • O-C convergence .

Plate movements O-O : Volcanic arc O-C :Volcanic mountains .

Mid Oceanic Ridge 2nd • O-O divergence • Basaltic – peaceful eruption .

Mediterranean volcanism 3th • Breaking up of Mediterranean plates into multiple blocks • Andesitic eruption • Frequent interaction • Mt. . Etna. Mt.

History of Mediterranean sea • Mediterranean sea is residual part of Tethys sea • Tethys sea was located between – Laurasia and Gondwana • Collision of Africa to Laurasia – breaking up of plates of Mediterranean sea .

Aleutian .Hot Spot Volcanoes • 4th • Magma From deep interior -Basaltic • Fixed place . Kurile.Plate movement – Island arc • Direction of plate • Hawaii. Reunion.

Aleutian Islands .

intense pressure develop inside –explosive .comparison Basaltic eruption Occur at midoceanic ridge and hot spot volcanism Basalt highly fluid – mobile Spread across easily Quite eruption Andesitic eruption  Volcanic arcs. volcanic mountains  Andesite – less fluid – less mobile  Solidifies at short distance.

comparison Basaltic eruption Andesitic eruption .

Volcanic Landforms Extrusive Landfor ms Intrusive Volcanic plateau Volcanic cones Dykes etc. .

Intrusive Landforms .

Intrusive Volcanic Landforms Intrusive Landforms  Intrusion of Magma in sedimentary rocks  Sills (Horizontal)  Dyke (Vertical)  Laccolith – magma which could not come out  Lopolith – saucer-shaped  Phacolith – shape like waves  Batholith – intrusive granitic rock .

. Composi te vol.Extrusive volcanic Landforms Extrusive Volcanic Plateau Shield volcano Volcanic cones Cinder vol.

Deccan lava trapps .Lava plateaus • Hot spot volcano on continental crust • Cracks on continental crust – Basaltic eruption • Spread across the land • Layer over layer • EX.

Indian Deccan trap • Indian plate passed over a hot spot near Reunion Island • Basaltic eruption • Layer over layers – looks like steps => Deccan lava traps • Soil – black soil ‘regur’ .

Spatial distribution of Lava Plateau .

List of lava plateaus of the world • Columbia-snake plateau. America • Adamawa plateau. Australia . Africa • Katanga Plateau. India • Arabian plateau • Balkan plateau. USA • Ozark plateau. Africa Deccan plateau. China • Shan plateau. Africa • Bie plateau. USA • Parana-Patagonia. S. Russia • Yunan Plateau. Europe • Siberian plateau. Myanmar • Kimberly plateau.

Composi te vol.Extrusive volcanic Landforms Extrusive Volcanic Plateau Shield volcano Volcanic cones Cinder vol. .

Shield / Dome volcano • Volcanic Islands (Hot spot) • Highly fluid lava (basaltic) build dome • Gentle slope • Quite volcano • Volcanoes of Hawaii .

Paricutin. Mexico .Cinder cones • O-C collision – volcanic mountains • Less fluid lava (Andesitic) explode violently • Viscous lava solidifies at short distance • Mt.

Mt. Mt.Composite Cones Volcanic mountains Each new eruption – new layers of ash or lava Mt. Stromboli. Vesuvius. Fuji .

Types of Volcanic cones Shield/ dome Highly fluid Silent flow Cinder Composite Less fluid / highly viscous Violent eruption Fluid + viscous Multiple and violent eruption Highest volcanoes Large Gentle slope Steep slope Small Small .

Geysers • Geysers =fountains of Hot water • Ground water heated by shallow source of magma • Old faithful geyser. USA . Yellow stone park.

Hot Spring • Hot Spring: • Water reach deep enough – heated by interior • Locate any part of the world .

quite .• Geyser – G/w heated Difference between geyser and Hotspring by shallow magma source • Hot spring – g/w heated by either magma source or heated rocks • Geyser – chamber in interior – pressure – comes out like fountain • Hot –spring .

like accumulated on cyanobacteria surface – gives  Medicinal values different colours  Can be helpful in USA. .comparison geyser Hot spring  Found anywhere Geysers are rare  They gets different Hot water dissolved colors from heatwith silica loving bacteria.Yellowstone harness geo-thermal park energy .

Geo-thermal energy • Heated water is taken out – used for moving turbine – generation of electricity • Cooled water flown back into interior .

Limitations of geo-thermal energy Difficult to locate a good source of geothermal reservoir with current technology Difficult to dig a deep well with hard and hot bedrock Harmful gases can escape from the earth interior while exploration – GHG gases and dissolved toxic elements .

volcanism earthquake Tsunami .

Sudden movement or vibration in earth’s crust. Release of the energy due to intense pressure + active internal dynamism of the earth Geomorph o Earthquake .

Types of Earthquake 1) Shallow focus EQ 2) Intermediate focus EQ 3) Deep focus EQ Shallow focus – destructive .

Earthquakes in Japan At Junction of 3 plates Subduction of Pacific plate .

Reasons behind EQ 1st Collision of Plate boundaries O-O collision O-C collision C-C collision .

Reasons behind EQ 2nd Divergent Plate boundaries O-O divergence MOR .

Reasons behind EQ
• 3th
• Transverse plate
• Friction developed
between two plates

Reasons behind EQ
sea region
Numerous small

Reasons behind EQ
Craton = stable part
of crust
Re-emergence of old

Human Induced
1) RIS
2) mining
3) Nuclear testing

Catastrophic events on earth Their reasons and distributions Volcanism EQ .