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You are on page 1of 127

Lecture 1

Francisco J. Trujillo

1. Introduction

What is fluid

mechanics?

Movement of fluids.

Well-developed body of

theory.

Describes the flow of

product through

equipment

So, how can we use

fluid mechanics in the

chemical industry?

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Dynamics (CFD)?

CFD is a branch of fluid mechanics that uses

analyse problems that involve fluid flows.

The equations that represent the detailed movement

fluids are very complex. Those are the transport

equations of momentum, energy and mass.

CFD uses computers to perform the calculations

to their complexity cannot be solved analytically.

Two types of

problems

Micro - focus on specific details in

Macro overall characterisation of

flow behaviour, e.g.

Flow through pipe to determine

required pump size.

Temperature profiles of food

cans in retort.

Flow through an extruder

energy requirement.

Packed bed reactor for

determining overall pressure

drop or temperature profile.

5/76

Example 1: Flow in a

tube

For simplicity, in engineering and applications it is

certain value v. But in reality this is a an

averaged value. Close inspection shows that for

instance a laminar fluid flowing in a pipeline

exhibits a parabolic velocity profile.

y

d

x

Example 2: heat

exchangers

Q& UATlm

& PTi

Q&i mc

& PTo

Q&o mc

& P To Ti

Q& UATlm mc

simplified manner by :

Using a log mean temperature difference ignoring the

temperature and velocity profiles inside the exchanger.

Estimating overall heat transfer coefficients based on

empirical equations

Example 2: heat

exchangers

velocity profiles, and without the need of using empirical equations

to calculate heat transfer coefficients (Heat Transfer was already

explained in the first part of the curse by A. Professor Tuan Pham).

This allows designing better exchangers while optimizing its

operation.

2. Vector Analysis

algebra?

The equations of transport of momentum,

energy, mass and chemical species are very long.

To simplify them vectorial symbols have been

created. Then those symbols need to be

understood.

If you walk 4 kilometres due north and then 3 kilometres due east, you

will have gone a total of 7 kilometres, but you are not 7 kilometres from

where you set out.

3k

4k

5k

Vectors describe quantities like this , which evidently do not add in the

ordinary way.

Vectors have direction as well as magnitude (length) and is essential to

Velocity, acceleration, force and momentum are examples of vectors

Scalars are quantities that have magnitude but no direction. Examples of

Vectors

Bold type or a bar over a variable indicates

a vector.

v v vxi v y j vz k vx v y

vx

vz vx , v y , vz v y

v

z

All of the above are representations of

vectors

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of a river

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Magnitude of a Vectors

A vector has magnitude or norm: which is the length of

the arrow 3 k

5k

4k

5k

4k

3k

c

v a 2 b2

In the example:

c 42 32 5

Direction of a Vectors

The direction of a vector can be calculated as:

c

5k

4k

3k

as:

a

tan

b

a

arc tan

b

Unit vector

The direction of the vector can also be given as a unit

The unit vector is obtained by dividing each component

Vector:

Norm:

Unit vector:

vx

v vx i v y j vz k v y

v

z

v vx2 v 2j vx2

vx v

) vx v y vz

u i

j k v y v

v

v

v

v v

z

Calculate the unit vector for

3

v 3i 4 j

the vector below

4

5k

v 32 42 5

4k

) 3 4 3 5

u i j

4

5

5

5

3k

2

)

3 4

u

5 5

)

u

9 16

25

1

25 25

25

Is more difficult on a 3D space,

The unit vector gives you the

Direction of the vector

YES

When can this be needed?

v1 3i 4 j

For instance lets assume that v is the velocity vector:

4

2 5v1

3 5 3 15

v2 5v1 5

4

5

4 20

v1 32 4 2 5

v 2 152 202 25

a

)

v ai bj ck b

c

scalar

m a

)

mv m ai m bj m ck m b

m c

Vector

Dot product

Sometimes you need to multiply two vectors and you need the

result to be a scalar.

For instance the mass flow trough a pipeline can be calculated as:

m& vA

density

area

flow

velocity

This example is one dimensional as the velocity is perpendicular to

the area.

But what happens in a 3D example?

Dot product

Assume that the yellow frame is a window and the red arrow is the velocity

vector of air.

The black arrow is the unit vector that indicates the direction of the window

(perpendicular direction to the plane):

b)

a)

air

c)

air

air

On which arrangement there will be a bigger mass flow entering the window?

On a) then b) and finally on c) where air cannot pass through the window

Dot product

If the velocity of the air has a different angle compared to the area unit vector the

The area can be represented as the product of the Area (scalar) and the area unit

vector:

Area Au

Area

b)

a)

air

c)

air

air

u1

v1

u u2 v v2

u.v u1v1 u2 v2 u3v3

u

v

The dot product can be used to give the correct

mass

3

3 flow (scalar) passing through

the window

Dot product

Lets assume that that area is 1 m2 and that the density of the air is 1kg/m3 :

a)

u Area

1

0

0

air

b)

c)

air

air

u Area

1

0

0

3

0

u Area

1

0

0

v 52 0 0 5

v 42 32 0 5

m& u.v 1 5 0 0 5

v 0 52 0 5

The velocity has changes direction but the norm is the same.

The dot product is given the right mass flow entering the window

Dot product

The dot product multiply two vectors and the result is a scalar:

u1

u u2

u

3

v1

v2

v

3

Dot product

Symbol

u v u v cos

So the dot product is:

zero for perpendicular

vectors

Maximum for parallel vectors

cross product

The cross product multiply two vectors and the result is a

vector:

u1

u u2

u

3

v1

v2

v

3

i j

u v u1 u2

v1 v2

k

u3

v3

cross product

The magnitude of the cross product can be interpreted as the

positive area of the parallelogram having a and b as sides

(figure below)

a b a b sin

Zero for parallel vectors

Maximum for perpendicular vectors

permutation symbol i,j,k

ij 1 if

ij 0 if

i j

ijk 1

ijk 1

0

ijk

if ijk 321,132, or 213

If any two indeces are the same

i j

terms of Kronecker delta i,j and the permutation

symbol i,j,k

the axis

Let 1, 2 and 3 be unit vectors (Vectors of unit

instead of

1 1 2

1 2 2

2 3 3

3 3 1

1

0

1 1 2 2 3 3 0

1 2 3 ; 2 1 3

2 3 1; 3 2 1

3 1 2 ; 1 3 2

i, j, k

i, j, k

Tensors

Tensors have 9 components (e.g. stress):

xx xy xz

yx yy yz

zx zy zz

Second index = column

vx

ij

y

29/76

Nomenclature

s

v=

as i) are vectors.

For simplicity 0 stands as for the zero scalar, zero vector or

zero tensor

For vectors and tensors,

are

: of multiplications

several kinds

possible such as the single dot the double dot and

the cross .

Those special multiplications can produce a scalar, a vector or

Scalar

a tensor,

so for clarification we enclose these special

multiplications

= Vector in different kinds of parenthesis to indicate

the type of result:

Second order tensor

Nomenclature

No special significance is attached to the kind of

parenthesis if the only operation enclosed are addition and

:

in which , and do

subtraction, or a multiplication

not appear.

Hence:

v w Scalar

: v Scalar

v = Vector

v Vector

v Second order tensor

Nomenclature

Scalars can be regarded as zero-order tensors

Vectors as first-order tensors

The multiplication signs may be interpreted as:

Multiplication sign

none

In which

represents the sum of the order of the

quantities being multiplied

s

vw =

1 2

Is order 0 + 2 = 2

Is order 1 + 1 = 2

Is order 1 + 1 = 2

v w Is order 1 + 1 -1 = 1

:

Is order 2 + 2 - 4 = 0

Is order 2 + 2 - 2 = 2

Nomenclature

Appendix A of the textbook show all the

possible operations between scalars vectors

and tensors

Multiplication of a tensor by a

scalar

Multiplication of a tensor by a scalar

the tensor by the scalar

s xx s xy s xz

s s yx s yy s yz

s zx s zy s zz

Addition of tensors

The sum of two tensors is a tensor whose

components are the sum of the corresponding

components of the two tensors

xx xy xz

yx yy yz

zx zy zz

xx xy xz

yx yy yz

zx zy zz

xx xx xy xy xz xz

yx yx yy yy yz yz

zx zx zy zy zz zz

tensor from the product of

two vectors

For a long time we only considered that two vectors could only be

multiplied as a dot product to yield a scalar, or a cross product to

yield a vector. Having been introduced to a tensor, the third way to

multiply the two vectors is to obtain a tensor - a dyadic product.

Having,

u

w

x

v u y

u

z

vx

vw vwT v y wx

v

z

wy

w wy

wz

vx wx

wz v y wx

vz wx

v x wy

v y wy

v z wy

vx wz

v y wz

vz wz

One way to remember the product is to notice that the first vector

provides the same row elements and the second vector the same

column elements.

36/76

product

This operation multiplies two tensors and the

result is a tensor.

xx xy xz

yx yy yz

zx zy zz

xx xy xz

yx yy yz

zx zy zz

xx xx xy xy xz xz

yx yx yy yy yz yz

zx zx zy zy zz zz

This multiplication between two tensors

results in a scalar .

: i j ij ji

: 11 11 12 21 13 31 21 12 22 22 23 32 31 13 32 23 33 33

38/76

vector and results in a vector

v

i

11 12 13

21 22 23

31 32 33

j ij

v1

v2

v

3

k k

v

21 1 22 2 23 3

v v v

31 1

32 2 33 3

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a vector and results in a tensor

v i j i j ji k k vk

40/76

Useful identities

of the textbook:

(A.3-20)

v v v

uv w u v w

w uv w u v

uv : wz uw : vz u z v w

: uv u v

uv: u v

is a unit vector

(A.3-21)

(A.3-22)

(A.3-23)

(A.3-24)

(A.3-25)

Differential

calculus

Ordinary derivatives:

The derivative df/dx tell us how

rapidly the function f(x) varies

when we change the argument x

by a tiny amount dx:

df

dx

dx

df

an amount dx, then f changes by

an amount df.

Geometrical interpretation: the

derivative df/dx is the slope of

the graph of f versus x.

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The operator

The operator

is called del:

i j k

x

y

z

x

y

z

differentiate what follows

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Gradient:

Suppose now that we

have a function of 3

variables. For instance

the temperature T(x, y,

z) in a room. We want

to generalize the notion

of derivative to

functions like T, which

depends not on one but

three spatial variables.

A derivative is supposed to tell us how fast the

function varies. What in which direction?

44/76

Gradient

The gradient, has the formal appearance of a

vector

, multiplying a scalar T:

T i j k T

y

z

x

T

x

T

T

y

T

z

45/76

Gradient:

The gradient, which is defined as:

T T T

T

i

j

k

x

y

z

It is a vector quantity, with 3 components. It is the generalized

derivative that we were looking for.

The gradient has a magnitude and direction as any vector.

T

The gradient

the function T.

along this maximal direction

46/76

Gradient - utility

So when we see a collection of terms like this:

)

i

j k

x

y

z

it is quick and easy to instead write:

47/76

Gradient

Example:

f ( x, y, z ) xy yz 2

f yi x z 2 j 2 yzk

f y, x z , 2 yz

2

48/76

Divergence

constructed as:

v i j k vxi v y j vz k

y

z

x

vx v y vz

v

x y z

between

and the vector v.

Observe that the divergence of a vector is a scalar.

49/76

Divergence Geometrical

interpretation

The name divergence is well chosen. The divergence of a

vector is a measure of how much the vector spreads out

(diverges) from the point in question. It is a type of

derivative of a vector.

Figure (a) has a large positive divergence (if the arrows point

in, it will be a large negative divergence)

50/76

Figure (b) has zero divergence

Divergence Geometrical

interpretation

Notice how the divergence is not just a change of direction,

but as you can see on figures a) and c) the vectors are

becoming bigger as if there were source that augments the

vector field.

field is spreading out in a expansive or diminish way.

The divergence is a type of measure of change of the vector

51/76

Divergence - utility

So when we see a collection of terms like this:

vx v y vz

x y z

it is quick and easy to instead write:

v

with the same meaning.

52/76

Divergence Example

g 3xyi 7 j ( 2 z 3 y )k (3xy, 7, 2 z 3 y)

g 3 y 0 2 3 y 2

53/76

The Curl

From the definition

of

i

v

x y z

vx

v

v

y

z

vz v y vz vx v y vx

v

i

j

k

x z x y

y z

and v.

like any cross product, the curl is a vector.

54/76

interpretation

v

The name curl is also well chosen, because

measures

how much the vector v curls around a point in space. Thus,

the tree functions below have zero curl.

pointing in the k direction.

55/76

Curl - example

g 3xyi 7 j (2 z 3 y )k (3xy, 7, 2 z 3 y)

i

g

x

3xy

y

z

7 2 z 3 y

3i 3xk

56/76

The gradient of a

Vector field

Is the dyadic product

of

and v. It yields a

tensor

x

T

v v v x

y

z

vy

vz

vx

x

vx

y

vx

z

vy

x

vy

y

vy

z

vz

x

vz

y

vz

z

and a

tensor yielding a vector

i i j k j k jk

x i

x

y

z

11 12 13

21 22 23

31 32 33

11 21 31

x y z

12 22 32

z

x y

13 23 33

z

x y

xx

x

xy

x

xz

x

yx zx

y

z

yy zy

y

z

yz zz

y

z

It is the divergence of the gradient of the scalar

s

x

2

s s

y

z

Where

s

x

s

y

s

z

s s s

2 2 2

x y z

2

The laplacian operator

2

x

2

y

z

x

y

z

2 2 2s

2 2 2

x y z

Summary

GRAD:

(rate of change of a scalar

with direction and magnitude)

T T T

T

i

j

k

x

y

z

DIV:

(spread of the vector function

Measure of change of the vector field v

As it is expanding (source) or

Diminishing (sink) )

CURL:

(rotation, curl of the function)

vx v y vz

x y z

i

j

k

v

x y z

vx

vy

vz

61/76

Summary

grad v

(tensor produced of the dyadic product of

Del operator and the vector v)

x vx

v

vx

y

z vx

vy

x

vy

y

vy

z

vz

x

vz

y

vz

z

Divergence of a tensor

(This is a dot product between del operator

and a tensor yielding a vector )

xx yx zx

x y z

xy yy zy

y

z

xz yz zz

y

z

x

Laplacian:

(It is the divergence of the gradient of the scalar s)

2s 2s 2s

s 2 2 2

x y z

62/76

Useful identities numbered as in the Appendix A of the

textbook:

rs rs sr

sv s v s v

v w w v v w

sv s v s v

v v v

1

v v v v v v

2

is a unit vector

(A.4-18)

(A.4-19)

(A.4-20)

(A.4-21)

(A.4-22)

(A.4-23)

Useful differential

relations -II

Useful identities numbered as in the Appendix A of the

textbook:

(A.4-24)

vw v

w w v

s : v s v

s s

s s s

v w v w

w

(A.4-25)

(A.4-26)

(A.4-27)

(A.4-28)

: v v v

=ji)

(A.4-29)

Surface

integral

A surface integral is an expression of the form:

v.da

s

infinitesimal patch of area perpendicular to the

surface area. If the surface is close :

v.da

s

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Volume

integral

A volume integral is an expression of the form:

d dx dy dx

v

volume element.

might vary from point to point), then the volume

integral would give the total mass.

66/76

The fundamental theorem for divergence states that:

v d

v da

v

function over a volume is equal to the value of the

function integrated over the surface that encloses the

volume.

volume method , which is the numerical method

used to solve the transport equations.

67/76

3. Viscosity

Most important concept in fluids flow

Lower viscosity

Higher viscosity

Viscosity

Higher viscosity Lower viscosity

Lower viscosity

Higher viscosity

Viscosity transforms kinetic energy of motion into

heat

Resistance to flow

Fluid initially at rest:

t<0

70/76

t=0

v

F

71/76

t small

vx(y,t)

TRANSIENT

v

F

72/76

Bottom plate moves at speed v:

Opposing

stress

t large

vx(y)

STEADY STATE

v

F

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Viscosity

Common sense suggests that

F

V

A

Y

(3.1)

vf profile

proportional to the Area and to

the Velocity, and inversely

x

proportional to the distance

STEADY STATE

between plates Y.

Therefore:

The constant of proportionality

is a property of the fluid

Is the force on the x direction on

vx

F

(viscosity).

(3.3)

y

Direction (shear or shearing force)

(3.2)

Where yx is the force per unit are

is understood that this force is excerpted by the

(stress) in the x direction on a un

uid of lesser y on the fluid of greater y (for the figure).

area in the y direction

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We also replace V/Y by -dv /dy

Viscosity

yx

vx

y

(3.3)

the shearing force is

proportional to the negative of

the gradient of velocity is

called Newtons law of

viscosity.

All gases and most liquids with

molecular weight of less than

5000 are described by this

equation. Those fluids are

called Newtonian fluids.

Polymeric liquids, suspensions,

paste, slurries and other

complex fluids that are not

described by Eq. 3.2 are called

vf profile

x

STEADY STATE

Therefore:

yx

vx

y

unit area (shear stress) in

the x direction on a unit

area in the y direction

75/76

Meaning of the

subscripts

yx

vf profile

x

STEADY STATE

force is acting. In this case the force is acting on

plane perpendicular to the y direction

x: The second subscript indicates the direction of the

force. In this case the force is on the x direction

76/76

Stress and

strain

Some definitions:

Shear stress

Force applied to an area

The direction of the force

area ( at right angles to

normal vector that

characterize the area)

caused by stress

Fluid cannot permanently

resist shear stresses

Note on Newtons

second law

Second law: the net force on a particle is equal to the time rate

of change of its linear momentum p (mass x velocity):

dp d mv

F p&

dt

dt

d v

F m

ma

dt

(units of momentum divided by units of time). Because the shear

stress is a force per unit

F area

yx

units of area).

So we can think of stress as a momentum flux rate of change of

momentum per unit area.

78/76

stress

1) yx can be interpreted as the force per unit area (shear stress) in the x

direction on a unit area in the y direction

vf profile

x

STEADY STATE

direction. In the neighbourhood of the moving surface at y = 0 the fluid

acquires certain amount of x-momentum.

This fluid in turns, imparts momentum to the adjacent layer of liquid,

causing it to remain moving on the x direction.

Hence, x-momentum is being transmitted through the fluid in the positive

y direction.

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yx as flux of xmomentum

y

vf profile

yx

vx

y

(3.3)

x

STEADY STATE

to the gradient of velocity.

The minus sign indicates that yx is transferred from regions or

higher velocity to regions of lower velocity.

Hence the Newtons law of viscosity is similar to Fourier's and Ficks

laws. Showing how the transfer of momentum, heat and mass are

equivalent phenomena.

80/76

viscosity

Low viscosity

vf profile

High viscosity

F

V

A

Y

Y

yx

vx

y

STEADY STATEv

Lower Viscosity

Lower Force F

Lower stress needed to

(viscosity) opposed to the

movement of the fluid layers.

Less viscous heat produced

vf profile

STEADY STATEv

Higher Viscosity

Higher Force F

Higher stress needed to

overcome the friction

(viscosity) opposed to the

movement of the fluid layers.

81/76

Higher viscous heat produced

Shear

strain

We call dvx/dy the rate of strain:

dvx

&yx

dy

If viscosity is not constant with stress, define

an instantaneous viscosity :

yx / &

82/76

Newtonian

Flow

If is constant with fluid stress, then the fluid

is called Newtonian.

Many fluids are not Newtonian

Food engineering few are

83/76

Non-Newtonian

Behaviour

Bingham

(plastic)

pseudoplastic

Newtonian

dilatant

vx

y

84/76

Models:

Bingham

Model:

yx

dvx

o

o

dy

dvx

0

dy

yx

yx

Bingham

(plastic)

o

o

plastic means rigid below a critical stress

examples: blood, tomato sauce, mayonnaise,

paints

85/76

vx

y

Models: Power

Law

Power law

yx

n

&

m

dilatant

vv

xx

yy

n (flow index) characterises flow behaviour:

n<1: pseudoplastic (as it looks like plastic flow)

n=1: Newtonian flow

n>1: dilatant

86/76

Structural

Models

Newtonian at very low and very high shear

Carreau model:

o

2 P

1 &

where (4 constants):

o is low shear limiting viscosity

is high shear limiting viscosity

is a time constant

P is a shear thinning index.

vx

y

Examples:

polymer solutions, latex emulsions, mud (sediment)

87/76

Also 2 parameter:

yx

1 dvx

A sinh

B dy

Predicts pseudoplastic behaviour, reducing to

Newtonian as o 0.

Many other models in literature.

88/76

Kinematic

viscosity

For convenience, define the kinematic viscosity as:

1 Poise = 0.1 Pa.s

1 cP = 0.001 Pa.s

The units of kinematic viscosity is m 2 s-1 in S.I.

89/76

Using

viscosity

The stress terms are defined in terms of viscosity and

velocity gradients.

We derived a one-dimensional equation for shear for a

newtonian fluid:

vx

xy

y

This generalization is not simple. It took

half to do this.

We will show only the main ideas that led to the

generalization of Newtons law of viscosity.

90/74

of Viscosity

Consider a general flow pattern where:

v x v x x, y , z , t ; v y v y x , y , z , t ; v z v z x , y , z , t

values of x, y or z).

Imagine that at time instance we remove half

of the fluid of the cube (centred at x,y,z)

below.

What are the forces needed on the shaded

areas to replace the forces that were excreted

91/74

of Viscosity

92/74

Pressure

surfaces

.

93/74

Viscous forces

Viscous forces come into play when there are velocity gradients.

They come with an angle to the surface.

Pressure is isotropic and only acts perpendicular to surfaces

.

y is a force per unit

z is a force per unit

area applied on the x

area applied on the y

area applied on the z

shaded area

shaded area

shaded area

94/74

The subscript on the vector x indicates the area on which the force is acting

Viscous

forces

x is a force per unit

area applied on the x

shaded area

x xx , xy , xz

area applied on the y

shaded area

y yx , yy , yz

area applied on the z

shaded area

z zx , zy , zz

95/74

Viscous

forces

x is a force per unit

area applied on the x

shaded area

x xx , xy , xz

x xx , yx , zx

Instead of

Because the second subscript indicates the force while the first

subscript indicates the area on which the force acts

96/74

97/74

Meaning of the

subscripts

yx

vf profile

x

STEADY STATE

force is acting. In this case the force is acting on a

plane perpendicular to the y direction . It also

indicates the direction on which x-momentum

transfers

x: The second subscript indicates the direction of the

force (or momentum). In this case the force is on the

x direction

98/76

of Viscosity

All the nine components can be put together as

a tensor

xx xy

yx yy

zx zy

xz

yz

zz

99/74

Viscosity

Navier, Poisson and Stokes considered these issues,

v j

vx v y vz

vi

2

ij

3

ij

x x

x y z

i

j

Notice the Kronecker delta at the end, which switches off

Well ignore (bulk viscosity) - for simple problems it has

no effect.

100/74

Equations

To solve for the velocity distribution, we need

quantities. Without derivation:

vx 2

xx 2

.v

x 3

vx v y

yx xy

y x

The first equation ignores bulk viscosity

101/78

Viscosity

In vector-tensor notation:

Velocity gradient tensor

v v

Divergence of the

velocity vector

Transpose of the

velocity gradient tensor

23 v

Unit tensor with

components ij

102/74

Convective momentum

transfer

Momentum can also be transported by the bulk flow of fluid

In the figure lets consider that at the centre of the cube the velocity

vector is v.

Lets ask what the flux of momentum through each shaded plane

is(momentum / m2 s)

103/74

Convective momentum

transfer

First remember that the mass flow (kg/s) rate of the red

velocity vector passing through the yellow window is:

u Area

and

characterizes that area.

air

through each shaded plane.

Momentum is equal to mass times velocity. So if we

multiply mass flow (kg/s) times velocity we will obtain the

rate of flow of momentum (momentum/time):

If we divide by the area, we will obtain the flux of

momentum (momentum/ time / area )

momentum _ flux vx v

Convective momentum

transfer

momentum _ flux x vx v

momentum _ flux y v y v

momentum _ flux z vz v

105/74

Convective momentum

transfer

l the convective momentum flux components form a tensor that can be simplify

Where

momentum _ flux vv

isvv

the dyadic products between the vectors and it forms a tensor

v x vx

vv v y vx

v z vx

vx v y

vyvy

vz v y

vx vz

v y vz

vz vz

106/74

stress in cylindrical coordinates

107/74

Cylindrical

coordinates

stress in spherical

109/74

Spherical coordinates

stresses

111/74

Prediction of

Viscosity

Gases and liquids

separately

Viscosity models

Viscosity is the characteristic property of a

Text gives models for gases and liquids.

The models allow us to predict the effects of

changes in T, x and P on viscosity.

113/76

Use classic mechanical theory of gases:

Rigid

Non-attracting

Perfect spheres

114/76

Speed relates to

energy

From the kinetic theory of gases,

uT

0.5

T = absolute temperature

u = speed

sectional area:

d = particle diameter

115/76

Resistance to

flow

If there is a velocity gradient in the gas, then

resistance to flow.

This resistance yx will be proportional to:

Density of molecules

Mean free path

Speed of particles

Velocity gradient

Thus assume:

dvx

yx u

dy

116/76

Compare to viscosity

equation

Maxwell (1860) derived:

yx

dvx

u

dy

1

3

gives:

yx

dvx

dy

13 u

2

3

3 2

details of derivation

mkT

d2

117/76

How good?

This model works OK for low densities except

Loss of accuracy at higher densities due to

oversimplification of molecules as elastic

balls.

Big improvement by modelling the potential

well between molecules:

close molecules repel.

distant molecules attract.

118/76

Potential

Well

PE

Based on Lennard-Jones

potential function:

12

PE 4

repel attract

is energy of interaction

r

between molecules.

is called collision diameter.

and measured at critical

points empirically (BS&L).

119/76

Chapman-Enskog theory

This gives (for dilute polyatomic gases):

MT

2.6693 10

2

5

T = absolute temperature, K

= diameter,

M = molecular weight

= viscosity, g/cm.s

= constant

BS&L, as a function of kT/.

120/76

Example:

CO2

From BS&L: compute the viscosity of CO2 at

Solution:

=3.996

MW=44 kg/kmol

/k=190 K

2.6693 10 5 44T

3.996

1.109 10 5 T

1.013 105 kg m -1s -1

Note: SI units

Same as Pa.s

121/76

Finding and

Others can be estimated from the critical

temperatures, Tc, Tbp and Tmp

Equations for doing this are given in BS&L.

122/76

Gas

Mixtures

For mixtures,

mix

i 1

x

j 1

where

M i

1

ij

1

M j

8

xi i

12

x = mole fraction

ij

M j

M i

123/76

Liquid

Viscosity

Theory not as well-developed.

Use Eyrings theory: energy to move in fluid

Limits: rough approximation based on

N A h Go / RTK

%e

V

NA = Avogadros number

h = Plancks constant

R = molar gas constant

Go = molar free energy

of activation

V = molar volume

124/76

Simplified

form

The energy to move in the liquid (bond

evaporation. This leads to a correlation with

liquid boiling point Tbp:

Go=3.84RTbp

So:

N A h 3.8Tbp /TK

%e

V

see textbook example, 1.5-1

125/76

Use of model

Eyrings model is not accurate (approx 30%).

But it shows the effect of T on viscosity of a

liquid.

Does liquid viscosity increase or decrease

with T?

Who was Arrhenius?

Can this model be used with non-Newtonian

materials?

126/76

Density

Density decrease with T (liquids and gases).

Prediction equation, liquids:

vap T

vap 15.6o C

Tc T

Tc 288.70

Liquid

4.00

3.45

Organics

3.23

Inorganics

3.03

127/76

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