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Avi

10/10 Eshani
15/10 Komal

LOW COST MATERIALS

introduction
By and large, conventional building technologies like burnt bricks, steel
and cement are high in cost, utilise large amount of non-renewable
natural resources like energy, minerals, top-soil, forest cover etc. These
increase dependence on external materials and manpower, harm the
local economy and are generally polluting in nature.
The materials and technologies chosen for construction must, in addition
to functional efficiency, fulfil some or more of the following criterion, for
the cause of sustainability and a better quality environment:
non endanger bio-reserves and be non-polluting;
be self-sustaining and promote self-reliance.
recycle polluting waste into usable materials
utilise locally available materials
utilise local skills, manpower and management systems
benefit local economy by being income generating
utilise renewable energy sources
be accessible to the people
be low in monetary cost

Bagasse used in kitchen

Bagasse used in Doors and Partitions.

5. Jute Polyester Composite

Raw Material Source Jute Industry.

Applications- Chip Boards


Roofing Sheets
Door Shutters
Partition Panels
Door / Window Frame

5. Jute Polyester Composite used as


roofing sheets

Used in roofing in form of


sheets.

Jute polymer used as window


shutters

Partial prefabrication

Open prefab systems based on an appropriate


production level and small, easily to handle elements
with rationalised production methods have attracted
the attention of housing experts as an important
option for arresting the rapidly rising escalation in the
costs of material and labour.
Partial prefabrication can be usefully employed for
practically every part of a building - foundations,
walling systems, doors and windows, roofing
systems, lintels and staircase elements.
Costs of a roof being one of the major components of
the construction outlay in any building project, one of
the thrust areas has been the prefabrication of
roofing elements

LIGHTWEIGHT
CONCRETE

Cellular Lightweight
Concrete

Cellular Lightweight Concrete (CLC) is an air-cured


lightweight concrete with flyash as a major
ingredient, that can be produced at large project
sites just like traditional concrete, utilizing
equipment and moulds normally used for
traditional concreting.
It is especially suitable in India for low-rise
loadbearing constructions and for partitioning
work in multistorey blocks.
The use of flyash (33%) in CLC and this being a
good substitute of ordinary clay bricks ( which
use high energy and precious agricultural topsoil)
the Govt. of India has given special import duty
concessions for specialized equipment.

Benefits of CLC blocks


Benefits of CLC Blocks/Panels:
Tremendous weight reduction
High thermal insulation
Optimal fire rating
Substantial material saving:
No gravel used
Little cement
Less steel in structure and foundation
Easy and fast production
No primary energy and reduced transportation
costs
Boon for remote areas with only sand availability.

Autoclaved aerated concrete

Autoclaved aerated concrete is a versatile lightweight


construction material and usually used as blocks.
Compared with normal (ie: dense concrete) aircrete has a
low density and excellent insulation properties.
They are excellent thermal insulators and are used to form
the inner leaf of a cavity wall.
They are also used in the outer leaf, when they are usually
rendered, and in foundations.
It is possible to construct virtually an entire house from
autoclaved aerated concrete, including walls, floors - using
reinforced aircrete beams, ceilings and the roof. Autoclaved
aerated concrete is easily cut to any required shape.
Aircrete also has good acoustic properties and it is durable,
with good resistance to sulfate attack and to damage by
fire and frost.

production
Autoclaved aerated concrete can be produced using a
wide range of cementitous materials, commonly:
Portland cement, lime and pulverised fuel ash (PFA)or
Portland cement, lime and fine silica sand. The sand is
usually milled to achieve adequate fineness.
A small amount of anhydrite or gypsum is also often add

Environmental benefits

Insulation: most obviously, the insulation properties of


aircrete will reduce the heating costs of buildings
constructed with autoclaved aerated concrete, with
consequent fuel savings over the lifetime of the building.
Materials: lime is one of the principal mix components
and requires less energy to produce than Portland cement,
which is fired at higher temperatures. Sand requires only
milling before use, not heating, and PFA is a by-product
from electricity generation.
Carbonation: less obviously, the cellular structure of
aircrete gives it a very high surface area. Over time, much
of the material is likely to carbonate, largely offsetting the
carbon dioxide produced in the manufacture of the lime
and cement due to the calcining of limestone.

Foam concrete blocks

EARTH

The abode tradition of India

Earth has always been the most widely used material for
building in India and is a part of its culture.
mud wall construction varies enormously with topography,
climatic conditions and needs of different regions.
The common methods used for earth construction are cob,
wattle and daub, rammed earth, adobe and cut blocks.
Approximately 55% of all Indian homes still use raw earth
for walls.
Interestingly enough, the limited load bearing capacity of
earth is not a handicap for traditional builders. All
traditional techniques are strong enough for the village
builders' requirements.
Among other benefits of using earth for construction are its
thermal insulation value, easy availability, and beauty.

Compressed earth blocks

Compressed earth blocks (CEB) have been in


use for a long time and are made from clay,
sand and cement.
They are biodegradable and can be made locally
from any soil with a proper mix of ingredients
like sand and cement.
It offers fire resistance and is sound proof.
Building cost can go down by 15 per cent or
more.
CEBs are, however, not suitable for smaller
homes and buildings.

Compressed earth blocks


used in large spaces like hotels and commercial buildings

FLYASH AND ITS


USAGE

Fly ash

Fly ash is a fine, glass-like powder recovered from gases created


by coal-fired electric power generation. Flyash material is
solidified while suspended in the exhaust gases and is collected
by electrostatic precipitators or filter bags.
They consist mostly of silicon dioxide (SiO2), aluminum oxide
(Al2O3) and iron oxide (Fe2O3).

What is Pozzolan?

A pozzolan is a siliceous or siliceous / aluminous material


that, when mixed with lime and water, forms a
cementitious compound.
Fly ash is the best known, and one of the most commonly
used, pozzolan in the world.
It actually improves strength, segregation, and ease of
pumping of the concrete. Fly ash is also used as an
ingredient in brick, block, paving, and structural fills.

How much fly ash in concrete?

concrete designers use fly ash a


partial replacement for Portland
cement at values up to 30 percent
of the total cementitious
composition.

When properly designed and


constructed, the increased benefits
of concrete made with 40, 50, and
60 percent fly ash replacement
include dramatically reduced
concrete permeability, and
excellent resistance to all forms of
premature
deterioration.
Fly ash typically
costs approximately 1/2 to 1/3 that of
Portland cement as delivered, assuming a suitable means
of batching is already in place.

Cost saving

Mixture properties

Portland cement + H2O = CSH + Ca (OH) 2{free lime liberated}


Fly ash + Ca (OH) 2 = CSH {additional cementitious paste}
CSH - Calcium Silicate Hydrate
The cement in concrete mix liberates free lime when it starts to hydrate
with water. Fly ash in concrete mix produces cementitious paste by
reacting with this free lime only. Fly ash in concrete mix can be active only
after the availability of sufficient free lime, hence fly ash component of
concrete starts reacting after a little while only.
This phenomenon reduced the strength growth of concrete in early
hours and allowing more time for working / compacting and to place more
concrete without a cold joint
Due to the partial material (cement) reacts immediately with addition
of water, heat generated by reaction during hydration (Hydration heat) is
reduced. Low hydration heat reduces the risk of surface cracks on
concrete due to thermal stress
Low hydration heat also yields uniform concrete surface and excellent
finish
Fly ash shape is spherical in nature. This feature enables fly ash to flow
and blend easily with the angular shaped cement particles in concrete
mix.

Standard flyash brick size

applications

Classified and quality ensured Fly ash is used as Performance


improver in manufacturing of OPC (Ordinary Portland Cement).
Pozzolan material in manufacture of PPC (Portland Pozzolana
Cement).
Cementitious material used as partial replacement of cement in
concrete and mortar applications.
Raw material for manufacturing of building material like clay
ash bricks /cement lime ash bricks, blocks and Tiles.
Material for road embankment and construction of base course
of road.
Material for back filling of open cast mines & stowing of
underground mines. Light weight aggregates.
Source of plant nutrients and soil amendment in Agriculture.
Filler replacement material of paints.
Raw material for roofing sheets manufacturing.
Industrial flooring.

Flyash cement

Environmental effects

Utilization of fly ash is environment friendly with


improved cementitious binder economics.

Fly ash utilization reduces the requirement of clay,


sand, lime stone in cement manufacturing and hence
conserves natural resources.
Fly ash utilization reduces the cement requirement
and hence carbon-di- oxide liberation during cement
manufacturing is reduced.
Fly ash utilization reduces the top soil requirement
for land filling / brick manufacturing and saves
agricultural land.
Fly ash utilization achieves increased strength of the
finished concrete product without increasing the cement
content

Building blocks

2. FLY ASH POLYMER COMPOSITE-

Used on the roof

BAMBOO

introduction

Bamboo has a long and well established tradition for


being used as a construction material throughout the
tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world.
With the rising global concern, bamboo is a critical
resource as it is very efficient in sequestering carbon and
helps in reduction of Green House gas emissions.
Its use through industrial processing have shown a high
potential for production of composite materials and
components which are cost-effective and can be
successfully utilized for structural and non-structural
applications in construction of housing and buildings.
The commonly used species in construction are Bambusa
balcooa, Bambusa bambos, Bambusa tulda,
Dendrocalamus giganteous, Dendrocalamus hamiltonii,
Dendrocalamus asper, etc.

characteristics

Main characteristic features, which make bamboo as a potential


building material are its high tensile strength and very good
weight to strength ratio.
The strength-weight ratio of bamboo also supports its use as a
highly resilient material against forces created by high velocity
winds and earthquakes.
Above all bamboo is renewable raw material resource from
agro-forestry and if properly treated and industrially processed,
components made by bamboo can have a reasonable life of 30
to 40 years. Though natural durability of bamboo varies
according to species and the types of treatments.
Varied uses and applications in building construction have
established bamboo as an environment-friendly, energyefficient and cost-effective construction material. The

As a design element

Used as roof supports


systems

applications
BMTPC has undertaken construction of 10 demonstration structures,
each, using bamboo based technologies in Mizoram and Tripura.
These includes houses, OPD buildings, Library buildings, Picnic huts,
Schools, etc.
The cost of construction is considerably reduced by 25% to 30%
using bamboo based technologies for different types of structures
as compared to conventional construction.
During constructing various types of structures local contractors,
masons, artisans were provided training on use of bamboo in
building construction. The specifications used are:
Treated bamboo columns and beams,
Ferrocement walls on bamboo grid reinforcement,
Treated bamboo trusses, rafters and purlins,
Bamboo mat board in wooden frames for door shutters,
Bamboo mat corrugated roofing sheets,
Locally available wood for door & window frames
IPS flooring, etc.

bamboo bridge under construction

Staircase design

mason lane farm

Two barns were designed and constructed on a well planned site using
sustainable materials like locally-sourced bamboo and prefab panels and
trusses.
The site of the barns was designed to maximize space while providing air
circulation and accessibility for large farm equipment.
Porous pavement is used exclusively to allow water to infiltrate, while rain
water from the roofs is collected in a system of shallow concrete site
gutters located below each roof eave.
The storm water runoff from the buildings and the driveway area is
directed towards collection basin.
The landscape Surrounding the buildings is planted with native and
regionally-adapted plants that dont require irrigation.
It was constructed from prefabricated wood trusses and pre-finished metal
panels.
The concrete slap contains fly ash, and in one section, the building is
insulated and utilizes radiant floor coils heated by an external boiler that
runs off wood waste collected on site.
The interior is modern, simple, and architecturally pleasing, incorporating
finish screws, metal ties and varying materials as design elements.

PARTICLE BOARDS

Particle boards

Particle boards commonly used as a material for


flooring, roofing and furniture, have in the past few
years come to replace solid wood as building material.
Innovations such as the use of plantation timber,
which form rapidly renewable resources instead of
hard wood for their manufacturing, have made this
material further sustainable.
More economical than solid wood, these green
particle boards can help bring down building costs to
a great extent.
They are available in the thickness range of 2mm to
6mm. Particle boards have low moisture absorption,
high internal bonding and dimensional stability.

PHOSPHOGYPSUM

As land and water pollutants phosphogypsum

The source phosphogypsum : phosphogypsum as a byproduct of phosphoric


acid based fertilizer industry is born. Bhuyojit phosphate rock with sulfuric
acid interaction with the phosphogypsum humidity 10-40 percent lead free.
phosphogypsum 4.5 million tons every year in India is born. phosphogypsum
more than 10 million tons have been stored at the plant sites.
Nature of pollution : Fluoride is present in phosphogypsum land and water
pollution.
Recycling of phosphogypsum : Use of this pollutant by-product of the
fertilizer industry in making many kinds of building materials can be used:
Gypsum plaster, boards, tiles
Set the controller as in the manufacture of Portland cement
Not be compressed cement, super Sulfated / anhydride, essential
(anhydrous) Cement
As hydraulic Winder
As mineralizer
With cement and sulfuric acid manufacturing
Artificial marble, fiber board.

Building materials from industrial waste

Phosphogypsum
About twelve fertiliser plants in the country produce nearly 4 to5 million tonnes of
Phosphogypsum as a by-product. Major producers are Coromandel Fertilisers
(Andhra Pradesh), Fertilisers &Chemicals, Travancore (Kerala), Gujarat State
Fertiliser Co. (Gujarat), Hindustan Lever Ltd. (West Bengal), Southern Petrochemical
Industries Corporation (Tamil Nadu) & Paradeep Phosphates Ltd. (Orissa).

Product Range
Partition Panels; Ceiling
Tiles/Boards; Fibre Reinforced or
Wood Chip Boards;
Walling Blocks/Bricks with/without
Flyash; Gypsum Marble/Slotted
Tiles;
Plaster Boards; Processed Gypsum
can be used for special plasters and
as

Application Benefits

One of the popular sources of technology for converting


Phosphogypsum to useful building materials is from
Salzagitter Industrielbau gmbH of Germany. A plant with
this technology in collaboration with M/s. SALZGITTER AG is
already in operation at Vishakhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh.

Utilisation of industrial waste requiring large land areas &

resulting in environmental pollution.


Conservation of non-renewable natural mineral wealth.
Manufacture of building materials at low specific energy
consumption.
Manufacture of materials possible for effective saving in
consumption of cement and steel.
Production of pre-fabricated components leading to
standardisation and speed in construction.
Production of building elements as substitute for timber.

RED MUD

RED MUD

Waste generated from the aluminium industry is commonly


known as Red Mud. It is a Bauxite residue a clay like silt-sized
by-product consisting of undissolved minerological components
and of new products formed during the production process of
aluminium.

At present, five big aluminium plants namely NALCO, BALCO,


MALCO, HINDALCO and INDAL are the major source of Red Mud
as a waste byproduct with nearly 3.5 million tonnes being
produced annually.

Utilisation Potential
While Red Mud can be used for recovery of sponge iron, high purity
aluminium and number of valuable constituents like vanadium,
alkalies and titanium, its present use is generally in Cement
industry both as a component of cement-raw mix as well as
additive with specific advantages.

Application Benefits
Utilisation of industrial waste
accumulating in huge quantities,
causing
soil pollution.
Conservation of agricultural soil
(rich top soil) being used for brick
making.
Saving in energy intensive and
scarce material like cement.

APPLICATIONS

bottles as bricks

by Michelle Kaufmann Studio

Cement bag construction


Johannesburg

in downtown

Corn cob- maize panels

low-cost construction panels bonded with tannin-based


adhesive.
Plant-based agricultural wastes from the cultivation of rice,
maize and cassava crops provide natural fibers that are a
sustainable resource for the production of building materials
reduction in construction costs, reducing dependence on
imported, higher-cost alternatives.

Tyres and cans as construction materials

Bamboo / Glass Fiber Bio-Composite Sandwich Wall Panels

High:
StrengthWeight
Ratio
Stiffness
Workability
1.

Standard size:
4ft X 8ft
Thickness:
35 mm100 mm
Density:
160kg /m
260kg/m

Bamboo / Glass Fiber Bio-Composite


Roofing Panels

Standard size = 4ft X 8ft


Thickness = 3.2 mm 5.0
mm
Density = 950kg/m
1125kg/m

Lightweight
High Strength & Stiffness
High Thermal & Electrical Insulation
High impact resistant
Polyurethane foam thermal insulated also
available

Bamboo-Fiber | Glass-Fiber Bio-Composite


Examples by CTP
One of 25 Sakthi Hill
Resort Guesthouses built
2.5 years ago
outside Bangalore.
Frequent compliments
from guests and
inquiries for purchase and
manufacture of materials

Prefabricated shelter,
multipurpose:
Disaster
management.
Emergency shelters.

Bamboo-Fiber | Glass-Fiber Bio-Composite


Examples by CTP
Modular toilet and shower
unit
3.5 years of testing to
date

Pyramid on CTP

Outdoor

Straw bale construction

There are two prevalent means of using straw bale as


building stuff and they are load bearing walls or infill.

cellular concrete to offer better insulation


for colder climates

Plastic formwork
construction

Coconut leaf panels

THANK YOU