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# The New Seven

Q.C. Tools
A Training Presentation on the N7

By Christopher Diaz

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams

Relations Diagrams

Tree Diagrams

Matrix Diagrams

Arrow Diagrams
Process Decision Program Charts
Matrix Data Analysis

History of the

Slide 1 0f 2

## Aim was to develop more QC

techniques with design approach

## Work in conjunction with original

Basic Seven Tools

History of the

Slide 2 0f 2

## Developed to organize verbal data

diagrammatically.

## Basic 7 tools effective for data

analysis, process control, and quality
improvement (numerical data)

effectiveness

Flow Charts

Run Charts

Histograms

Pareto Diagrams

Scatter Diagrams

Control Charts

## Relation Between New Seven

Q.C. Tools and Basic Seven
Tools
FACTS
Data
Numerical Data

Verbal Data

## Define problem after

collecting numerical data

## Define problem before

collecting numerical data

## The Basic Seven Tools

Analytical approach

## The Seven New Tools

Generate Ideas

Organize

Formulate plans

Information
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

Benefits of Incorporating

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Slide 1 0f 4

Enhanced Capabilities
Organize verbal data
Generate ideas
Improve planning
Eliminate errors and omissions
Explain problems intelligibly
Secure full cooperation

Benefits of Incorporating

Slide 2 0f 4

## Clarify the desired situation

Proceed systematically
Anticipate future events
Change proactively
Get things right the first time

Benefits of Incorporating

Slide 3 0f 4

## Five Objectives of Organizational Reform

which will establish a Culture that:

Identifies problems
Gives importance to planning

## Encourages everyone to think

systematically

Benefits of Incorporating

Slide 4 0f 4

## Unstructured Problem [must be put into solvable form]

The Seven New Tools
Problem is mapped

Problem becomes
obvious to all

Thoughts are
easily organized

Plans are
easily laid

Problem becomes
obvious to all

People understand
problem

Problem can be
clearly articulated

Nothing is
omitted

Nub of problem
is identified

Cooperation is
obtained

Things go well

Countermeasures
are on target

## Problem is in solvable form

Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7

## For Pinpointing the Problem in a Chaotic

Situation and Generating Solution Strategies

## Gathers large amounts of intertwined

verbal data (ideas, opinions, issues)

## Organizes the data into groups based

on natural relationship

## Makes it feasible for further analysis

and to find a solution to the problem.

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7

Facilitates breakthrough thinking and
stimulate fresh ideas

down accurately

the problem

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7

## Advantages of Affinity Diagrams (cont.)

Fosters team spirit

## Spurs to the group into action

Topic
Affinity Statement

Affinity Statement

Affinity Statement

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Affinity Statement
Data Card
Data Card

Data Card

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7

## Constructing an Affinity Diagram

Group Method Approach

Select a topic

## Discuss info collected until everyone

understands it thoroughly

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7

## Constructing an Affinity Diagram

Group Method Approach (cont.)

## Move data cards into groups of similar

themes (natural affinity for each other)

## Combine statements on data cards

to new Affinity statement

groups

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7

## Constructing an Affinity Diagram

Group Method Approach (cont.)

## Lay the groups outs, keeping the

affinity clusters together
Next, complete the diagram

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams
Slide 7 0f 7

## Completing an Affinity Diagram

Topic
Affinity Statement

Affinity Statement

Affinity Statement

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Affinity Statement
Data Card

Data Card

Data Card
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Relations Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7

## For Finding Solutions Strategies by Clarifying

Relationships with Complex Interrelated Causes

## Resolves tangled issues by

unraveling the logical connection

## Allows for Multi-directional

thinking rather than linear

diagrams

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Relations Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7

Useful at planning stage for obtaining
perspective on overall situation

peoples thinking

accurately

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Relations Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7

## Makes the problem recognizable by

clarifying the relationships among causes

Tertiary
Cause

Primary Cause
Why doesnt
X happen?

Primary Cause
Tertiary
Cause

Secondary
Cause

Tertiary
Cause
Tertiary
Cause

Primary Cause

Secondary
Cause

4th level
Cause

Secondary
Cause

Secondary
Cause

Primary Cause
Tertiary
Cause

Secondary
Cause

6th level
Cause

4th level
Cause

5th level
Cause

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Relations Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7

## Constructing a Relations Diagram

Group Method Approach

## Express the problem in form of

Why isnt something happening?

## Discuss info collected until everyone

understands it thoroughly

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Relations Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7

## Constructing a Relations Diagram

Group Method Approach (cont.)

## Asking why, explore the cause-effect

relationships, and divide the cards into
primary, secondary and tertiary causes

## Further discuss until all possible

causes have been identified

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Relations Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7

## Constructing a Relations Diagram

Group Method Approach (cont.)

## Review whole diagram looking for

relationships among causes

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Relations Diagrams
Slide 7 0f 7

## Completing a Relations Diagram

Tertiary
Cause

Primary Cause

Why doesnt
X happen?

Primary Cause
Tertiary
Cause

Secondary
Cause

Tertiary
Cause

Tertiary
Cause

Primary Cause

Secondary
Cause

4th level
Cause

Secondary
Cause

Secondary
Cause

Primary Cause

Tertiary
Cause

Secondary
Cause

6th level
Cause

4th level
Cause

5th level
Cause

Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

Tree Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 5

## For Systematically Pursuing the Best Strategies

for Attaining an Objective

## Develops a succession of strategies for

achieving objectives

Dendrograms

Tree Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 5

## Systematic and logical approach is less

likely that items are omitted
Facilitates agreement among team
Are extremely convincing with strategies
Secondary means
Primary means

To
Accomplish
Constraints

Secondary means

3rd means
3rd means
3rd means
3rd means

4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means

Tree Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 5

## Constructing a Tree Diagram

Group Method Approach

(Objective card)

## Identify constraints on how objective

can be achieved
Discuss means of achieving objective

## (primary means, first level strategy)

Take each primary mean, write objective for achieving it (secondary means)

Tree Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 5

## Constructing an Tree Diagram

Group Method Approach (cont.)

## Review each system of means in

both directions (from objective to means
and means to objective)

## Add more cards if needed

Connect all levels

Tree Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 5

## Completing a Tree Diagram

Secondary means
Primary means

To
Accomplish

3rd means

4th means

3rd means

4th means

3rd means

Secondary means

4th means

3rd means

4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means

Secondary means

Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

4th means

3rd means

4th means
4th means

Primary means
Constraints

3rd means

Secondary means

3rd means

4th means

3rd means

4th means

Matrix Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7

## For Clarifying Problems by Thinking

Multidimensionally

Consists of a two-dimensional
array to determine location and
nature of problem

## Discovers key ideas by

relationships represented by the
cells in matrix.

Matrix Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7

## Enable data on ideas based on

extensive experience
Clarifies relationships among different
elements
Makes overall structure of problem
immediately obvious
Combined from two to four types of
diagrams, location of problem is clearer.

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Matrix Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7

means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram

=4
=5
=6

Principa l

Subsidia ry

Hold 4 times/month

At every meeting

S e c t io n /P la n t
M anager

S it e Q C c ir c le

level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree

O
X
X

1
4

M em ber

Responsibilitie s

## Eva lua tion

4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from

Rank

=1
=2
=3

P r a c t ic a b ilit y

E f f ic a c y

O
O

S e c t io n /P la n t
Q C c ir c le s u p p o r t e r

## Advantages of Matrix Diagrams (cont.)

5 types: L-shaped, T-shaped, Yshaped, X-shaped, and C-shaped

Re ma rks

O
O
O

At least 3 times/year/person

O
O

Matrix Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7

## Write final-level means from Tree

diagram forming vertical axis

## Write in Evaluation categories (efficacy,

practicability, and rank) on horizontal axis.

## Examine final-level means to identify

whom will implement them

Matrix Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7

(cont.)

Responsibilities

## Label right-hand end of horizontal

axis as Remarks
Examine each cell and insert the
appropriate symbol:
Efficacy: O=good, =satisfactory, X=none
Practicability: O=good,=satisfactory,

X=none

Matrix Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7

## Determine score for each combination

of symbols, record in rank column

## Examine cells under Responsibility

Columns, insert double-circle for
Principal and single-circle for Subsidiary

## Fill out remarks column and record

meanings of symbol
Next, complete the diagram

Matrix Diagrams
Slide 7 0f 7

## Completing a Matrix Diagram

O

=1
=2
=3

Subsidia ry

Responsibilities

Hold 4 times/month

At every meeting

1
4

M em ber

S e c t io n /P la n t
M anager

S it e Q C c ir c le

means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram

Rank

level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree

Principal

P r a c t ic a b ilit y

4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from

=4
=5
=6

E f f ic a c y

Eva luation

O
X
X

S e c t io n /P la n t
Q C c ir c le s u p p o r t e r

O
O

O
O
O

At least 3 times/year/person

O
O

O
O

Re ma rks

O
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

Arrow Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7

## For Working Out Optimal Schedules and

Controlling Them Effectively

needed to implement a plan

## Network technique using nodes for

events and arrows for activities

## Used in PERT (Program Evaluation and Review

Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method)

Arrow Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7

## Allows overall task to viewed and potential

snags to be identified before work starts

improvements

Arrow Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7

## Advantages of Arrow Diagrams (cont.)

Promotes understanding and
agreement among group
Strategy

Constraints

4
1

12
5

10

11

Activity

13

Arrow Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7

## From strategies on Tree diagram,

select one (Objective of Arrow Diagram)
Identify constraints to Objective

## List all activities necessary to

achieving Objective
Write all essential activities on
separate cards

Arrow Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7

(cont.)

## Organize cards in sequential order

of activities
Remove any duplicate activities
Review order of activities, find
sequence with greatest amount of
activities
Arrange parallel activities

Arrow Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7

## Examine path, number nodes in

sequence from left to right

information

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Arrow Diagrams
Completing an Arrow Diagram

Strategy

Constraints

Slide 7 0f 7

12

10

11

Activity

7
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

13

Charts

Slide 1 0f 7

## For Producing the Desired Result from Many

Possible Outcomes

## Steers events in required direction if

unanticipated problems occur

## Finds feasible counter measures to

overcome problems

Charts

Slide 2 0f 7

## Advantages of Process Decisions Program Charts

(PDPCs)

Facilitates forecasting
Uses past to anticipate contingencies
Enables problems to pinpointed
Illustrates how events will be directed
to successful conclusion
Enables those involved to understand
decision-makers intentions

## Process Decisions Program

Charts

Slide 3 0f 7

Fosters cooperation and
communication in group
Easily modified and easily understood
Start
NO

NO

NO

YES

YES

NO
YES

NO

GOAL

NO

NO

## Process Decisions Program

Charts

Slide 4 0f 7

Constructing a PDPC

## Select a highly effective, but difficult

strategy from the Tree diagram

Decide on a goal

(Starting point)

## Identify constraints of objective

List activities to reach goal and

Charts

Slide 5 0f 7

## Review list. Add extra activities or

problems not thought of previously
Prepare contingency plan for each
step and review what action is
needed if step is not achieved
Examine carefully to check for
inconsistencies and all important
factors are included

Charts

Slide 6 0f 7

## Process Decisions Program

Charts

Slide 7 0f 7

Completing a PDPC

NO

NO
YES

Start

NO
YES

NO

NO
NO

YES
NO

GOAL
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

Slide 1 0f 6

## Technique quantifies and arranges

data presented in Matrix

## Finds indicators that differentiate

and attempt to clarify large
amount of information

Slide 2 0f 6

## Can be used in various fields (market

surveys, new product planning, process analysis)

## Can be when used when Matrix

diagram does not give sufficient
information

Slide 3 0f 6

## Constructing a Prioritization Grid

Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)

alternatives, and criteria for decision
Place selection in order of importance
Apply percentage weight to each
option (all weights should add up to 1)

## Sum individual ratings to establish

overall ranking (Divide by number of
options for average ranking)

Slide 4 0f 6

## Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.)

Rank order each option with respect to
criterion (Average the rankings and apply a
completed ranking)

## Multiply weight by associated rank

in Matrix (in example, 4 is best, 1 is worst)
Result is Importance Score

option

Slide 5 0f 6

## Rank order the alternatives

according to importance

## Matrix Data Analysis

Completing a Prioritization Grid
Criteria

Slide 6 0f 6

Customer Acceptance
(most important)

Strength
Importance Option
Reliability (least important) Sum Score Ranking

Cost

Design A
Percentage weight
Rank
Importance score

.40
4
1.6

.30
3
.90

.20
3
.60

.10
1
.10

3.2

1 (tie)

Design B
Percentage weight
Rank
Importance score

.30
3
.90

.40
4
1.6

.10
1
.10

.20
2
.40

3.0

Design C
Percentage weight
Rank
Importance score

.25
1
.25

.25
2
.50

.25
4
1

.25
3
.75

2.5

Design D
Percentage weight
Rank
Importance score

0.3
3
.90

.10
1
.10

.20
3
.60

.40
4
1.6

3.2

1 (tie)

Sum of weights
Average weight
Criterion Ranking

1.25
.31
1

1.05
.26
2

.75
.19
4

.95
.24
3

Options

Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)

Review

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams

Relations Diagrams

Tree Diagrams

Matrix Diagrams

Arrow Diagrams
Process Decision Program Charts
Matrix Data Analysis

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Slide 1 0f 5

Mental Attitudes
- Keen awareness to the actual problem
- Eagerness to solve problem
- Be highly motivated for the challenge

## Understand the problem

Select the right tool for the job
Obtain appropriate verbal data
Interpret analytical results

Slide 2 0f 5

4 Specific Keys

## Understand the problem

Stage 1 - problem is unclear and not obvious
what exact issue should be addressed
Stage 2 - problem is obvious, but causes unknown
explore causes and single out valid ones
Stage 3 - problem and causes are known
required action is unknown
strategies and plan must be developed

4 Specific Keys

Slide 3 0f 5

(cont.)

## Selecting Right tool for the Job

Stage 1 - Collect verbal information on events
(Affinity Diagram)
Stage 2 - Choose tool to identify causes
(Relations Diagram / Matrix Diagram)
Stage 3 - List strategies and activities
(Tree Diagram / Relations Diagram)
Plan actual activities
(Arrow Diagram / PDPC Chart)

4 Specific Keys

Slide 4 0f 5

(cont.)

## Obtaining appropriate verbal data

Three types of verbal data:
- Facts; factual observations expressed in words
- Opinions; factual information colored by opinion
- Ideas; New concepts created by analyzing facts
.Group

Discussions:
- Ensures common understanding
- All data should be without bias or distortion
- Data should fit objective of the analysis

4 Specific Keys

Slide 5 0f 5

(cont.)

## Interpreting Analytical Results

Information must be obtained for accomplishing
objectives from:
- Completed diagrams; or
- Process of completing diagrams
Analyze actual information obtained:
- Prepare summarized report with findings,
conclusions, and processes used
- Check if necessary data has been obtained, if
not
- Discover the cause and take appropriate action

Practical Application of

Slide 1 0f 5

## Example; Relations Diagram

Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools

## Complete the following Relations Diagram

- Review notes for clarity
- Get in groups of 4-5 per table (work as a team!)
- Topic - Using the New Seven QC Tools skillfully
- Cause cards- will be provided (not
categorized)

## - Arrange cards to complete diagram

(some hints have been provided)

Practical Application of

Slide 2 0f 5

## Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools

Primary
Cause

Primary
Cause

Use N7
Skillfully

Primary
Cause

Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)

Primary
Cause

Practical Application of

Slide 3 0f 5

## Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools

Cause Statements (hints are in yellow)
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M

## Interpret data clearly

Select appropriate tool
Think systematically
Give opinions
Know what the problem is
Extract necessary information
Collect reliable verbal data
Think multidimensionally
Obtain facts
Interpret analytical results
Generate ideas
Know that distorted data is useless
Grasp overall pictured

N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

## Understand seriousness of problem

Think flexibly from various standpoints
Obtain appropriate verbal data
Expose core of problem
Communicate well
Accurately understand real problem
Have excellent intuition
See to heart of problem
Select appropriate type of verbal data
Think in terms of word-based diagram
Express genuine thoughts
Hear and respect other's opinions
Generate highly accurate verbal data

Practical Application of

Slide 4 0f 5

## Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools

F
T

Primary
Cause

Primary
Cause

Use N7
Skillfully

Primary
Cause

Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)

B
L
I

Practical Application of

## New Seven Q.C. Tools

Solution for Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools

Use N7
Skillfully

M
C

Y
O

Slide 5 0f 5

Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)

Summary

## Benefits of New Seven Q.C. Tools

1- Provide Training in Thinking
2- Raise Peoples Problem Solving Confidence
3- Increase Peoples Ability to Predict Future
Events

12345-

## Express verbal data diagrammatically

Make information visible
Organize information intelligibly
Clarify overall picture and fine details
Get more people involved

Bibliography
Foster, Thomas. Managing Quality. An Integrative Approach .
Upper Saddle River : Prentice Hall, 2001.
Nayatani, Yoshingobu, Eiga, Toru, Futami, Ryoji, Miyagawa,
Hiroyuki, and Loftus, John. The Seven New QC Tools:
Practical Applications for Managers. Tokyo : 3A
Corporation, 1994.
TQM: The 9 TQM Tools. Internet
http://www.iqd.com/pfttools.htm.