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The New Seven

Q.C. Tools
A Training Presentation on the N7

By Christopher Diaz

What are the

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams

Relations Diagrams

Tree Diagrams

Matrix Diagrams

Arrow Diagrams
Process Decision Program Charts
Matrix Data Analysis

History of the

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Slide 1 0f 2

Committee of J.U.S.E. - 1972

Aim was to develop more QC


techniques with design approach

Work in conjunction with original


Basic Seven Tools

New set of methods (N7) - 1977

History of the

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Slide 2 0f 2

Developed to organize verbal data


diagrammatically.

Basic 7 tools effective for data


analysis, process control, and quality
improvement (numerical data)

Used together increases TQM


effectiveness

What are the

Basic Seven Q.C. Tools?

Flow Charts

Run Charts

Histograms

Pareto Diagrams

Cause and Effect Diagrams


Scatter Diagrams

Control Charts

Relation Between New Seven


Q.C. Tools and Basic Seven
Tools
FACTS
Data
Numerical Data

Verbal Data

Define problem after


collecting numerical data

Define problem before


collecting numerical data

The Basic Seven Tools


Analytical approach

The Seven New Tools


Generate Ideas

Organize

Formulate plans

Information
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

Benefits of Incorporating

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Slide 1 0f 4

Enhanced Capabilities
Organize verbal data
Generate ideas
Improve planning
Eliminate errors and omissions
Explain problems intelligibly
Secure full cooperation
Persuade powerfully

Benefits of Incorporating

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Slide 2 0f 4

Enhanced Keys to Organizational Reform

Assess situations from various angles

Clarify the desired situation


Prioritize tasks effectively
Proceed systematically
Anticipate future events
Change proactively
Get things right the first time

Benefits of Incorporating

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Slide 3 0f 4

Five Objectives of Organizational Reform


which will establish a Culture that:

Identifies problems
Gives importance to planning

Stresses the importance of the process

Prioritizes tasks

Encourages everyone to think


systematically

Benefits of Incorporating

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Slide 4 0f 4

Unstructured Problem [must be put into solvable form]


The Seven New Tools
Problem is mapped

Problem becomes
obvious to all

Thoughts are
easily organized

Plans are
easily laid

Problem becomes
obvious to all

People understand
problem

Problem can be
clearly articulated

Nothing is
omitted

Nub of problem
is identified

Cooperation is
obtained

Things go well

Countermeasures
are on target

Problem is in solvable form


Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7

For Pinpointing the Problem in a Chaotic


Situation and Generating Solution Strategies

Gathers large amounts of intertwined


verbal data (ideas, opinions, issues)

Organizes the data into groups based


on natural relationship

Makes it feasible for further analysis


and to find a solution to the problem.

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7

Advantages of Affinity Diagrams


Facilitates breakthrough thinking and
stimulate fresh ideas

Permits the problem to be pinned


down accurately

Ensures everyone clearly recognizes


the problem

Incorporates opinions of entire group

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7

Advantages of Affinity Diagrams (cont.)


Fosters team spirit

Raises everyones level of awareness

Spurs to the group into action


Topic
Affinity Statement

Affinity Statement

Affinity Statement

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Affinity Statement
Data Card
Data Card

Data Card

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7

Constructing an Affinity Diagram


Group Method Approach

Select a topic

Collect verbal data by brainstorming

Discuss info collected until everyone


understands it thoroughly

Write each item on separate data card

Spread out all cards on table

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7

Constructing an Affinity Diagram


Group Method Approach (cont.)

Move data cards into groups of similar


themes (natural affinity for each other)

Combine statements on data cards


to new Affinity statement

Make new card with Affinity statement

Continue to combine until less than 5


groups

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7

Constructing an Affinity Diagram


Group Method Approach (cont.)

Lay the groups outs, keeping the


affinity clusters together
Next, complete the diagram

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams
Slide 7 0f 7

Completing an Affinity Diagram


Topic
Affinity Statement

Affinity Statement

Affinity Statement

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Data Card

Affinity Statement
Data Card

Data Card

Data Card
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Relations Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7

For Finding Solutions Strategies by Clarifying


Relationships with Complex Interrelated Causes

Resolves tangled issues by


unraveling the logical connection

Allows for Multi-directional


thinking rather than linear

Also known as Interrelationship


diagrams

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Relations Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7

Advantages of Relations Diagrams


Useful at planning stage for obtaining
perspective on overall situation

Facilitates consensus among team

Assists to develop and change


peoples thinking

Enables priorities to be identified


accurately

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Relations Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7

Advantages of Relations Diagrams (cont.)

Makes the problem recognizable by


clarifying the relationships among causes

Tertiary
Cause

Primary Cause
Why doesnt
X happen?

Primary Cause
Tertiary
Cause

Secondary
Cause

Tertiary
Cause
Tertiary
Cause

Primary Cause

Secondary
Cause

4th level
Cause

Secondary
Cause

Secondary
Cause

Primary Cause
Tertiary
Cause

Secondary
Cause

6th level
Cause

4th level
Cause

5th level
Cause

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Relations Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7

Constructing a Relations Diagram


Group Method Approach

Express the problem in form of


Why isnt something happening?

Each member lists 5 causes affecting problem

Write each item on a card

Discuss info collected until everyone


understands it thoroughly

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Relations Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7

Constructing a Relations Diagram


Group Method Approach (cont.)

Move cards into similar groups

Asking why, explore the cause-effect


relationships, and divide the cards into
primary, secondary and tertiary causes

Connect all cards by these relationships

Further discuss until all possible


causes have been identified

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Relations Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7

Constructing a Relations Diagram


Group Method Approach (cont.)

Review whole diagram looking for


relationships among causes

Connect all related groups

Next, complete the diagram

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Relations Diagrams
Slide 7 0f 7

Completing a Relations Diagram


Tertiary
Cause

Primary Cause

Why doesnt
X happen?

Primary Cause
Tertiary
Cause

Secondary
Cause

Tertiary
Cause

Tertiary
Cause

Primary Cause

Secondary
Cause

4th level
Cause

Secondary
Cause

Secondary
Cause

Primary Cause

Tertiary
Cause

Secondary
Cause

6th level
Cause

4th level
Cause

5th level
Cause

Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Tree Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 5

For Systematically Pursuing the Best Strategies


for Attaining an Objective

Develops a succession of strategies for


achieving objectives

Reveals methods to achieve the results.

Also known as Systematic diagrams or


Dendrograms

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Tree Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 5

Advantages of Tree Diagrams

Systematic and logical approach is less


likely that items are omitted
Facilitates agreement among team
Are extremely convincing with strategies
Secondary means
Primary means

To
Accomplish
Constraints

Secondary means

3rd means
3rd means
3rd means
3rd means

4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Tree Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 5

Constructing a Tree Diagram


Group Method Approach

Write Relations Diagram topic


(Objective card)

Identify constraints on how objective


can be achieved
Discuss means of achieving objective

(primary means, first level strategy)

Take each primary mean, write objective for achieving it (secondary means)

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Tree Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 5

Constructing an Tree Diagram


Group Method Approach (cont.)

Continue to expand to the fourth level

Review each system of means in


both directions (from objective to means
and means to objective)

Add more cards if needed


Connect all levels

Next, complete the diagram

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Tree Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 5

Completing a Tree Diagram


Secondary means
Primary means

To
Accomplish

3rd means

4th means

3rd means

4th means

3rd means

Secondary means

4th means

3rd means

4th means
4th means
4th means
4th means

Secondary means

Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

4th means

3rd means

4th means
4th means

Primary means
Constraints

3rd means

Secondary means

3rd means

4th means

3rd means

4th means

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Matrix Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7

For Clarifying Problems by Thinking


Multidimensionally

Consists of a two-dimensional
array to determine location and
nature of problem

Discovers key ideas by


relationships represented by the
cells in matrix.

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Matrix Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7

Advantages of Matrix Diagrams

Enable data on ideas based on


extensive experience
Clarifies relationships among different
elements
Makes overall structure of problem
immediately obvious
Combined from two to four types of
diagrams, location of problem is clearer.

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Matrix Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7

means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram

=4
=5
=6

Principa l

Subsidia ry

Hold 4 times/month

At every meeting

S e c t io n /P la n t
M anager

S it e Q C c ir c le

level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree

O
X
X

1
4

M em ber

Responsibilitie s

Leader

Eva lua tion

4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from

Rank

=1
=2
=3

P r a c t ic a b ilit y

E f f ic a c y

O
O

S e c t io n /P la n t
Q C c ir c le s u p p o r t e r

Advantages of Matrix Diagrams (cont.)


5 types: L-shaped, T-shaped, Yshaped, X-shaped, and C-shaped

Re ma rks

O
O
O

At least 3 times/year/person

O
O

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Matrix Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7

Constructing a Matrix Diagram

Write final-level means from Tree


diagram forming vertical axis

Write in Evaluation categories (efficacy,


practicability, and rank) on horizontal axis.

Examine final-level means to identify


whom will implement them

Write names along horizontal axis

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Matrix Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7

Constructing a Matrix Diagram

Label group of columns as

(cont.)

Responsibilities

Label right-hand end of horizontal


axis as Remarks
Examine each cell and insert the
appropriate symbol:
Efficacy: O=good, =satisfactory, X=none
Practicability: O=good,=satisfactory,

X=none

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Matrix Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7

Constructing a Matrix Diagram (cont.)

Determine score for each combination


of symbols, record in rank column

Examine cells under Responsibility


Columns, insert double-circle for
Principal and single-circle for Subsidiary

Fill out remarks column and record


meanings of symbol
Next, complete the diagram

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Matrix Diagrams
Slide 7 0f 7

Completing a Matrix Diagram


O

=1
=2
=3

Subsidia ry

Responsibilities

Hold 4 times/month

At every meeting

1
4

M em ber

Leader

S e c t io n /P la n t
M anager

S it e Q C c ir c le

means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram
means
diagram

Rank

level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree
level
Tree

Principal

P r a c t ic a b ilit y

4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from
4th
from

=4
=5
=6

E f f ic a c y

Eva luation

O
X
X

S e c t io n /P la n t
Q C c ir c le s u p p o r t e r

O
O

O
O
O

At least 3 times/year/person

O
O

O
O

Re ma rks

O
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Arrow Diagrams
Slide 1 0f 7

For Working Out Optimal Schedules and


Controlling Them Effectively

Shows relationships among tasks


needed to implement a plan

Network technique using nodes for


events and arrows for activities

Used in PERT (Program Evaluation and Review


Technique) and CPM (Critical Path Method)

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Arrow Diagrams
Slide 2 0f 7

Advantages of Arrow Diagrams

Allows overall task to viewed and potential


snags to be identified before work starts

Leads to discovery of possible


improvements

Makes it easy to monitor progress of work

Deals promptly with changes to plan

Improves communication among team

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Arrow Diagrams
Slide 3 0f 7

Advantages of Arrow Diagrams (cont.)


Promotes understanding and
agreement among group
Strategy

Constraints

4
1

12
5

10

11

Activity

13

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Arrow Diagrams
Slide 4 0f 7

Constructing an Arrow Diagram

From strategies on Tree diagram,


select one (Objective of Arrow Diagram)
Identify constraints to Objective

List all activities necessary to


achieving Objective
Write all essential activities on
separate cards

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Arrow Diagrams
Slide 5 0f 7

Constructing an Arrow Diagram

(cont.)

Organize cards in sequential order


of activities
Remove any duplicate activities
Review order of activities, find
sequence with greatest amount of
activities
Arrange parallel activities

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Arrow Diagrams
Slide 6 0f 7

Constructing an Arrow Diagram (cont.)

Examine path, number nodes in


sequence from left to right

Record names and other necessary


information

Next, complete the diagram

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Arrow Diagrams
Completing an Arrow Diagram

Strategy

Constraints

Slide 7 0f 7

12

10

11

Activity

7
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

13

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Process Decisions Program


Charts

Slide 1 0f 7

For Producing the Desired Result from Many


Possible Outcomes

Used to plan various contingencies

Used for getting activities back on track

Steers events in required direction if


unanticipated problems occur

Finds feasible counter measures to


overcome problems

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Process Decisions Program


Charts

Slide 2 0f 7

Advantages of Process Decisions Program Charts


(PDPCs)

Facilitates forecasting
Uses past to anticipate contingencies
Enables problems to pinpointed
Illustrates how events will be directed
to successful conclusion
Enables those involved to understand
decision-makers intentions

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Process Decisions Program


Charts

Slide 3 0f 7

Advantages of PDPCs (cont.)


Fosters cooperation and
communication in group
Easily modified and easily understood
Start
NO

NO

NO

YES

YES

NO
YES

NO

GOAL

NO

NO

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Process Decisions Program


Charts

Slide 4 0f 7

Constructing a PDPC

Select a highly effective, but difficult


strategy from the Tree diagram

Decide on a goal

Identify existing situation

(most desirable outcome)


(Starting point)

Identify constraints of objective


List activities to reach goal and

potential problems with each activity

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Process Decisions Program


Charts

Slide 5 0f 7

Constructing an PDPC (cont.)

Review list. Add extra activities or


problems not thought of previously
Prepare contingency plan for each
step and review what action is
needed if step is not achieved
Examine carefully to check for
inconsistencies and all important
factors are included

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Process Decisions Program


Charts

Slide 6 0f 7

Constructing an PDPC (cont.)

Examine to make sure all


contingency plans are adequate

Next, complete the diagram

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Process Decisions Program


Charts

Slide 7 0f 7

Completing a PDPC

NO

NO
YES

Start

NO
YES

NO

NO
NO

YES
NO

GOAL
Source: Nayatani, Y., The Seven New QC Tools (Tokyo, Japan, 3A Corporation, 1984)

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Matrix Data Analysis


Slide 1 0f 6

Principal Component Analysis

Technique quantifies and arranges


data presented in Matrix

Based solely on numerical data

Finds indicators that differentiate


and attempt to clarify large
amount of information

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Matrix Data Analysis


Slide 2 0f 6

Advantages of Principal Component Analysis

Can be used in various fields (market


surveys, new product planning, process analysis)

Can be when used when Matrix


diagram does not give sufficient
information

Useful as Prioritization Grid

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Matrix Data Analysis


Slide 3 0f 6

Constructing a Prioritization Grid


Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)

Determine your goal, your


alternatives, and criteria for decision
Place selection in order of importance
Apply percentage weight to each
option (all weights should add up to 1)

Sum individual ratings to establish


overall ranking (Divide by number of
options for average ranking)

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Matrix Data Analysis


Slide 4 0f 6

Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.)


Rank order each option with respect to
criterion (Average the rankings and apply a
completed ranking)

Multiply weight by associated rank


in Matrix (in example, 4 is best, 1 is worst)
Result is Importance Score

Add up Importance Scores for each


option

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Matrix Data Analysis


Slide 5 0f 6

Constructing a Prioritization Grid (cont.)

Rank order the alternatives


according to importance

See completed the diagram

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Matrix Data Analysis


Completing a Prioritization Grid
Criteria

Slide 6 0f 6

Customer Acceptance
(most important)

Strength
Importance Option
Reliability (least important) Sum Score Ranking

Cost

Design A
Percentage weight
Rank
Importance score

.40
4
1.6

.30
3
.90

.20
3
.60

.10
1
.10

3.2

1 (tie)

Design B
Percentage weight
Rank
Importance score

.30
3
.90

.40
4
1.6

.10
1
.10

.20
2
.40

3.0

Design C
Percentage weight
Rank
Importance score

.25
1
.25

.25
2
.50

.25
4
1

.25
3
.75

2.5

Design D
Percentage weight
Rank
Importance score

0.3
3
.90

.10
1
.10

.20
3
.60

.40
4
1.6

3.2

1 (tie)

Sum of weights
Average weight
Criterion Ranking

1.25
.31
1

1.05
.26
2

.75
.19
4

.95
.24
3

Options

Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)

Review

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Affinity Diagrams

Relations Diagrams

Tree Diagrams

Matrix Diagrams

Arrow Diagrams
Process Decision Program Charts
Matrix Data Analysis

Keys to Successfully Using the

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Slide 1 0f 5

Mental Attitudes
- Keen awareness to the actual problem
- Eagerness to solve problem
- Be highly motivated for the challenge

Four Specific Keys

Understand the problem


Select the right tool for the job
Obtain appropriate verbal data
Interpret analytical results

Keys to Successfully Using the

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Slide 2 0f 5

4 Specific Keys

Understand the problem


Stage 1 - problem is unclear and not obvious
what exact issue should be addressed
Stage 2 - problem is obvious, but causes unknown
explore causes and single out valid ones
Stage 3 - problem and causes are known
required action is unknown
strategies and plan must be developed

Keys to Successfully Using the

New Seven Q.C. Tools


4 Specific Keys

Slide 3 0f 5

(cont.)

Selecting Right tool for the Job


Stage 1 - Collect verbal information on events
(Affinity Diagram)
Stage 2 - Choose tool to identify causes
(Relations Diagram / Matrix Diagram)
Stage 3 - List strategies and activities
(Tree Diagram / Relations Diagram)
Plan actual activities
(Arrow Diagram / PDPC Chart)

Keys to Successfully Using the

New Seven Q.C. Tools


4 Specific Keys

Slide 4 0f 5

(cont.)

Obtaining appropriate verbal data


Three types of verbal data:
- Facts; factual observations expressed in words
- Opinions; factual information colored by opinion
- Ideas; New concepts created by analyzing facts
.Group

Discussions:
- Ensures common understanding
- All data should be without bias or distortion
- Data should fit objective of the analysis

Keys to Successfully Using the

New Seven Q.C. Tools


4 Specific Keys

Slide 5 0f 5

(cont.)

Interpreting Analytical Results


Information must be obtained for accomplishing
objectives from:
- Completed diagrams; or
- Process of completing diagrams
Analyze actual information obtained:
- Prepare summarized report with findings,
conclusions, and processes used
- Check if necessary data has been obtained, if
not
- Discover the cause and take appropriate action

Practical Application of

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Slide 1 0f 5

Example; Relations Diagram


Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools

Complete the following Relations Diagram


- Review notes for clarity
- Get in groups of 4-5 per table (work as a team!)
- Topic - Using the New Seven QC Tools skillfully
- Cause cards- will be provided (not
categorized)

- Arrange cards to complete diagram


(some hints have been provided)

Practical Application of

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Slide 2 0f 5

Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools

Primary
Cause

Primary
Cause

Use N7
Skillfully

Primary
Cause

Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)

Primary
Cause

Practical Application of

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Slide 3 0f 5

Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools


Cause Statements (hints are in yellow)
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M

Interpret data clearly


Select appropriate tool
Think systematically
Give opinions
Know what the problem is
Extract necessary information
Collect reliable verbal data
Think multidimensionally
Obtain facts
Interpret analytical results
Generate ideas
Know that distorted data is useless
Grasp overall pictured

N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X
Y
Z

Understand seriousness of problem


Think flexibly from various standpoints
Obtain appropriate verbal data
Expose core of problem
Communicate well
Accurately understand real problem
Have excellent intuition
See to heart of problem
Select appropriate type of verbal data
Think in terms of word-based diagram
Express genuine thoughts
Hear and respect other's opinions
Generate highly accurate verbal data

Practical Application of

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Slide 4 0f 5

Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools

F
T

Primary
Cause

Primary
Cause

Use N7
Skillfully

Primary
Cause

Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)

B
L
I

Practical Application of

New Seven Q.C. Tools


Solution for Abilities Required for Applying New Seven QC Tools

Use N7
Skillfully

M
C

Y
O

Slide 5 0f 5

Source: Foster, S., Managing Quality (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2001)

Summary

New Seven Q.C. Tools

Benefits of New Seven Q.C. Tools


1- Provide Training in Thinking
2- Raise Peoples Problem Solving Confidence
3- Increase Peoples Ability to Predict Future
Events

Roles of New Seven Q.C. Tools


12345-

Express verbal data diagrammatically


Make information visible
Organize information intelligibly
Clarify overall picture and fine details
Get more people involved

Bibliography
Foster, Thomas. Managing Quality. An Integrative Approach .
Upper Saddle River : Prentice Hall, 2001.
Nayatani, Yoshingobu, Eiga, Toru, Futami, Ryoji, Miyagawa,
Hiroyuki, and Loftus, John. The Seven New QC Tools:
Practical Applications for Managers. Tokyo : 3A
Corporation, 1994.
TQM: The 9 TQM Tools. Internet
http://www.iqd.com/pfttools.htm.