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4 views19 pagesTransform Coding

Mar 10, 2015

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Transform Coding

© All Rights Reserved

4 views

Transform Coding

© All Rights Reserved

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Introduction

pixels of an image are the spatial domain methods.

The coding is known as waveform coding.

The coding techniques which are based on modifying

the transform of an image is known as transform

coding.

In transform coding a reversible linear transform is

used to map the image into a set of transform

coefficients which are then quantized and coded.

Transform selection

the smallest number of transform coefficients is

selected to achieve the best compression.

reconstruction error and the computational complexity

is selected.

For image data, sub image size of 8 or 16 is common.

Larger sub image sizes increases the blocking artifacts.

For speech data a block of 10 to 20msec is selected for

processing

Bit allocation:

relative importance of the transform coefficients that are

discarded and the precision used to represent the

retained coefficients.

the coefficients of the transformed sub image is called

bit allocation.

Transform coefficients

coefficient is different, it makes sense to assign

differing numbers of bits to the different coefficients.

There are two approaches to assign bits

One approach relies on the average properties of the

transform coefficients, while the other approach assigns

bits as needed by individual transform coefficients

Transform coefficients

estimate of the variances of the transform

coefficients

On the basis of maximum magnitude Threshold coding

algorithms to assign the number of bits used

to quantize each of the coefficients

Zonal Coding

We assume that the relative variance of the coefficients

corresponds to the amount of information contained in each

coefficient.

Thus, coefficients with higher variance are assigned more bits

than coefficients with smaller variance.

Let us find an expression for the distortion, then find the bit

allocation that minimizes the distortion.

To perform the minimization we will use the method of

Lagrange.

Zonal Coding

by the transform coding system is R, and the average

number of bits per sample used by the kth coefficient

is Rk then

(1)

Zonal Coding

rk2 is related to the kth quantizer input variance k2

by,

quantizer.

Zonal Coding

the same time keeping the average number of

bits to R. Assuming that k is a constant for all

k, we can set up the minimization problem in

terms of Lagrange multiplier as,

Zonal Coding

setting it equal to zero we can obtain the

expression for Rk as

value of as,

Zonal Coding

for Rk, we obtain

integers. So the standard approach is to set the

negative Rk s to zero. This will increase the average bit

rate above R. Therefore the non zero Rk s are

uniformly reduced until the average rate is equal to R.

Threshold Coding

transform coefficients of largest magnitude make the

most significant contribution to reconstructed sub image

quality.

array is reordered in a zigzag fashion and is run length

encoded. And variable length coding is done to the

resulting sequence.

Threshold Coding

transformed image,

sub images.

A different threshold can be applied for each sub

image.

The threshold can be varied as a function of

location of each coefficient within the sub image.

Threshold Coding

thresholding and quantization is implemented using a

single equation,

T (u , v)

T (u, v) round

Z

(

u

,

v

)

where,

T (u , v) thresholde d and quantized approximat ion of T (u, v).

Z (u , v) element of the transform normalization array.

Threshold Coding

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