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Basic Framework of HRM

5 Functions Area:1. Staffing/Recruitment

. Obtain people with appropriate skills, abilities, knowledge
and experience.
. Human resources planning, job analysis, recruitment and
2. Rewards
. Design and administration of the total reward system pay,
recognition, equity and benefits.
. Job evaluation, job analysis, performance evaluation.

3. Employee Development
Analyzing training requirements and needs to ensure the
possession of knowledge and skills for career progression
and development.
Identification of key skills and competencies through
performance evaluation.
4. Employee Service/Maintenance
Administration and monitoring of workplace safety, health and
welfare and other services; i.e. cafeteria, transportation, sports
& recreation.
5. Employee Relations/Welfare/Industrial Relations
Employee involvement and workplace harmony.

The Nature and Scope of HRM

Torrington and Halls Comparison of Personnel Management
and HRM:1. Personnel Management
o. People will only be effective if their job-related personal
need are met.
o. Interventions are required by personnel to ensure that
job-related needs are attended to.
o. Because of line managers do not see themselves as people
specialist they may neglect personnel work necessitating
the specialist personnel input.

Human Resource Management

o Management of HR is like any other form of resource management.
o HRM should be shared by people across the organization rather
than being spilt up artificially into work for specialist.
o Efficient management with a focus on human needs is required
across the organization.
o HR managers are needed to support other managers in their
HR work and to make sure that the organization is directed at
a strategic level to HRM.
o At the same time, HRM are concerned with making sure that
there are enough people working in the right places, at the right

HRM is the part of management concerned with:
Related to the Management of People as Employee in any type
of organization (including small and micro enterprises and
virtual organizations);

Management of People as
People are regarded as the source of the organizations competitive
advantage and every manager is expected to take responsibility
for managing them.
HRM is a strategic activity and it should involve all level of
managers in the organization, not just the Human Resource
HRM must be integrated with all aspects of the management of
the organization and it should be built into all management
decision and practices.

Core roles in HRM

The core roles of HRM are grouped below into 4 categories.
the title of the clusters are tentative, and are open for comment.
1. Planning and Organizing for work, people and HRM
o Strategic perspective
o Organization design
o Change management
o Corporate Wellness management
2. People Acquisition and Development
o Staffing the organization
o Training & development
o Career management
o Performance Management
o Industrial relations

3. Administration of Policies,
Programmes & Practices
Compensation management
Information management
Administrative management
Financial management
Supportive generic skills
This is not intended to be final outline of human resource skills
but the following have emerged during the process as important
skills for human resource practitioner to possess.

These are:
Project management
Consulting skills
Self management
Communication skills
Facilitation skills
Presentation skills
Skills for transforming groups into self-directed mutually
controlled high performing work teams.
Trans-cultural skills
Mediation & arbitration skills
Financial skills
- Diagnostic skills

Major Factors Affecting HRM

Technological Advancement
Demographics and Diversity
What Workers Need?
1. Changing in Technological Advancement
Workers are overwhelmed with advanced technologies in design
/production/administration and communications.
2. Changing demographics and diversity life styles
Worker needs vary by age, gender, race, religion, physical abilities,
sexual orientation, and marital and family status.

3. Employee and Globalization

Communication ~ different language and limited face-to-face
interaction; more on e-mail, fax, tele-conferencing, videoconferencing, etc.
4. Employee needs representation (voice)
Workers want to be involved in work-related issues and expect
the organization to listen to their concerns.
5. Employee needs for work/life balance
Workers are less committed to organizations today but also
suffer from burnout and lower performance.

6. Employee concerns about

safety in the workplace
Workers want a safe, hazard-free working environment.
In addressing WHAT WORKERS NEED.?
Total REWARDS should reflect his or her relative contribution
to the organization.
Employees GOALS and OBJECTIVES should derived from
the departments, which will support the mission and goals of
the organization.

Job Description & Essential Function

Strategic Plan & Annual Goals
Standard of Performance
Observation & Feedback

Performance Evaluation
Performance Development

Standard of Performance
Provides a benchmark against which to evaluate work performance.
Defines how well each function or task must be performed in
order to meet or exceed expectations.
Standards of performance are usually:
I. developed in collaboration with the employees who do the tasks
or functions
II explained to new employees within the first month on the job.
Should be written in clear language, describing the specific
behaviors and actions required for work performance to meet,
exceed or fail to meet expectations.

I Describe performance expectations in terms of timeliness

(deadlines, dates); cost (budget constraints, limits),
quality (subjective and objective measures of satisfaction),
quantity (how many), customer satisfaction.
Specify the acceptable margin for error. It is very rare for
perfection to be an appropriate standard, even for outstanding
o Standards are written for a Position rather than a person; the
standard should be reasonable and appropriate no matter who
is performing the job.
o Quantifiable measures may not apply to all functions.

Observation & Feedback

Should be a routine part of managing employee.
Feedback is most effective in reinforcing or improving work
performance when the employee has confidence in the basis
of that feedback.
And we, as the supervisor/manager, will be more confident
when giving feedback based on information that we can support.
When we cant be present to observe employee performance, be
sure that we have processes in place through which you can learn
about how they are doing.

These processes should be open, fair, and understood by

everyone. Options for obtaining input about performance in
your absence may include, but are not limited to, the following:
i. Have routine one-on-one meetings and include discussions
of performance.
ii. -Periodically review and discussion on the standards of
performance and expectations periodic reports
iii. - Obtain feedback from customers in writing when possible.

What is a Performance
Yardstick for supervisor to access employees performance
A platform for discussing ACHIEVEMENTS and/or
To improve employees performance through setting of
OBJECTIVES and IDENTIFYING training needs.
Performance Appraisal is the SYSTEMATIC DEVELOPMENT

Obj. of Performance Evaluation

To regularly and systematically assess an employees
performance so as to EVALUATE and subsequently develop
It is a means of documenting an employees performance
history and also provides a basis for salary review and disciplinary
-Performance Evaluation is concerned with both UTILIZATION
(future use and training) and MOTIVATION (feedback and pay).
Provide a basis for AID in the employees CAREER
DEVELOPMENT for the future in terms of PROMOTION.

The Purpose of Performance

Define and communicate performance expectations to employee
on an annual basis.
Assign relative worth to employees contribution to the company
in order to distribute rewards.
Assess contribution compared to established criteria and employees
in similar jobs.
Provide performance feedback to employees regarding strengths
and areas of development.
Explain how employees contributions affect business objectives.

General GUIDELINES for

writing PE
Evaluation should only be done by those who are in the position
to know the work and personality of the one being evaluated.
Do not wait until PE itself to let your subordinates know what
you expect.
The following information should be informed early:Job requirements
Specific Goals, Standard & Deadline
the performance

When writing an evaluation, the supervisor/superior
1. Be bias
2. Practise discrimination
3. Exercise abuse of power
The supervisor/superior should evaluate the performance of the
employee within the stated period only.
IMPROVEMENTS during the PE Period should be RECORDED
down so that it will be easy to evaluate the employee.

- Arrange a TIME for a ONE-ON-ONE Session.
- Start off with the ACCOMPLISHMENT/S and slowly
proceed with the rest.
- Be FAIR but DONT be afraid to give honest criticism when

How to deliver a PE
-Focus on the PROBLEM/S, ISSUE/S or BEHAVIOUR and
- Ask FACT-FINDING questions to get employees to recall
instances in which they performed WELL or POORLY.
- Be specific and constructive in your criticism.
- See if they have a realistic estimation of their ability.

How to deliver a PE
Do provide SUGGESTION/IMPROVEMENT to better explain
the expectations.
-Explain how the employees performance in meeting GOALS
contribute to department or company objectives.
Should adopt the TWO-WAY and OPEN evaluation because
this will allow/encourage employees to talk/discuss freely about
the successes and failures over the period concerned.
-LISTEN to employees BECAUSE numerous surveys of employee
attitudes reveal that employee feel that supervisors/superior

How to deliver a PE
- This is the chance to get valuable feedback from your own
subordinates about their jobs, environment or company policy.
- If PERSONAL PROBLEMS are affecting the employees,
DONT play the role of a therapist Be supportive BUT be
careful in getting involved. Refer to the HUMAN RESOURCE
PERSONNEL (Employee Relations Executive) for help if
Focus steadily on each individuals performance
- Show that you care about his/her CAREER.
- Dont let the employee feel that the Review and their

Employee Relation / Welfare /

Industrial Relations
1. Termination of Contract of Employment Malaysia Employment
Act 1955
o With notice ~ Section 12
o Without notice ~ Section 13
o Termination of Contract for Special Reasons ~ Section 14
(Dismissal for Misconduct after Due Inquiry)
o When contract is deemed to be broken by Employer and
Employee ~ Section 15

With Notice ~ Section 12

At any time EITHER party can terminate the service by
submitting a written notice of intending to terminate.
Notice period must be as specified in the Employment
In the absent of the Employment Contract, The Employment Act
1955 section 12(2).
Without Notice ~ Section 13
At any time EITHER party can terminate the service by PAYING
the equivalent amount of Salary In-Lieu of notice period.

Contract of Service
Contract of Service can also be terminated on the following
1. Breach of Contract of Service
2. Misconduct after Due Inquiry
When Contract is deemed to be broken by Employer and Employee
~ Section 15
o By Employer ~ fails to pay wages within 7 days from end of
wage period.
o By Employee ~ being absent from work for more than 2
consecutive working days without prior leave
or reasonable excuse.

Termination of Contract for

Special Reasons ~ Section 14
(Dismissal for Misconduct after Due Inquiry)
3 major MISCONDUCT that normally occurs in an employment:Relating to Duty
Relating to Discipline
Relating to Morality
For matters that are deemed to be very serious or grave in nature,
a DI shall be convened.

The Process:Employee approaches the immediate supervisor or

department manager lodge a report of incident

The matter is brought to the attention of HR Department

and as written statement is taken from the employee

Investigation will be carried out within THREE working days
after the report was lodged and the findings will be submitted
to the HR Manager

Offender Not Guilty

The case will be closed

Offender Guilty

Offender Guilty
The offender will be Suspended from work pending a Show
Cause Letter.
Domestic Inquiry
Punishment based on the decision of the panel of inquiry.
1. The Offender will be Suspended from work pending a Show
Cause Letter
a. The employee will be issued with a Suspension Letter stating the
o The reason of suspension
o Informing him/her of the 14 days suspension with half pay
o Requesting for a Show Cause Letter (Letter of Explanation)
from the employee by a stipulated date.

b. Employees Reply Letter

If reply is unsatisfactory, unacceptable or no reply, proceed
for Charges of DI (Notice of DI).
If reply is unconditional admission, clear and ambiguous; no
further elaboration is necessary; hold an Oral DI and decide
the punishment.
Notice of DI
Give the details of the misconduct; ie. Time, Place of Incident,
Substance of Lost, Description of Incident, etc
Place, Date and Time of the DI
Inform that he/she will be given all opportunities to defend
Advise him/her to bring witness(es) or relevant documents.
Warning of consequences if fails to attend the DI-EXPARTE-

Domestic Inquiry

1. Appoint Panel Members and gives terms of references, ie to

hear evidence and to give recommendation.
2. Usually, 1 Chairman, 2 members & 1 Prosecuting Officer
3. The Panel Members should be of peers or of higher rank and
must not be connected in any of the case (should not involved
in any of the investigation)
4. Should act impartially, independently and unbiased manner.
5. Once the case is decided, the panel of inquiry must submit a
Report of DI, which consists of the proceedings of the case,
the findings and the recommendation (should be based on
facts discovered during hearing).

Punishment based on the

decision of the panel of inquiry
Dismiss without notice
Impose any other lesser punishment
1. Written warning
2. Transfer
3. Withhold annual increment 4. Withhold annual bonus
Purpose of DI
To give opportunity to defendant to defend him/herself
To see and hear all witnesses giving evidence against him.
To be able to rebut evidence against him
To determine whether there is sufficient evidence to prove the
charges against the employee concerned.

The most basic fundamental

practice of HR Practioner ..
Provide value added services to customers and treat customers
with respect and professionalism customers here are the
people working for the organization.
Deliver commitments with integrity and speed and adhere to
the model companys philosophies, policies and procedures.
Explore opportunities for continuous learning and improvement
and display good and positive attitude, demonstrating team work
and work towards creating a harmonies environment.
Continue to strive for excellent