You are on page 1of 28

ENCODING

A digital signal is a sequence of discrete, discontinuous


voltage pulses. each pulse is a signal element. Binary data
are transmitted by encoding each data bit into signal element
In simplest case 0 by low and 1 by high voltage level.
Receiver has to interpret incoming signal.(begin & end of bit
signal level)
Data rate: num of bits per second
Baud rate (modulation rate):num of signal changes per second
Num of signal changes per second depend on encoding tech.

Different Conversion Schemes

Digital to Digital Encoding

Encoding

Decides bandwidth
Helps in clocking beginning and ending of
each bit
Noise immunity can be increased

Types of Digital to Digital Encoding

Unipolar encoding
Only one voltage level is used
1 represented by positive voltage and 0 by an
idle line
Since contain dc component ,not used with
Radio
Doesnot work well in noisy conditions

Unipolar Encoding

Types of Polar Encoding

NRZ-L and NRZ-I Encoding

NRZ
If synchronization problem occurs,many bits
Can lost.

RZ Encoding

Manchester and Diff. Manchester Encoding

Manchester encoding

Voltage transition in the middle serves as


clocking mechanism and error can be detected
if there is no transition.however bandwidth
requirement is higher

BIPOLAR
AMI and HDB3
0 is represented by no signal and 1 by either
Positive or negative voltage alternating in
polarity

HDB3 is similar to AMI except two pulses


Called violation(V) and balancing pulse(B)
Are used when consecutively 4 zeros occur in bit stream
Ease of synchronization-If long stream of 1s occur
Synchronization wouldnt lost

Bipolar AMI Encoding

Circuit switching
User send the request to end office to get connected
to destination.request is forwarded through
intermediate routers to check whether
Requested user is available then connection is
established.end to end connection is maintained for
entire duration of call.bandwidth(int. nodes) get
reserved till disconnected.
routing decision is made at call setup.no additional
address information is required after call set up.
Congestion can occur during call set-up.

Switched Virtual Circuit

Message switching
Message(may be of variable length)arrive at
intermediate switching station and routing decision is
based on destination address information.message is
stored until comm.line become available to forward
the message to next appr.station.process is repeated
until message arrives at destination.
If message length is large,kept intermediate node
engaged for longer hence doesnot support interactive
traffic.

Message Switching

Packet switching
Packet- max size for data block is fixed
User message that doesnot fit inside a single packet is
segmented(packet) and transmitted
using connectionless packet transfer.each packet
is associated with control(start/stop/addr) information
Packets belonging to a message may select different
routes to reach to destination.packet reordering may
be done at receiver.router may not remain engaged for
entire duration of a message .support interactive
traffic.

Datagram Approach

Swithching techniques

(a) Circuit switching (b) Message switching (c) Packet switching

A comparison of circuit switched and packetswitched networks.

Cell switching
Cell- max size of data block is less than packet
Virtual circuit is set-up across switches
Record of path traversal for a cell is kept at
intermediate router so that successive cells
follows the same path.no need of reordering
reqd. at receiver end.intermediate routers
Get engaged for cell duration only.supports
Interactive traffic.used in ATM.

Switched Virtual Circuit

Switched Virtual Circuit

Switching in different networks


Function

Telegraph
network

Telephone
network

internet

Basic use

Unidirect
telegram

Bidirect real
time voice tx

bidirect byte
stream

switching

message

circuit

packet

Inform.Prest

Morse,ascii

Angdigvoice

Digital any

Tx.system

digital

Anlg-digital

digital

addressing

Geo. address

Hier.No plan

Hier. addres

routing

manual

Route select.
Call setup

Packt routed
independly

Multipx

message

circuit

packet

Switching techniques
A network has router sequence A,B,C,D. Find the time required in each case
for information flow from A to D.
If 40 byte of information is transmitted with 3byte of overload& rate one
byte/microsec
in

circuit switching
Message switching(each of 20 bytes)
Packet switching(each of 10 bytes)
Cell switching(each of 5 bytes)
( Ignore all delays)