CHAPTER - INTRODUCTION TO PLCS Advantages of PLCs Cost effective for controlling complex systems.

Flexible and can be reapplied to control other systems quickly and easily. Computational abilities allow more sophisticated control. Trouble shooting aids make programming easier and reduce downtime. Reliable components make these likely to operate for years before failure.

PLC Origin

- Developed to replace relays in the late 1960s - Costs dropped and became popular by 1980s - Now used in many industrial designs

Relays and Schematic Symbols
in p u t c o il

O R

n o r m a lly c lo s e d

n o r m a lly open

O R

Logical Control with Relays

115V C A wall plug

relay logic

input A (normally closed)

input B (normally open)

output C (normally open)

A

B

C ladder logic

Relay Logic In a PLC
power supply +24V com.

push buttons

PLC
inputs

ladder logic

A

B

C

outputs

115V ac AC power neut.

light

Reading Ladder Logic

HOT A B X

NEUTRAL

C

D

G

Y

E

F

H

INPUTS

OUTPUTS

Note: Power needs to flow through some combination of the inputs (A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H) to turn on outputs (X,Y).

A Ladder Logic Example

A

B

B

Note: When A is pushed, the output B will turn on, and the input B will also turn on and keep B on perma nently - until power is removed. Note: The line on the right is being left of f intentionally and is implied in these diagrams.

Mnemonics

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

LD N LD A N D LD LD A N D O R ST EN D

A B C D X A

t h e m n e m o n ic c o d e is e q u iv a le n t t o t h e la d d e r lo g ic b e lo w

B

X

C

D

EN D

N o t e : T h e n o t a t io n s h o w n a b o v e is n o t s t a n d a r d A lle n - B r a d le y n o t a t io n . T h e p r o g r a m t o t h e r ig h t w o u ld b e t h e A - B e q u iv a le n t .

SO R BST X IC A X IO B N X B X IO C X IO D BN D O TE X EO R EN D

SFCs

Start

power up

Execution follows multiple paths flash

power down

End

Structured Text

i := 0 ; REPEA T i := i + 1 ; U N T IL i > = 1 0 EN D _R EPEA T;

PLC in a Control Loop

PROCESS

Feedback from sensors/switches PLC

Connections to actuators

The Four Stages of a PLC Scan

PLC program changes outputs by examining inputs THE CONTROL LOOP Read inputs

Set new outputs Power turned on Process changes and PLC pauses while it checks its own operation

Ladder Logic Inputs

x Normally open, an active input x will close the contact and allow power to flow. x Normally closed, power flows when the input x is not open. x immediate inputs will take current values, not those from the previous input scan. (Note: this instruction is actually an output that will update the input table with the current input values. Other input contacts can now be used to examine the new values.)

IIT

Ladder Logic Outputs
When power is applied (on) the output x is activated for the left output, but turned off for the output on the right. x x

An input transition on will cause the output x to go on for one scan (this is also known as a one shot relay) x OSR

When the L coil is energized, x will be toggled on, it will stay on until the U coil is energized. This is like a flip-flop and stays set even when the PLC is turned of f. x x L U Some PLCs will allow immediate outputs that do not wait for the program scan to end before setting an output. (Note: This instruction will only update the outputs using the output table, other instruction must change the individual outputs.) IOT x

Note: Outputs are also commonly shown using parentheses ’-( )-’ instead of the circle. This is because many of the programming systems are text based and circles cannot be drawn.

Sample Problem: Try to develop (without looking at the solution) a relay based controller that will allow three switches in a room to control a single light.