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Voltage Transformer

Prof. Dr. Muhammad Amin

Components of Protection Scheme

Circuit Breaker

System Protection Components

System Protection Flow

voltage or current rise from normal condition
voltage/current is reduced to match with relay rating
activate circuit breaker
circuit isolation

Fault Transducer Relay
Transducer Relay



VT and CT Schematic

Two types of voltage transformer are used for protective-relaying
purposes, as follows:
(1) the "instrument potential transformer," hereafter to be called
simply "potential transformer," and

(2) the "capacitance potential device." A potential transformer is a

conventional transformer having primary and secondary windings.
The primary winding is connected directly to the power circuit
either between two phases or between one phase and ground,
depending on the rating of the transformer and on the
requirements of the application. A capacitance potential device is
a voltage-transforming equipment using a capacitance voltage
divider connected between phase and ground of a power circuit.

The ratio and phase-angle inaccuracies of any standard ASA accuracy class1 of potential
transformer are so small that they may be neglected for protective-relaying purposes if
the burden is within the "thermal" volt-ampere rating of the transformer. This thermal
volt-ampere rating corresponds to the full-load rating of a power transformer. It is higher
than the volt-ampere rating used to classify potential transformers as to accuracy for
metering purposes. Based on the thermal volt-ampere rating, the equivalent-circuit
impedances of potential transformers are comparable to those of distribution
The "burden" is the total external volt-ampere load on the secondary at rated
secondary voltage. Where several loads are connected in parallel, it is usually
sufficiently accurate to add their individual volt-amperes arithmetically to determine
the total volt-ampere burden. If a potential transformer has acceptable accuracy at its
rated voltage, it is suitable over the range from zero to 110% of rated less voltage.
Operation in excess of 10% overvoltage may cause increased errors and excessive
heating. Where precise accuracy data are required, they can be obtained from ratiocorrection factor curves and phase-angle-correction curves supplied by the


What is Ferroresonance?

Ferroresonance is a general term applied to a wide variety of

interactions between capacitors and iron-core inductors that result in
unusual voltages and/or currents. In linear circuits, resonance
occurs when the capacitive reactance equals the inductive
reactance at the frequency at which the circuit is driven. Iron-core
inductors have a nonlinear characteristic and have a range of
inductance values. Therefore, there might not be a case where the
inductive reactance is equal to the capacitive reactance, but yet very
high and damaging overvoltages occur. Because the phenomenon
is nonlinear, it is difficult to visualize all the possible behaviours. The
usual way of explaining ferroresonance is to consider the graphical
steady-state solution to the simple series L-C circuit shown in the
figure. This approximates the conditions in the power system that
most frequently lead to ferroresonance. Keep in mind, however, that
this simple example describes the steady-state solution. In reality,
transient events might dominate and this graphical solution is
inadequate to describe all that goes on.

Simple L-C circuit for explaining


If L is linear, the graphical steadystate solution to this circuit is

shown in the figure. The
intersection of the inductive
reactance, X, line with the
capacitive reactance, X, line yields
the current in the circuit and the
voltage across the inductor. These
two lines represent the solution to
the equation :
VL = (jL)I =(jXL)I = V - (-jXC)I
At resonance, these two lines
become parallel, yielding solutions
of infinite voltage and current.

Of course, this assumes

lossless elements. Losses in
the circuit can be
represented graphically by
converting the capacitance
line into an ellipse.

Consider the case of the nonlinear, saturable inductor. The graphical solution is
shown in the figure. It is apparent that there can be as many as three intersections of
the capacitor line with the inductor curve. Intersection 2 is an unstable operating
point, and the solution will not remain there in the steady state. However, it might
pass through this point during a transient. Intersections 1 and 3 are stable and will
exist in the steady state. Clearly, if the intersection 3 solution occurs, there will be
both high voltages and high currents. For small capacitances, the XC line is very
steep, usually resulting in only one intersection in the third quadrant. The capacitive
reactance is larger than the inductive reactance, resulting in a leading current and
higher than normal voltages across the capacitor. The voltage across the capacitor is
the length of the line from the system voltage intersection to the intersection with the
inductor curve. As the capacitance increases, multiple intersections can develop as
shown. The natural tendency then is to achieve a solution at intersection 1, which is
an inductive solution with lagging current and little voltage across the capacitor. Note
that the voltage across the capacitor will be the line-to-ground voltage on the cable in
the typical ferroresonance case. For a slight increase in the voltage, the capacitor
line would shift upward, eliminating the solution at intersection 1. The solution would
then try to jump to the third quadrant. Of course, the resulting current might be so
great that the voltage then drops again and we get the solution point jumping
between 1 and 3. Indeed, phenomena like this are observed during instances of
ferroresonance. The voltage and current appear to vary randomly and unpredictably.
In the usual power system case, ferroresonance occurs when a transformer
becomes isolated on a cable section in such a manner that the cable capacitance
appears to be in series with the magnetizing characteristic of the transformer. For
short lengths of cable, the capacitance is very small and there is one solution in the
third quadrant at relatively low voltage levels. As the capacitance increases the
solution point creeps up the saturation curve in the third quadrant until the voltage
across the capacitor is well above normal. These operating points can be relatively
stable, depending on the nature of the transient events that precipitated the

Graphical solution for the nonlinear inductor case