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PT

CT

Relay

Circuit Breaker

Fuse

voltage or current rise from normal condition

voltage/current is reduced to match with relay rating

activate circuit breaker

circuit isolation

Fault

Fault Transducer Relay

Transducer Relay

Occur

Occur

Circuit

Circuit

Breaker

Breaker

Fault

Fault

Clear

Clear

VT and CT Schematic

VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS

Two types of voltage transformer are used for protective-relaying

purposes, as follows:

(1) the "instrument potential transformer," hereafter to be called

simply "potential transformer," and

conventional transformer having primary and secondary windings.

The primary winding is connected directly to the power circuit

either between two phases or between one phase and ground,

depending on the rating of the transformer and on the

requirements of the application. A capacitance potential device is

a voltage-transforming equipment using a capacitance voltage

divider connected between phase and ground of a power circuit.

ACCURACY OF

POTENTIALTRANSFORMERS

The ratio and phase-angle inaccuracies of any standard ASA accuracy class1 of potential

transformer are so small that they may be neglected for protective-relaying purposes if

the burden is within the "thermal" volt-ampere rating of the transformer. This thermal

volt-ampere rating corresponds to the full-load rating of a power transformer. It is higher

than the volt-ampere rating used to classify potential transformers as to accuracy for

metering purposes. Based on the thermal volt-ampere rating, the equivalent-circuit

impedances of potential transformers are comparable to those of distribution

transformers.

The "burden" is the total external volt-ampere load on the secondary at rated

secondary voltage. Where several loads are connected in parallel, it is usually

sufficiently accurate to add their individual volt-amperes arithmetically to determine

the total volt-ampere burden. If a potential transformer has acceptable accuracy at its

rated voltage, it is suitable over the range from zero to 110% of rated less voltage.

Operation in excess of 10% overvoltage may cause increased errors and excessive

heating. Where precise accuracy data are required, they can be obtained from ratiocorrection factor curves and phase-angle-correction curves supplied by the

manufacturer.

CAPACITANCE POTENTIAL

DEVICES

What is Ferroresonance?

interactions between capacitors and iron-core inductors that result in

unusual voltages and/or currents. In linear circuits, resonance

occurs when the capacitive reactance equals the inductive

reactance at the frequency at which the circuit is driven. Iron-core

inductors have a nonlinear characteristic and have a range of

inductance values. Therefore, there might not be a case where the

inductive reactance is equal to the capacitive reactance, but yet very

high and damaging overvoltages occur. Because the phenomenon

is nonlinear, it is difficult to visualize all the possible behaviours. The

usual way of explaining ferroresonance is to consider the graphical

steady-state solution to the simple series L-C circuit shown in the

figure. This approximates the conditions in the power system that

most frequently lead to ferroresonance. Keep in mind, however, that

this simple example describes the steady-state solution. In reality,

transient events might dominate and this graphical solution is

inadequate to describe all that goes on.

ferroresonance

shown in the figure. The

intersection of the inductive

reactance, X, line with the

capacitive reactance, X, line yields

the current in the circuit and the

voltage across the inductor. These

two lines represent the solution to

the equation :

VL = (jL)I =(jXL)I = V - (-jXC)I

At resonance, these two lines

become parallel, yielding solutions

of infinite voltage and current.

lossless elements. Losses in

the circuit can be

represented graphically by

converting the capacitance

line into an ellipse.

Consider the case of the nonlinear, saturable inductor. The graphical solution is

shown in the figure. It is apparent that there can be as many as three intersections of

the capacitor line with the inductor curve. Intersection 2 is an unstable operating

point, and the solution will not remain there in the steady state. However, it might

pass through this point during a transient. Intersections 1 and 3 are stable and will

exist in the steady state. Clearly, if the intersection 3 solution occurs, there will be

both high voltages and high currents. For small capacitances, the XC line is very

steep, usually resulting in only one intersection in the third quadrant. The capacitive

reactance is larger than the inductive reactance, resulting in a leading current and

higher than normal voltages across the capacitor. The voltage across the capacitor is

the length of the line from the system voltage intersection to the intersection with the

inductor curve. As the capacitance increases, multiple intersections can develop as

shown. The natural tendency then is to achieve a solution at intersection 1, which is

an inductive solution with lagging current and little voltage across the capacitor. Note

that the voltage across the capacitor will be the line-to-ground voltage on the cable in

the typical ferroresonance case. For a slight increase in the voltage, the capacitor

line would shift upward, eliminating the solution at intersection 1. The solution would

then try to jump to the third quadrant. Of course, the resulting current might be so

great that the voltage then drops again and we get the solution point jumping

between 1 and 3. Indeed, phenomena like this are observed during instances of

ferroresonance. The voltage and current appear to vary randomly and unpredictably.

In the usual power system case, ferroresonance occurs when a transformer

becomes isolated on a cable section in such a manner that the cable capacitance

appears to be in series with the magnetizing characteristic of the transformer. For

short lengths of cable, the capacitance is very small and there is one solution in the

third quadrant at relatively low voltage levels. As the capacitance increases the

solution point creeps up the saturation curve in the third quadrant until the voltage

across the capacitor is well above normal. These operating points can be relatively

stable, depending on the nature of the transient events that precipitated the

ferroresonance.

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