CSS: Separating Design and Content

Kevin Campbell Duke University/Grouchyboy.com

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You know HTML You do not know CSS You care about aesthetics and function You have 50 minutes to kill

What We’ll Do
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What is CSS? View some code and talk basics Why use CSS?
 Advantages

to Workflow  Cost Savings
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Implementations Resources

What are Cascading Style Sheets?
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Created by Hakon Wium Lie of MIT in 1994 Has become the W3C standard for controlling visual presentation of web pages Separates design elements from structural logic You get control and maintain the integrity of your data

Let’s See Some Code
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Sample Style sheet Rule Structure


Element Selectors – (refer to HTML tags)
H1 {color: purple;} H1, H2, P {color: purple;}

Contextual – (refer to HTML, but in context)
LI B {color: purple;}


Class Selectors
<H1 CLASS=“warning”>Danger!</H1> <P CLASS=“warning”>Be careful…</P> ……. In your HTML code H1.warning {color: red;} OR to an entire class… .warning {color:red;}

Applying CSS to HTML

Style rules can be applied in 3 ways:

Inline Styles: sheets: Embedded style sheets: External style <H1 STYLE=“color: blue; font-size: 20pt;”>A large purple <HTML><HEAD><TITLE>Stylin’!</TITLE> <HEAD> Heading</H1> <STYLE TYPE=“text/css”> <LINK REL=stylesheet” TYPE=“text/css” H1 {color: purple;} HREF=“styles/mystyles.css”> For individual elementscolor: gray;} P {font-size: 10pt; using the STYLE attribute </HEAD> </STYLE> </HEAD> “separation” of style and content. This is true … Keeping all your styles in an external document is </HTML> simpler

Why CSS?
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Advantages to Workflow Cost Savings You WILL Be Cooler

Advantages of CSS

 Faster

downloads  Streamlined site maintenance  Global control of design attributes  Precise control (Advanced)
Positioning  Fluid layouts

Advantages of CSS - Cost Savings

Cost Savings
 Reduced

Bandwidth Costs

One style sheet called and cached

 Higher

Search Engine Rankings

Cleaner code is easier for search engines to index  Greater density of indexable content

Advantages of CSS - Cost Savings

Faster download = better usability

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Web usability redesign can increase the sales/conversion rate by 100% (source: Jakob Nielson) CSS requires less code Tables require spacer images Entire table has to render before content CSS can control the order that elements download (content before images)

Advantages of CSS - Cost Savings

Increased Reach

website is compatible w/ many different devices  In 2008 an est. 58 Million PDA’s will be sold (Source: eTForecast.com)  1/3 of the world’s population will own a wireless device by 2010

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Apply to HTML pages Apply to dynamic data
 Format

or style XML

Use for layout (this is cool)
 See


CSS isn’t perfect (yet)

CSS support in browsers is still uneven Make sure your CSS properties are supported


 This

is CSS at its finest Official CSS Site firm, very professional

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 Australian

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I learned CSS and Web Design

Come and see me at 3:30pm!

“Making Your Web Site More Appealing”