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You are on page 1of 20

have any questions

You should know how to translate all of

these fairly simple sentences into their

logical components (be able to go from

English to logic symbolization)

Translate the Following

Boston.

If she went to Boston, then she campaigned

there.

If she campaigned there, she met Douglas.

Anderson did not meet Douglas.

Either Anderson was nominated or someone

more eligible was selected.

Therefore someone more eligible was selected.

1. Translate

A B

B C

C D

~D

AvE

Therefore E

2. Establish Validity

we want to prove it

We could use truth tables, but this would require

us to make a table with 32 rows since there are 5

different simple statements involved

So now what?

using already-known, elementary valid arguments

(there are a total of 9) in this example:

If p then q

And if q then r

Therefore: if p then r

If p then q

~q

Therefore ~p

pvq

~p

Therefore q

Validity Established

valid, we see that the conclusion can be

deduced from the five premises of the

original argument by four elementary valid

arguments (2 H.S. + 1 M.T. + 1 D.S.)

This proves that our original argument is

valid

that we deduce from them in a single

column to the right of this column, for

each statement, its justification is written

(basically the reason why we include that

statement in the proof)

2. List all the premises first, then the logic

(e.g. inference rules) used to get at the

conclusion (which will be listed last)

2.

3.

4.

5.

7.

8.

9.

6.

A B

B C

C D

~D

AvE

A C

A D

~A

E

1.

1,2 H.S.

6,3 H.S.

7,4 M.T.

5,8 D.S.

statement (the right most

column) consists of the

numbers of the preceding

statements from which that

line is inferred, together with

the abbreviation for the rule of

inference used to get it

Definitions

of statements, each of which is either a premise of that

argument or follows from preceding statements of the

sequence by an elementary valid argument (i.e. our inference

rules), such that the last statement in the sequence is the

conclusion of the argument whose validity is being proved

An elementary valid argument is any argument that is a

substitution instance of an elementary valid argument form

(e.g. our inference rules)

statements, so take our word for it that they are valid

(A B) [C (D v E)]

AB

Therefore C (D v E)

substitution instance of the elementary valid argument form modus

ponens (M.P.), another one of our inference rules. See if you can see

it:

If p then q

And p

Therefore q

Modus Ponens (M.P.)

1.

If p then q

p

Therefore q

2.

If p then q

~q

Therefore ~p

3. Hypothetical Syllogism (H.S.)

If p then q

And if q then r

Therefore: if p then r

4. Disjunctive Syllogism (D.S.)

pvq

~p

Therefore q

(p q) (r s)

pvr

Therefore: (q v s)

6. Absorption (Abs.)

p q

Therefore: p (p q)

7. Simplification (Simp.)

pq

Therefore: p

8. Conjunction (Conj.)

p

q

Therefore: (p q)

9. Addition (Add.)

p

Therefore: (p v q)

elementary argument forms whose validity is

easily established by truth tables. With their air,

formal proofs of validity can be constructed for a

wide range of more complicated arguments.

Example:

Prove the following given the premises

(using inference rules)

W X

2. (W Y) (Z v X)

3. (W X) Y

4. ~Z

Therefore X

1.

Solution:

(Strategy Hint: see what you can create from the premises using the

inference rules we know.

Keep in mind what youre looking for: this will keep you on track)

3.

8.

1 Abs.

5,3 H.S.

2,6 M.P.

7,4 D.S.

Therefore: W

7.

W (W X)

(W X) Y

6.

5.

at line 5 then 3: it follows

the H.S. pattern:

4.

our absorption rule

2.

W X

(W Y) (Z v X)

(W X) Y

~Z

W (W X)

W Y

ZvX

X

1.

M.P. form from lines 2

and 6

Line 8: use D.S. from

Example 2

I J

2. J K

3. L M

4. I v L

Therefore: K v M

1.

Solution

3.

4.

7.

6.

5.

2.

I J

J K

L M

IvL

I K

(I K) (L

KvM

1.

M)

1,2 H.S.

5,3 Conj.

6,4 C.D.

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