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Homosexuality: Environmental or Biological

Maria Crestina M. Ang


Kristine Joyce H. Balantac
Melbi N. Dabon
James C. Lajo

Reasons of the study


This research or study focuses on what is
really the reason behind of a person being an
homosexual. This study also concern about the
effects and causes of homosexuality in oneself
and to the society, this research is also includes
on how does the society accepts the
homosexuals. This research answers the
questions of the reasons of the existence of
homosexuality in the evolution of man. This also
can help to avoid prejudice and discrimination
for the group of gays and lesbians.

Statement of the Problem (SOP)


(1) what is homosexuality?
(2) History of homosexuality
(3) what are the causes/factors influencing
homosexuality
(3.1) biological?
(3.2) environmental?
(4) what effects does homosexuality bring
to the evolution of humans sexuality?
(5) how does societys approach towards
such, affect them as an individual being?

What is homosexuality?
Lawrence J. Hatter, author of Changing
Homosexuality in the Male, has given this
definition: "One who is motivated, in adult
life, by a definite preferential erotic
attraction to members of the same sex and
who usually, but not necessarily, engages in
overt sexual relations with them."

Homosexuality is a term applied to sexual


relationships between two members of the
same sex. Two major psychological
orientations bear on this kind of behavior.
First is the assumption that homosexuality
grows out normal adolescence sex drives
that originally are directed toward
members of the same sex. Second is the
long-term explanation, in which the seeds
of homosexuality are sown long before
adolescence. This theory searches for
causes in early childhood and family
experiences that begin to show up in
puberty (McMahon, 1982).

History of homosexuality
Many historical figures, including Socrates, Lord
Byron, Edward II and Hadrian have had terms such as
gay or bisexual applied to them, some scholars such as
Michel Faucault have regarded this as risking the
anachronistic introduction of a contemporary social
construct of sexuality foreign to their times, though
others challenge this. A common thread of
constructionist argument is that no one in antiquity or the
middle ages experienced homosexuality as an exclusive,
permanent, or defining made of sexuality. John Bowsell
has countered argument by citing ancient Greek writings
by Plato, which describe individuals exhibiting exclusive
homosexuality.

Homosexual expression in native Africa


was also present and took variety of
forms. Anthropologists Stephen Murnay
and Will Roscoe reported that woman in
Lesotho engaged in socially sanctioned
long term erotic relationships called
motsoalle also recorded that male Azande
warriors in the Northern Congoroutinaly
took on young male lovers between the
ages of 12 and 20 who helped with
household tasks and participated in sex
with their older husband. The practice had
died out by the early 20th century.

What are the causes/factors


influencing homosexuality?

Biological causes of same sex attraction (Homosexuality)

Some scientists have search for a


direct genetic cause of same-sex
attraction a chromosome that actually
determines sexual orientation (Friedman
and Downey).

Summaries of the more significant studies/research in


these biological areas is described below:
*Twin Studies
Eight major studies more than 10,000 sets of identical twins
during the last two decades all arrive at the same
conclusion: gays were not born that way. At best
genetics is a minor factor, says Dr. Neil Whitehead, Phd
in Biochemistry and statistics.
Identical twins have the same gender or DNA and they are
nurtured in equal prenatal conditions. Therefore if
homosexuality is cause by genetics or prenatal
conditions and one twin is gay, the co-twin should also
be a gay. If both twins are not gay, then homosexuality
cannot be genes dictated. The predominant things that
create homosexuality in one identical twin and not in
have to be past-birth factors.

*Brain Studies:
In 1991, Dr. Simon Levay, a
neurobiologist at the Salk Institute in LA
Jolla, California, reported his findings from
studying the brain structures of 41
cadavers. He concluded that an area of
hypothalamus was smaller (the INA H3)
was smaller in homosexual than
heterosexual men. However this findings
do not show any direct link between
hypothalamus and sexual orientation.

*Chromosomes Studies
In 1993, Dr. Dean Hammer announced that he had
found correlation between DNA marker on the X
chromosome (region Xq 28) and sexual orientation
group of homosexuals men and their relatives over ages
18. Scientist have since questioned the validity of these
findings and what they purport to show (Scientific
American, 1994). Dr. Hammer has been change with
research is under investigation by federal government for
improperly excluding from his study men whose gentle
make up contradicted to his findings. (Scientific
American, 1995). A later study by the University of
Western Ontario found no consistent pattern of DNA
similarity on the X chromosome.

*Biological Conclusion
Some scientists have intently tried to
discover scientific proof that same sex
attraction is genetic. Some studies hint a
biological component but have not proven
the same sex attraction is simply an inborn
or biologically determined characteristics.

Environmental Factors
According to Niel E. Whitehead, PhD, the
stages of psycho-social development
toward adult heterosexuality are clearly
demarcated, known and understood by
development psychologists mandated.
Surveys of adult homosexuality hows
conspicuous deficits in cultural and
environmental rather than genetic.

Sigmund Freud's believed all human


beings were bisexual and that they
become heterosexual or homosexual as a
result of their experiences with parents
and others (Freud, 1905).

What effects does homosexuality bring


to the evolution of humans sexuality?
Homosexuality ha its effects on the society,
this is according to some writers ad
researchers.
Instability and promiscuity typically
characterize homosexual relationships.
These two factors increase the incidence
of serious and incurable stds. In addition,
some homosexual behaviors put
practitioners at higher risk for a variety of
ailments.

Risky sexual behavior on the rise among


homosexuals. Despite two decades of
intensive efforts to educate homosexuals
against the dangers of AIDS.
According to the Centers of Disease control
and Prevention (CDC), from 1994 to 1997
the proportion of homosexuals reporting
having had anal sex increased from 57.6%
to 62.2%, while the percentage of those
reporting always using condoms
declined from 69.6% to 60%.

Some advocates of same-sex


marriage scoff at the idea that it could
harm anyone. Here are ten ways in which
society could be harmed by legalizing
same-sex marriage. Most of these
effects would become evident only in the
long run, but several would occur
immediately.

Immediate effects
Taxpayers, consumers, and businesses
would be forced to subsidize homosexual
relationships.
Schools would teach that homosexual
relationships are identical to heterosexual
ones.
Freedom of conscience and religious
liberty would be threatened.

Long-term effects
Fewer people would marry.
Fewer people would remain monogamous and
sexually faithful.
Fewer people would remain married for a
lifetime.
Fewer children would be raised by a married
mother and father.
More children would grow up fatherless.
Birth rates would fall.
Demands for legalization of polygamy would
grow.

How does societys approach towards


such, affect them as an individual
Some people may accept
being?

homosexuality in the society but some are


not. There are people believes that being
gay or lesbians are a sin in the eye of God
for He only recognized men and women
according to Bible.

Conclusion
The findings of this paper are inconclusive.
We cannot determine the root cause of
homosexuality whether it is a biological or
psychological effect. It is difficult to
denounce either theory as both theories
hold undeniable relevance. We cannot
also prove whether both theories are
mutually exclusive to one another.

Bibliography

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