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BRAKE SYSTEM

PRESENTATION
Presention by:
Muhammad ashraf
AhMAD ALMADANI
NUR ATIRA
MD NASRUDDIN

PHASE IN DESIGNING A BRAKE SYSTEM

PHASE 3
DETAIL DESIGN
PHASE 2
EMBODIMENT DESIGN
PHASE 1
CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

PHASE ONE

PHASE ONE

IDENTIFY
PROBLEM

BACKGROUND OF THE
STUDY
PROBLEM STATEMENT
OBJECTIVE
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
SIGNIFICANT OF THE
PROJECT

GATHER
INFORMATION

QUESTIONNAIRE

CONCEPT
GENERATION

FUNCTIONAL DECOMPOSITION
CONCEPT SKETCHES
MORPHLOGICAL CHART

CONCEPT
EVALUATION

PUGH CONCEPT
DECISION MATRIX EVALUATION

IDENTIFY PROBLEM
(A) BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

Single Seater
Vehicle

Usually built for


racing purpose

Made up of 7 main system :


1. Chassis
2. Bodywork
3. Safety
4. Brake system
5. Suspension
6. Powertrain
7. Steering

IDENTIFY PROBLEM
(A) BACKGROUND OF THE PROJECT

Early
invention of
the brake
system

IDENTIFY PROBLEM
(B) PROBLEM STSTEMENT

Determine the most compatible type of


braking system for the single seater
vehicle.

Determine the ability and


performance of the brake system
to brake within a specified time,
speed and distance frame.

IDENTIFY PROBLEM
(C) OBJECTIVE

To determine the most compatible type of


braking system for the single seater vehicle

To determine the ability and performance of the


brake system to brake within a specified time,
speed and distance frame.

IDENTIFY PROBLEM
(D) SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
Vehicle must be equipped at least one (single) independently activated
braking system

The system must comprise of a single command control (pedal), command


transmission (cables/hoses/lines) and activators (calipers)

The installment of the single braking system must be applied on the rear
axle

The vehicle must also install a read brake light with 15 watts or more that
can be seen clearly from the rear and be mounted between the wheel
centerline and drivers shoulder level vertically and approximately on
vehicle centerline laterally

IDENTIFY PROBLEM
(E) SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROECT

Safety

Comfort

Medium

Integrate

GATHER INFORMATION
Book

Educational
Video
-YouTube

Questionnaire

Journal

Article

GATHER INFORMATION
QUESTIONS
1) Do u think the size and shape of the brake pedal
affects your overall driving experience?
2) Does placing the ergonomic brake pedal beside the
throttle pedal ensures smoothness when brake is
applied?
3) Does applying a small or necessary amount of force
on the brake pedal is the most practical way to stop
(braking) ?
4)Do u agree that the brake effectiveness is the most
important criteria in a car?
5)Would u choose a brake system that is maintenance
friendly and of less hassle to the user which bear more
cost ?
6) Does the performance of the car depend on the type
of brake used?
7) Are you willing to spend an appropriate sum amount
of money to ensure that your car is equipped with a
good braking system?
8) Is the rear brake lamp is an important aspect of any
cars braking system?
9) Does the position of the rear brake lamp affect other

SCORE
Disagr Moderat
ee
e

Agree

GATHER INFORMATION
Do you agree that the brake effectiveness is the most important criteria in a car?

16
16
14
12
10
Number of8Respondents
6
4
2
0
0
Disagree

Question 4

Moderate
Score

Agree

GATHER INFORMATION
Would you choose a brake system that is maintenance friendly and of less hassle to the user which bear more cost ?

16
16
14
12
10
Number of8 Respondents
6
1
4
2
0
Disagree

Question 5

Moderate
Score

Agree

FUNCTIONAL DECOMPOSITION

CONCEPT GENERATION

CONCEPT GENERATION

CONCEPT GENERATION

CONCEPT 1

BRAINSTORMING SKETCHES

CONCEPT 2

CONCEPT GENERATION

CONCEPT 3

CONCEPT GENERATION

CONCEPT GENERATION
MORPHOLOGICAL CHART

Function
1.Type of braking
system

CONCEPT 1
Disc Brake and Drum
Break.

2. Location of braking Rear :Drum Brake


system
Front : Disc Brake

Sub- solution
CONCEPT 2

CONCEPT 3

Drum Brake

Disc Brake.

Rear

Rear

3. Braking operation
system

Hydraulic system

Cable system

Hydraulic system

4.Cost

Most expensive

Cheap

Moderate

5. Brake system
effectiveness

Effective for high


speed.

6. Maintenance.

Moderate to high
reliability.

Effective for low to


Effective for
moderate
moderate to high.
High reliability.

Moderate to high
reliability.

CONCEPT EVALUATION

PUGH CHART

Pugh Chart Comparison Criteria and Values


Criteria

CONCEPT 1

CONCEPT 2

CONCEPT 3

User Experience

Most effective braking


system.

Does not significantly


change user experience

Effective braking system

Manufacturability

Uses a mix of numerous


and complex components

Has many or complex


components

Uses fewer components

Safety

The highest safety


performance of the brake
system.
Widely used

The least safety


performance of the brake
system.
Used preferably for rear
braking of a vehicles
system

A moderate safety
performance of the brake
system.
Used preferably for front
braking of a vehicles
system

Need/Market

Reliability

Life

Cost

Depends on the usage, as If appropriate usage, can


it is a mixture of both drum withstand wear and tear.
and disc
But doesnt perform well
under harsh braking
conditions
High to moderate lifespan High lifespan

A moderate amount of
wear & tear period, but can
withstand harsh braking
conditions

High Prototyping or
Consumer cost

Moderate Prototyping and


Consumer cost

Low Prototyping and


Consumer cost

Moderate lifespan.

CONCEPT EVALUATION
DESCRIPTION

DECISION MATRIX

CRITERIA

WEIGHT

Concept 1

Concept 2

Concept 3

DESIGN 1

DESIGN 2

DESIGN 3

User Experience

++

++

Manufacturability

Safety

++

Need/Market

++

Reliability

++

Life

Maintenance Cost

Manufacturing
Cost
+

28

28

26

NET SCORE

21

25

26

PHASE TWO

Product Architecture

Product Architecture

Brake Disc
Brake Calliper
Pedal
Master Cylinder
Switch
Wire
Brake Hose
Brake Lamp

Design For Human Factor


The brake pedal (lever) should have an
angle of 45 degrees.
When the brake pedal is pushed, it should
displace about another 15 degrees with a
total of 60 degrees overall.
To avoid an injury angle between 0 and 30
degrees.
Thus the range of angle should be
between 30 and 60 degrees

Modelling

Modelling of the brake disc and calliper

Modelling

Exploded view of the brake disc and calliper

Modelling

Exploded view of the brake disc and calliper

Dimensions

SIMULATION & ANALYSIS

Deformation

Von Mises Stress

Translational Displacement

Principal Stress

DETAIL CALCULATION
Deceleration rate:
Assuming that the vehicle is moving at 50 km/h(13.89 m/s) and it will
be eventually in stationary in 3 seconds therefore it deceleration rate
will be:
V0 = 13.89m/s
V1 = 0 m/s
t = 3s
a=
=
= -4.63 m/s
The negative shows the deceleration.

Stopping distance:
So now we are going to find the stopping distance,which could be find by using formula
which is:
ds =
ds= stopping distace(m)
v = velocity(m/s)
=Coefficient of friction
g = gravitational acceleration (m/)
by taking the coefficient of friction for dry road, =0.8
Stopping distance, ds =
=
= 12.29 m

Braking time:
To calculate braking time we will use this formula which is
Stopping time, ts =
bear in mind that the stopping distance and deceleration rate have
been calculated in the previous section,therefore:
=
= 2.65 seconds

Total braking distance:


To determine the total braking distance,we will use the formula as follows:
total braking distance = dr + db
dr here means reaction distance which the driver needs to apply the braking force,this parameter
influenced by the reaction time which can be vary with many factors such as the age of the
driver,distraction during drive,condition of the road,the tendency to become very panic and
etc,therefore we take the average value because it seems impossible to find the exact value for
the reaction time,we take the value of t reaction as 1.5 seconds, hence:
Reaction distance:
dr = (1.5 s) (13.89 m/s )
=20.835 m
While db here tell us the braking distance which could be find as follows:
Braking distance:
db = 1/2 (V0)(ts)
= 1/2(13.89 )(2.65)
=18.404 m
Hence our total braking distance will be:
total braking distance = dr + db
=20.835 m + 14.05 m
=34.885 m

Braking force:
We can find the braking force by using the formula as follows:
F=ma
F=force or in this case it should be braking force (kgm/)
M=total mass (kg)
a = acceleration (m/)
From the requirement of this project or we called it as product design specifications,we
know that mass of the vehicle is 100 kg,and the drivers mass is 70 kg.Therefore the
total mass will be:
Total mass(kg)= mass of vehicle + drivers mass
=150 kg + 53 kg
= 203 kg
Therefore:
F=ma
=(203 ) (4.63 )
=939.89 N

Disc Effective Radius,


The effective radius of a brake disc is calculated to find the centre of the
brake pads by area. After several discussion we have decided to use inside
diameter of Di = 124mm and outside diameter of D0 = 248mm. So to
calculate disc effective radius we will use formula as follows:
Disc effective radius, re
=
=
= 93mm = 0.09 m

Brake Torque:
Brake torque is the moment of braking force about the center of rotation.Which
could be calculated as follows:
T= F. re
Where:
T=Brake torque (N/m)
F=Braking force (N)
re= Disc effective radius(m)
Thus,
T= (939.89 N)( 0.093)
=87.41 N.m

Clamp Load:
Clamp load is defined as force required by the calipers to stopped the brake
disc and eventually stopped the vehicle.To determine the clamp load we will
use formula as follows:
Clamp load, C =
Disc effective radius,re = 0.093 m
Coefficient of friction for steel alloy, f = 0.4
Friction surface contact since friction act on the 2 points in our brake disc ,
n=2
Torque produce by the wheel,T = 87.41 N.m
Clamp load, C

=
= 1174.87 N

Average Stopping Table


speed
mph

kmh

average braking
distance
feet
meter

average driver perception-reaction time(1.5seconds)


feet

meter

Total Stopping
Distance
feet

meter

10

16.67

1.524

22

67.056

27

68.58

15

25.005

11

3.3528

33

100.584

44

103.9368

20

33.34

19

5.7912

44

134.112

63

139.9032

25

41.675

30

9.144

55

167.64

85

176.784

30

50.01

43

13.1064

66

201.168

109

214.2744

35

58.345

58

17.6784

77

234.696

135

252.3744

40

66.68

76

23.1648

88

268.224

164

291.3888

45

75.015

96

29.2608

99

301.752

195

331.0128

50

83.35

119

36.2712

110

335.28

229

371.5512

55

91.685

144

43.8912

121

368.808

265

412.6992

60

100.02

171

52.1208

132

402.336

303

454.4568

65 108.355

201

61.2648

143

435.864

344

497.1288

70

116.69

233

71.0184

154

469.392

387

540.4104

75 125.025

268

81.6864

165

502.92

433

584.6064

MATERIAL SELECTION

BRAKE
PADS

BRAKE DISC

CARBON

DESIGN FOR
MANUFACTURING

BRAKE PADS
BACKING PLATE
1

MAIN PROCESS
1

BRAKE DISC

DESIGN FOR ASSEMBLY

PARTS OF BRAKES

DESIGN FOR
ROBUSTNESS

BRAKE HOSE

FAILURE MODE AND


EFFECT ANALYSIS

PHASE THREE

Bill of Material
BOM for Brake Disc Assembly
Part Name

Material

Quantity

Brake Disc

Grey cast iron

Brake Disc Mount

Cast iron

Hexagonal Bolt

Stainless Steel

Hexagonal Nut

Stainless Steel

Washer

Stainless Steel

Bill of Material
BOM for Brake Caliper Assembly
Part Name

Material

Quantity

Caliper Casing

Cast aluminium

Brake Pad

Ceramic

Screw Pin

Stainless steel

Piston

Stainless Steel

Octagonal-holed bolt

Stainless Steel

Pad Support

Stainless Steel

Bill of Material
BOM for Brake Pedal Assembly
Part Name

Material

Quantity

Piston

Stainless Steel

Buffer

Stainless Steel

Connector

Stainless steel

Pedal

Stainless Steel

Reservoir

Plastic

Master Cylinder

Aluminium

Cap

Plastic

Base

Stainless Steel

Hub

Stainless Steel

COST
Item

Material

Quantity

Brake Pads

Ceramic

(1pair)

Brake Disc

Cast Iron

Price Per
Unit (RM)

Total Price
(RM)

90

90

110

110

18

Cable

Polyurethane

3 meter

Caliper Mount

Stainless Steel

46

46

Master
Cylinder

Aluminium

193

193

Caliper

Aluminium

120

120

Brake Pedal

Zinc Plated
Stainless Steel

17

17

Brake Lamp

29

29

Total Cost

623

THANK YOU