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CARDIAC CYCLE

Dr. indrajeet
Dept. of prosthodontics

DEFINITION
The cardiac events that occur from
beginning of one heartbeat to
beginning of the next are called
cardiac cycle.
Each cycle is initiated by spontaneous
generation of an action potential in
sinus node .

the
the
the

the

The heart is endowed with a special


system for

(1) generating rhythmical electrical


impulses to cause rhythmical contraction
of the heart muscle
(2) conducting these impulses rapidly
through the heart.

the impulse from the atria is


delayed before passing into the
ventricles;
conduct the impulse from the sinus
node to the atrioventricular

the normal rhythmical impulse is


generated

AV NODE

INTERNODAL
PATHWAYS

SA NODE

conduct the cardiac impulse


to all parts of the ventricles

Conducts the impulse from


the atria into the ventricles

PURKINJE
FIBRES

AV
BUNDLE

Division of cardiac cycle


Cardiac
cycle
systole

diastole

Normal heart rate 72/minute

Duration of cardiac cycle -.8 sec

Duration of systole - .27 sec

Duration of diastole - .53 sec

Isometric
contraction

Ejection
period

Atrial systole

protodiastol
e

Slow filling

Rapid filling

Isometric
relaxation

ATRIAL SYSTOLE(LAST RAPID


FILLING STAGE)

Duration .11 sec


Last phase of ventricular diastole
10 % of blood is forced into ventricles

Semilunar
valves closed

AV valves
opened

ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION
PERIOD
Duration 0.05 sec
Immediately after atrial systole
A-v valves closed due to increased
ventricular pressure
Semilunar valves already closed
Contraction of ventricles without change in
volume and length of muscle fibres

Semilunar
valves closed
AV valves
closed

EJECTION PERIOD
Duration is.22 sec
Opening of semilunar valves
Ejection of blood from the ventricles
Divided into rapid ejection(0.13sec) & slow
ejection(0.09sec)

Semilunar
valves opened

AV valves
closed

PROTODIASTOLE
Duration .04 sec
First stage of diastole
Pressure in aorta & pulmonary artery
increases & in ventricles drops
Semilunar valves close

ISOMETRIC RELAXATION
PERIOD
Duration - .08 sec
All the valves are closed
Ventricles relax as closed cavities
Intraventricular pressure falls
AV valves open

Semilunar
valves closed

AV valves
closed

Diastole: Period of isovolumic relaxation. Blood flowing back


toward the relaxed ventricles causes the semilunar valves to close,
which is the beginning of ventricular diastole. Note that the AV valves
closed, also.

RAPID FILLING
Duration .11 sec
Blood collected in the atrium rapidly
rushes into the ventricles
About 70 % of filling takes place

SLOW FILLING
Duration .19 sec
Ventricular filling becomes slow
This slow filling is also called as diastasis
About 20 % of filling occurs in this phase

Semilunar
valves closed

AV valves
opened

INTRA ATRIAL PRESSURE CHANGES


DURING CARDIAC CYCLE
Important for opening of AV valves &
ventricular filling
Left atrium 7-8 mm hg
Right atrium 5-6 mm hg
max
0-2 mm hg - minimum

Intra Atrial pressure curve

It has three positive waves a,c,v

Three negative waves x,x1 ,y

a wave

It is the first positive wave and occurs


during atrial systole

Pressure increases to 5 mm Hg in right


atrium & 7 mm Hg in left atrium

x wave

First negative wave & appears during the


onset of atrial diastole

Pressure falls because of the relaxation of


atria
AV valves close at the end of this wave

c wave
Appears during isometric contraction
Rise in pressures is due to AV valve
closure
Bulging of AV valves into atria

x1 wave
Appears during ejection period
The contraction of the ventricular
musculature pulls the atrio ventricular ring
towards the ventricles.

v wave

Obtained during atrial diastole

Gradual increase in pressure due to filling


of the atria

y wave
Apperas after opening of the AV valves
Blood rushes to the ventricles
Pressure in atria falls

Intraventricular pressure
changes
Maintenance of blood flow into systemic &
pulmonary circulation depends upon the
pressure at which the blood is pumped out
of the ventricles.
Right ventricle min 2-3 mm Hg
max 25 mm Hg
Left ventricle - min 5 mm Hg
max- 120 mm Hg

Intra ventricular pressure curve


A-B segment
B-C segment
C-D segment
D-E segment
E-F segment
F-G segment
G-A segment

Aortic pressure changes

The aortic pressure is responsible to


maintain the blood flow through the
circulating system.

PRESSURE

SYSTEMIC AORTA

PULMONARY ARTERY

MAX PRESSURE

120 mm Hg

25 mm Hg

MIN PRESSURE

80 mm Hg

7-8 mm Hg

Volume of blood in right & left


ventricles

Maximum volume of blood in each


ventricle after filling is 150 ml .(End
diastolic volume)

Minimum volume of blood after ejection


period is about 70 ml . (End systolic
volume)

References
Review of medical physiology W.F
Ganong 22nd edition
Text book of medical physiology guyton
& hall 12th edition
Essentials of medical physiology 2 nd
edition Sembulingam