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Joining Processes
Part 1
Adhesives

Joining Processes, Design &


Economics
Joining is the preferred method of producing the
desired shape when:
1. Product cannot be made as a single piece
2. Product is more economical as an assembly
(use components for special purposes in
design)
3. Products must be disassembled
4. Products are easier to transport disassembled

Joining Processes
The main design advantage of joining
assemblies is that the different components can
have vastly different properties; a cooking vessel
needs to have good conduction so water can
boil, but the handle needs to be insulated.
Structures with lots of void space are easier to
assemble than make as a single component;
such as chairs, tables, and etc.
Complex structures are typically assemblies of
components cars, airplanes, computers, etc.

Joining Processes
1. Fasteners Mechanical devices which join materials by
clamping forces, pressure, or friction. They do not
involve molecular bonding between the surfaces as the
primary bonding mechanism.
2. Welding The joining of two or more pieces of material
by heat, pressure or both; with or without a filler metal to
produce a localized union through fusion or
recrystallization. The force of attraction is cohesion.
3. Adhesive Bonding The joining of two or more pieces
of material by the forces of attraction between the
adhesive and the materials being joined. This includes
processes such as brazing, soldering, gluing, and
epoxies.

Joining Processes
In many sources, adhesive bonding
processes such as brazing and soldering
are included in welding. Some processes
involve two joining processes; for example
a threaded stud is often welded to the
base material and then used as a
fastener.

Joining Processes
1. Fasteners

2. Adhesive Processes 3. Cohesive Processes

A. Non-Permanent
A. Metallic Adhesives A. Liquid Cohesion
(disassemble possible) Brazing
Arc Welding
Threaded Fasteners
Soldering
Resistance Welding
Pins
Braze Welding
Electron Beam W.
Special Purpose
B. Permanent
B. Organic Bonding
B. Solid
(no disassemble)
(gluing)
Friction Welding
Rivets
Glue
Diffusion Bonding
Shrink Fits
Epoxy
Forge Welding
Seam(cans)

Adhesive Bonding - Types


1. Organic adhesives
a. epoxies
b. glues
2. Metalic adhesives
a. brazing
b. soldering
c. braze welding

Adhesive Bonding
Strength Test generally cleavage or
peeling (exagerated peeling)
Strength of most adhesives is not high
Type of design loading for failure
prevention is generally shear

Adhesive Bonding
The general advantages of adhesives over
fusion (welding) bonding are:
Dissimilar metal/materials can be joined relatively
easy.
Joining is at lower temperatures
Easy to bond thin gage materials
Used as a sealant
Used as an insulator
Easy to apply
Cost is generally low

Adhesive Bonding
The general disadvantages of the use of
adhesives are:
Low joint strength(3-6,000 psi for most organic
adhesives and 20-60,000 psi for most metallic
adhesives)
Low peel strength
Generally restricted to room temperature applications
Generally organics are poor conductors
Curing time and temperature may be needed(lowers
production rates)

Organic Adhesive Bonding


Organic(Epoxy and Gluing) Adhesives
Types of Bonding that may occur are:
1. Secondary Bonding (electrostatic or hydrogen)
2. Mechanical Bonding (interlocking; especially in
porous materials)
3. Diffusion Bonding (across interface)
4. Chemical Reaction (primary bonding ionic or
covalent)

Organic Adhesives
Application Procedure for Organic Adhesives
1. Surface Preparation
a. Surface must be clean from dirt, oxides, and etc.
b. Surface must be reactive and not oxidized
c. A large surface area is needed as adhesive strengths are low
2. Adhesive Preparation: Adhesives have a short shelf life and must be prepared
immediately prior to use.
3. Apply Adhesives
a. Adhesives are generally applied with a brush or spray
b.Factors in adhesive application are:

Number of coats

Time between coats

Rate of spread of adhesive


4. Apply Pressure: Pressure is generally applied to help adhesive make good contact with
the surface of the adherends.
5. Cure: Primary factors in curing of the adhesive are the time and temperature. High
temperatures and long times hinder application in high production applications.

Brazing and Soldering


Two methods of adhesive bonding that are often incorrectly
classified as welding processes, since they involve metallic
bonding:
1.

Brazing:

2.

The filler metal has a liquidus above 840oF (450oC) and


below the solidus of the base metal; and the filler metal is
distributed by capillary attraction.
Filler metal contain metals such as copper, silver, and gold.

Soldering:

The filler metal has a liquidus below 840oF (450oC) and


below the solidus of the base metal; and the filler metal is
distributed by capillary attraction.
Filler metal contains metals such as lead, tin, and
cadmium.

Brazing and Soldering


Application Procedure for Metallic Adhesives using Capillary Attraction:
1. Good Fit and Proper Clearance: The joint clearance is typically 0.001 to
0.010 inches(0.025 to 0.250mm) depending upon the base metal, flux, and
filler metal.
2. Clean Surfaces: The surfaces must be clean from dirt, grease, or oxides.
3. Flux: The purposes of the flux are:
i. Decompose oxides
ii. Protect surface during heating
iii.Reduce surface tension between filler and base metal so flow is better.
4. Assemble and Support: The pieces must be supported during the heating
stage and the filler is either preplaced or applied during the heating.
5. Heat & Flow of Alloy: Must have controlled heating to melt the filler metal
and have capillary flow into the joints.
6. Cooling and Cleaning of Assembly: Must avoid residual stressed from
heating and cooling and must remove fluxes or they may cause corrosion.

Adhesive Design Considerations

Basic joint for adhesive bonding: lap joint


Basic type of loading: shear
2 types of parts generally encountered:
1. Flat parts
2. Circular parts

Adhesive Design Considerations


= P/A where
= shear stress of adhesive
A = total shear area
P = load to be supported
This can be rewritten and solved for the area by: A = P/
The expression for the length of the lap (L) for flat parts would be:
L = A/W where: W = width of the Piece. Thus: L = P/W
The length of lap for circular parts, such as pipes, would be
L = A/D

where D = outside diameter of smaller pipe. Thus L = P/ D

Adhesive Design Considerations


Factor of Safety: FS
FS = Design Load/Actual Load
FS = Actual Area Used/Area for Actual Load
FS = Material UTS/Design UTS
If one designs a part to handle a 2,000 pound load, but the actual
load expected is only 1,000 pounds, the FS is 2.
The area required to support the load is 2 square inches, but the
area used to support the load is 4 square inches, FS = 4/2 = 2
A material has a tensile strength of 40,000 psi, but the 2,000 pound
load uses an area of 0.1 square inches, the actual stress is 20,000
psi and the factor of safety is 40,000/20,000 = 2

Example Problem
Problem 15.4 A lap joint made of 2 aluminum strips, each has a tensile strength of
64,000 psi and are 2 in wide, 1/8 in thick and 15 in long. What is the lap length necessary
to cause failure in the base material, if the brazing filler metal has a strength of 12,000 psi
and the FS =2?

Step 1 Determine load the straps can support in tension. (Same load the joint will
need to support in shear). The load the straps can support is:
P = A x = (2 in x 1/8 in x 64,000) = 16,000 lb

Since FS = 2, shear load design = 32,000 lb

Shear area = A = P/ = 32,000 lb/12,000 psi (filler) = 2.667 in^2

But L = A/W

L = 2.667 in^2/2 in = 1.333 in

With length of 1.333 in, the strap would tend to fail before the joint fails, since the joint
has a safety factor of 2.0 and the strap has a safety factor of 1.0

(15-8)

Example Problem
A lap joint is made of an aluminum strip with a tensile strength of 30,000 psi
and a stainless steel strip with a tensile strength of 50,000 psi. The strips
are 2 inches wide, the aluminum strip is 0.25 inches thick and the stainless
steel is 0.20 inches thick. The brazing filler metal has a shear strength of
12,000 psi. Use a factor of safety of 2 and determine the length for the lap.
What is the load the strips can support?
P(aluminum) = * A = 30,000 psi (2 in) (0.25 in) = 15,000 lb
P(stainless steel) = 50,000 psi (2 in) ( 0.20in) = 20,000 lb
Weakest is aluminum at 15,000 lb
Design load is FS * 15,000 = 30,000 lb (joint will hold 30,000lb)
A(joint) = 30,000lb/12,000psi = 2.5 inches = LxW = 2L
L = 2.5/2 = 1.25 inches in length of lap

Note: The aluminum strip will fail first at a load of 15,000 lb

HW 13 Ch 15 Due 11/6
A lap joint is to be made connecting a 1/8 in thick strip of
stainless steel to a 1/4 in thick strip of aluminum. The
strips are 1.75 in. wide, and the epoxy used has a shear
strength of 4500 psi; the aluminum has a tensile strength
of 25,000 psi, and the stainless steel has a strength of
70,000 psi. A safety factor of 2.5 is applied.
1. Over what area should the epoxy be applied.
2. Calculate the design load.
3. Calculate the shear area.
4. What do you expect to fail? Explain your answer.