Phases, Eclipses, and Tides

Chapter 9 Section 2

The Moon’s Orbit
 The

moon revolves around Earth and rotates on its own axis  The moon revolves around Earth once every 27.3 days in an oval orbit  The moon rotates on its axis once every 27.3 days (1 moon day = 1 moon year)  The same side of the moon always faces

What Causes Phases?

the different shapes of the moon you see from Earth  Phases are caused by changes in the relative positions of the moon, Earth, and the sun The Cycle of the Phases
       

 Phases-

New moon Waxing Crescent First quarter Waxing Gibbous Full Moon Waning Gibbous Third Quarter Waning Crescent

Cyclical Phases of the Moon

Eclipses
The

moon’s orbit around Earth is slightly tilted with respect to Earth’s orbit around the sun When the moon’s shadow hits Earth or Earth’s shadow hits the moon, and eclipse occurs Eclipse- occurs when an object in space comes between the sun and a third object, and casts a shadow on that object

Total Solar Eclipses
 Solar

Partial Solar Eclipses

eclipse occurs when the moon passes between Earth and the sun, blocking the sunlight from reaching Earth  Umbra- coneshaped darkest part of the moon’s shadow  Only the Earth within the umbra experience a total solar eclipse

 Penumbra-

Solar Eclipse

largest part of the moons shadow where part of the sun is visible from Earth  Eclipse visible in the penumbra is a partial eclipse

Total Lunar Eclipses

Partial Lunar Eclipses

 Lunar

eclipse occurs at a full moon when Earth is directly between the moon and the sun  When the moon is in Earth’s umbra, you see a total lunar eclipse

A

lunar eclipse when Earth, the moon, and the sun are not quite in line cause a partial lunar eclipse  A partial lunar eclipse occurs when the moon passes partly into the umbra of Earth’s shadow

Lunar Eclipses

What Causes Tides?
 

High Tides
 The

Tides- the rise and fall of water Gravity pulls the moon and Earth (including the water on Earth’s surface) toward each other Tides occur mainly because of differences in how much the moon pulls on different parts of Earth Moon’s gravity pulls water toward the point on Earth’s surface closest to the moon

Tides

moon pulls on water at Earth’s surface more strongly than on Earth as a whole  Water facing the moon is pulled toward the moon creating high tide  The farthest point from the moon pulls less strongly on the water at Earth’s surface than on Earth as a whole; Earth is pulled toward the moon, leaving the water behind, creating another high tide

The Tide Cycle

Spring and Neap Tides
 Spring

 Low

tides occur on the sides of the Earth perpendicular to the high tides  Tides cycle every 25 hours

tide- tide with the greatest difference between low and high tide caused by the pull of gravity of both the sun and moon in the same direction  Neap tide- tide with the least difference between low and high tide caused when the sun’s pull is at right angles to the moon’s on the Earth

Local Tide Effects
Shapes

of bodies of water and depths of the ocean floor affect the flow of water Ocean tides can sometimes extend far up rivers and can flow upstream as the tide comes in and downstream as the tide goes back out Intertidal zone- strip of land that under water at high tide but becomes dry land at low tide

Review
 Why

does the moon change its phases as the month progresses? the relative positions of Earth, the sun, and the moon during a solar eclipse and during a lunar eclipse why there are two high tides and two low tides each day. are a “day” and a “year” on the moon the same length?

 Describe

 Explain

 Why

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