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Die, Inlay Wax And Investment

CONTENTS
Introduction
Die materials
What is a Die
Ideal requisites for die materials
Types of die materials
Properties of each die material
Techniques of die fabrication
Compatibility of die material with impression materials.

Inlay wax

CONTENTS

Ideal requisites of inlay wax


Composition
Classification
Properties
Fabrication of wax pattern
Distortion of wax pattern and prevention

CONTENTS
Investment materials
What is an investment
Components of an investment material

Types of investment materials

Indications of each investment materials

INTRODUCTION
Direct

restorations are usually not feasible and advisable in teeth

where more than half the tooth structure is lost.


In

such scenarios the indirect restorations come into play

They

provide the requisite resistance and retention form as well

support the remaining tooth structure.


The

indirect restorations are also indicated as treatment options

over direct restorations in conditions where the anatomical


contours and embrasures are to be modified.

INTRODUCTION
The

casting method for fabrication the indirect

restorations basically consists of:

Accurate reproduction of the prepared tooth, its


relation with adjacent teeth and supporting tissues,

Forming a wax pattern,

Surrounding it with a suitable investment material,

Heating the investment mold to remove the wax

A, Impression.
B, Cast. C, Wax pattern on die. D, The pattern is attached with
Finally
casting the molten metal into the mold.
sprue to a rubber crucible former and invested. E, Casting. F, Luted restoration.

DIE
MATERIALS

INTRODUCTION
During

fabrication of indirect restorations, accurate

reproduction of the tooth, its relation with adjacent teeth


and supporting tissues is essential.
This

is where the role of a die comes into play.

DEFINITIONS
It

is the positive reproduction of the form of the prepared

tooth in any suitable substance.

The

(GPT 7)

die is a positive reproduction of the prepared tooth

and consists of a suitable hard substance of sufficient


accuracy usually an improved stone, resin or metal.
(Rosenstiel et.al)

DEFINITIONS
A

reproduction of a prepared tooth made from a gypsum

product, epoxy resin, a metal or a refractory material.


(Anusavice 11th edition )
The

die is a model of the individual prepared tooth on

which the margins of the wax patterns are finished.


(Schillingburg)

IDEAL REQUIREMENTS OF A DIE MATERIAL


They

should accurately reproduce all the details in the

impression.
They
The

should be dimensionally stable.

die should have a smooth surface and the ability to

resist abrasion.

They should be compatible with impression materials


and there should be no interaction between the surface of
the impression and cast or die.

IDEAL REQUIREMENTS OF A DIE MATERIAL


The

die should have toughness to resist breakage during

fabrication or burnishing of fine edges.


Colour

of the die should be in contrast to the colour of

wax. This helps to facilitate the manipulative procedures


that will be carried out.
It

should be reasonably easy to use without excessive

manipulative procedures.

IDEAL REQUIREMENTS OF A DIE MATERIAL


It

should be relatively inexpensive.

Should

It

be compatible with separating agent used.

should be easily wettable by the wax.

TYPES OF DIE MATERIALS


A

wide variety of materials have been used for the

fabrication of the dies. They may be broadly classified as


follows:
GYPSUM

PRODUCTS:

Dental stone Type 4, high strength.


Dental stone Type 5, high strength high expansion.
METALS:
o Electroformed
o Sprayed

metal

o Amalgam

dies

or electroplated dies.

TYPES OF DIE MATERIALS


POLYMERS:
o Metal

filled resins or inorganic filled resins.

o Polyester
o Epoxy

resins

resins.

CEMENTS:

Silico phosphate
CERAMIC
o For

OR REFRACTORY DIE MATERIALS:

direct

fabrication

of

preparation of wax patterns.

porcelain

crowns

or

TYPES OF DIE MATERIALS

Selection of the type of die material usually depends on:


The

impression material used.

Purpose
Time

for which the cast or die is used.

factor involved.

Materials

that will be manipulated on the cast or die.

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
According

to ADA specification No. 25 the gypsum

products are classified as follows :

Type I Impression plaster

Type II Model plaster

Type III Dental stone

Type IV Dental stone, high strength

Type V Dental stone, high strength and high


expansion

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
PRODUCTION OF GYPSUM PRODUCTS :

Plaster and stone products are produced by calcining calcium


sulphate dihydrate or gypsum.

Gypsum is ground and subjected to temperatures of 110 0 to


1200c to drive off part of the water of crystallization and is
converted to calcium sulphate hemihydrate [ CaSO4.1/2 H2O ].

1100-1300c

CaSO4.2H2O
Calcium sulphate
Dihydrate

CaSO4.1/2 H2O

Calcium sulphate
hemihydrate

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
PRODUCTION OF GYPSUM PRODUCTS :

Depending on the method of calcinations, different forms of the


hemihydrate can be obtained They are :
-hemihydrate
hemihydrate
-modified hemihydrate

The

alpha modified hemihydrate is made by boiling gypsum in a

30% aqueous solution of calcium chloride & magnesium chloride

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
SETTING REACTION
(CaSO4)2 . H2O + 3 H2O

Theories

2 CaSO4 . 2 H2O + unreacted (CaSO4)2 . 1/2 H2O + heat

regarding the setting reaction

Colloidal

theory

Hydration

theory

Dissolution

Precipitation theory

Based on dissolution of plaster and instant recrystalization of


gypsum, followed by interlocking of the crystals to form the set solid

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
Manufacture of Type IV Dental Stone and Type V Dental Stone

Types

4 and 5 high-strength dental stones are manufactured

with a high-density raw material called densite.


This

variety is made by boiling gypsum rock in a 30% calcium

chloride solution, after which the chloride is washed away with


hot water (100 C) and the material is ground to the desired
fineness.
TYPE IV STONE WHIP MIX

TYPE V STONE

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
Type IV Dental Stone
These

are high strength dental stone.

W: P ratio

0.22 -0.24

Setting time

12 4 minutes

Setting expansion

0.10%

Compressive strength

5000 psi

Hardness

92 RHN

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
Type V Dental Stone :
These

are high strength, high expansion dental stones.

W: P ratio

0.18 -0.22

Setting

time

12 4 minutes

Setting

expansion

0.30%

7000 psi

Compressive

strength

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
Type V Dental Stone
The

Type V dental stone gypsum product exhibits a higher

compressive strength than does the type IV dental stone.


In

addition setting expansion has been increased from a

maximum of 0.10% to 0.30%.


This

is because certain newer alloys such as base metal alloys

have a greater casting shrinkage than noble metal alloys. Thus


higher expansion is required in the stone used for the die to aid
in compensating for the alloy solidification shrinkage.

GYPSUM PRODUCTSx
Advantages of Type IV & Type V Stones
They are relatively inexpensive
Easy to use
Compatible with all impression material.
Good surface detail reproduction (capable of reproducing a
20m-wide line as prescribed by A.D.A specification No.19).
Disadvantages of gypsum dies
Susceptibility to abrasion during carving of wax pattern.

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
Gypsum dies are sometimes modified to:
To make them more abrasion-resistant
To change the dimensions of the dies.
To increase the refractoriness of the dies.
To produce a combination of these effects.

GYPSUM PRODUCTS

Several means are used to increase the abrasion resistance

Electoplating,

Coating the surface with cyanoacrylate

Adding a die hardener to the gypsum

However each of these methods may increase the die


dimensions slightly thus reducing accuracy.

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
Die hardener
Mixing

high-strength dental stone with a commercial hardening

solution containing colloidal silica (about 30%) improves the


surface hardness of the set gypsum.
Cyanoacrylate

or acrylic resin(polystrene) can be applied to the

finish line area of a die to prevent abrasion by waxing instruments


during fabrication of the wax pattern.
The

thickness of the cyanoacrylates at the finish line can range

from 1-25m while acrylic lacquers can add 4-10m of thickness.

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
Special gypsum products ;
Since 1991, a plethora of new dental stones have been introduced
One

type is extremely fast- setting and ready to use in 5min,but

it has little working time


Another

product changes color to help denote when it is ready

for use.
Most

recently another trend is the addition of a small amount of

plastic or resin, which reduces brittleness and improves


resistance to abrasion during the carving of wax patterns.

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
DIE STONE INVESTMENT COMBINATION
A commercial gypsum- bonded material called divestment is
mixed with a colloidal silica liquid.
The die is made from this mix, and the wax pattern is than
constructed on it then the entire assembly [die and pattern] is
invested in a mixture of divestment and water thereby
eliminating the possibility of distortion of the pattern on removal
from the die or during the setting of the investment.

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
DIE STONE INVESTMENT COMBINATION
Divestment

is

gypsum-

bonded

material

it

is

not

recommended for high-fusing alloys that are used for metalceramic restorations but it is a technique of choice for use
with conventional gold alloys especially for extra coronal
preparations.
Divestment

phosphate recommended for high fusing alloys.

Type 1: For casting inlays and crowns

Type 2: For casting complete and partial denture bases

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
Die spacer :
An

agent applied to a die to provide space for the luting agent in

the finished casting


Types

of die spacers :

Resins
Model paint
Coloured nail polish

GYPSUM PRODUCTS
METHODS OF APPLICATION OF DIE SPACER
Paint

on technique

Spray
Pen
Ideal

technique

technique

die spacer thickness is 25 microns

Spacers

are applied within 0.5mm of the preparation finish line

to provide relief for the cement luting agent

ELECTROFORMED DIES

Electroplating

the dies can be used to overcome the poor

abrasion resistance of gypsum


The

electroplated dies have moderately high strength, adequate

hardness and excellent abrasion resistance.


Detail

reproduction of a line 4m or less is readily attainable on

an electroplated die when an nonaqueous elastomeric impression


material is used.

ELECTROFORMED DIES
Advantages

High strength,

Hardness

Abrasion resistance.

ELECTROFORMED DIES

The first step in the procedure is to treat the surface of the


impression material so that it conducts electricity. This process is
referred to as METALLIZING.

In this process, a thin layer of metal, such as silver is deposited


on the surface of the impression material.

Conductive silver lacquer for nonconductive


surfaces, e.g. silicone impressions, for copper
plating of working models.

ELECTROFORMED DIES
Requirements for electroplating
The

impression to be coated is made the cathode.

Anode

is the metal to be deposited either silver or copper

Anode

and cathode holder.

Electrolyte

:- the solution through which the electric current is

passed.
Ammeter

:- the current passed is of 10mA / tooth area for 12 hrs.


It should not exceed 50mA.

Plating

tank glass or hard rubber with well fitting cover to


prevent evaporation.

ELECTROFORMED DIES
Copper plating
The

surface of the impression is rendered conductive by coating

it with fine particles of copper or graphite.


The

coated impression is made the cathode (negative electrode)

of a plating bath, with an anode (positive electrode) of copper.


The

electrolyte is an acid solution of copper sulfate (about

250g/l).

ELECTROFORMED DIES
Copper plating
A

current is passed, causing slow dissolution of the anode and

movement of copper ions from anode to cathode, thus plating the


impression
Dental

stone is then cast into the plated impression.

ELECTROFORMED DIES
Silver plating
Polysulfide and silicone impression materials can be silver plated
by the same general technique except
1)

The impression is coated with silver or graphite powder.

2)

The anode is silver.

3)

The electrolyte is an alkaline solution of silver cyanide

An anode of at least twice the size of the area to be plated, should


be employed, and the electroplating is carried out approximately 10
hr, using 5 to 10 mA.

ELECTROFORMED DIES
Problems in Electroplating
Variable

degrees of distortion commonly occur and hence the

technique must be performed slowly.


The

time required to produce a cohesive film of metal(typically 8

hrs) is ample for the development of dimensional changes in the


impression.
Not

all the impression materials are suitable for plating because

of their low surface energies, silicone impression materials are


difficult to electroplate evenly.

ELECTROFORMED DIES
Problems in Electroplating
Polyether

impressions because of their hydrophilic nature imbibe

water & become distorted. Therefore they cannot be plated


accurately.
Poly

sulfide polymers can be silver plated but it is difficult to

copper plate them


Drawback

of silver plating is the use of a cyanide solution,

which requires special precautions because of its extreme


toxicity.

EPOXY RESIN DIES


Resins

are used as die materials to overcome the low strength

and abrasion resistance of die stones. Most available resin die


material is epoxy resin but polyurethane is also used.
The

fast setting epoxy hardens rapidly so that dies can be waxed

up in half an hour after injecting into the impression

The epoxy resin is in one cartridge and the catalyst is in the other. Forcing the two pastes
through the static mixing tip thoroughly mixes the epoxy material, which can be directly
injected into a rubber impression.

EPOXY RESIN DIES


They cannot be used with water containing agar and alginate
impression materials because the water retards the polymerization
of the resin and thus are limited to use with rubber impression
materials .

Working time

- 15 min

Setting

time
- 1-12 hrs
(depending on product)

Shrinkage

Compressive strength - 9500-14200psi

Hardness

0.03%-0.3%
83Rhn

EPOXY RESIN DIES


ADVANTAGES: It

can be cured at room temperature without expensive or

complicated equipment.
It

is dimensionally stable.

Its

abrasion resistance is many times greater than gypsum

products.
High

strength.

EPOXY RESIN DIES


ADVANTAGES: Suitable
Detail

for fabrication of precise dies

reproduction is better than die stone

Hence

prostheses fabricated on resin die will fit more tightly

than those made of gypsum.


Good

results are achieved with silicone and polyether

EPOXY RESIN DIES


DISADVANTAGES: It

undergoes shrinkage during polymerization. But the amount of

shrinkage is approximately equal to the expansion with gypsum.


It

is more expensive than gypsum.

Not

compatible with impression materials such as polysulfide

and hydrocolloid

POLYURETHANE DIES

These

resins compared to epoxy resins were inexpensive and

easily manipulated.
Long

and narrow tooth preparations must be reproduced with

high transverse-strength working cast materials to avoid


fracturing
The

filled polyurethane resins could be indicated for these

conditions

SILICOPHOSPHATE CEMENT DIES


This is similar to the filling and cementing material.
Advantage :
Has

greater compressive strength than die stone.

Disadvantage:
Shrinkage

on setting.

Loss of water on standing.

AMALGAM DIES
Amalgam may be packed into rigid impression materials such as
compound.
Advantage:
-Produces a hard die
-Reproduces fine details and sharp margins.
Disadvantages:
-Can only be packed into a rigid impression .
-Long time to reach a maximum hardness.

METAL SPRAYED DIES


A

bismuth-tin alloy, which melts at 138oc, can be sprayed

directly on to an impression to form a metal shell, which can


then be filled with dental stone.

Advantage
-A metal coated die can be obtained rapidly from elastomeric
impression materials.

Disadvantage
-The alloy is rather soft, care is needed to prevent abrasion of
the die.

CERAMIC DIE MATERIALS:


Two ceramic die materials are available
A

material for the production of dies on which porcelain

restorations are to be fabricated, without the use of a platinum


foil matrix. To form the dies heating to over 10000c is necessary.
A

ceramic material, supplied as a powder and liquid, and mixed

to a putty like consistency. After 1 hour the material is removed


from the impression and fired at 6000c for 8 minutes to produce a
hard strong die.

FLEXIBLE DIE MATERIAL :


Similar
Used

to silicone or polyether impression material.

to make provisional restorations or indirect composite resin

inlays .
eg; polyvinyl medium viscosity impression material
Advantages:
-More rapid setting
-ease of removal of provisional or inlay
Disadvantages:
-expensive

Philip Duke et. al in 2000 conducted a study of the physical


properties of type IV gypsum, resin containing and epoxy die
materials. The results were all gypsum products expanded where
as the epoxy resin material contracted during setting. The epoxy
resin exhibited much better detail reproduction, abrasion
resistance, transverse strength than gypsum materials. In general
the epoxy resin exhibited the best properties of the materials
studied

Philip Duke et al ;Physical properties of type IV gypsum, resin containing and epoxy die materials
JPD April 2000 vol 83, no. 4 p-466-73

Jacinthe M et al in 2000 conducted a study on the dimensional


accuracy of an epoxy resin die material using two setting
methods and concluded that retarding the setting reaction of an
epoxy resin die material improved its accuracy. Epoxy resin die
materials had a net shrinkage but the gypsum based materials
had a net expansion .

Jacinthe M et al in 2000 dimensional accuracy of an epoxy resin die material using two setting methods. JPD
March 2000 vol 83 no3 p 301-305

DIE FABRICATION
Available methods for die fabrication:
A varied number of die systems or methods of fabrication have been
proposed, which may be broadly classified as follows:
A)

Working cast with a separate die (solved cast with individual die)

B)

Working cast with removable dies.

C)

Alternate / other die systems

WORKING CAST WITH SEPARATE DIE:


Technique:
2

casts are required in this technique of die fabrication:

Working cast for full mouth.


Sectional cast for die of tooth.
These

can be obtained by separate impressions or by pouring the

same elastomeric impression material twice.


If

a double pair is utilized, the first cast is used for fabrication of

die, because it is the most accurate.

WORKING CAST WITH SEPARATE DIE:

Pouring an impression. Stone added


in the preparation area only.

Pours 1 and 2 (individual dies)


and 3 (definitivecast).

Sectioning the
individual dies

Sufficient bulk for the die


handles

The trimmed dies and definitive


cast before articulation.

WORKING CAST WITH SEPARATE DIE:


Advantages:
Primary
It

advantage of this technique is its simplicity

keeps the relationship between the abutments fixed and

removable.
The

working cast requires only limited trimming and no additional

armamentarium is required for its fabrication.


Since

the gingival tissues around the prepared teeth are left intact,

they can be used as a guide when contouring the restorations.


It

also precludes errors caused by the removable die systems due to

incomplete seating of the die.

WORKING CAST WITH SEPARATE DIE:


DISADVANTAGES:

It may be difficult to transfer complex or fragile wax patterns from


cast to die.

Seating

the pattern on the master cast may be problematic because

the second pour of many impression materials is slightly larger than


the first, therefore it may be necessary to relieve the stone slightly to
seat the pattern before occlusal evaluation.
This

technique can be used only with elastomeric impression

materials

WORKING CAST WITH A REMOVABLE DIE


In

a removable die system, the die is an integral part of the master

cast and can be lifted from the cast to facilitate access.


Precise

relocation of the die in the master cast is critical to the

success of this system is usually accomplished with brass pins or


dowels.

WORKING CAST WITH A REMOVABLE DIE


Technique
Several

methods can be employed to allow the repositioning of a die

in its working cast.


Prepour

technique: When the dowels are oriented in the impression

before it is poured.
Post

pour techniques: when they are attached to the underside of a

cast that has been poured.

WORKING CAST WITH A REMOVABLE DIE


Pre-pour technique
Advantage:

Gives more consistent accurate placement of dowel.


Disadvantages:

ItPositioning
makes pouring
more
difficult
(bubbles
maypins
occur).
dowel pins
before
cast pouring
with bobby
and sticky wax or with prefabricated wire tube aid

Sticky wax may break loose during vibration of impression.


Dowel
may settle into the stone.
Dowel pins must be carefully positioned

so that the first pour of stone

completely covers the knurled head; otherwise, the parts do not separate
cleanly.
However, the stone should not extend onto the shaft and reduce stability.

WORKING CAST WITH A REMOVABLE DIE


Post

pour technique

The

dowel will be cemented in holes drilled into flat underside of a

cast that has already been poured e.g. by Pindex system

The Pindex system consists of a special drill press and


brass dowels and plastic sleeves

WORKING CAST WITH A REMOVABLE DIE


Post

pour technique

The location of each dowel is


marked on the occlusal surface

Light indicates the location of the drill. The cast


is held firmly and the lever depressed; this
activates the drill, which penetrates into the cast

The pins are tried in and cemented in place

The assembly is coated with petrolatum


to ensure clean separation

WORKING CAST WITH A REMOVABLE DIE


Post

pour technique

The plastic sleeves are positioned.

The second pour of stone is made into the mold.


After some stone has been painted between the
pins, the first pour is placed into this mix

The assembly is placed in the special mold

Sawing the dies

WORKING CAST WITH A REMOVABLE DIE


Advantages:
Convenient to use because wax patterns or coping need not be
removed from the dies when transferred to working cast, this helps
to:
Decrease the chances of breakage during transfer of pattern.
This is also important for ceramic restorations as the unfired
material is quite fragile (up for labial porcelain margins).

WORKING CAST WITH A REMOVABLE DIE


Advantages
It

eliminates discrepancies between separate die and master cast that

may be caused by impression distortion or deformation between


pours by cast and die made from separate impressions that are not
identical.
A

removable die also eliminates discrepancies that can occur when

the die is coated with a relief agent and the working cast is not, or
when they are coated with different thickness

WORKING CAST WITH A REMOVABLE DIE


DISADVANTAGES
The

principal disadvantage of a removable die system is the risk

of an introducing an error in the pattern of the die does not reseat


accurately in the working cast.
Difficulty

may be encountered in sawing the die out of the cast

interproximal margins can be easily damaged, particularly if


clearance between proximal preparation margins and adjacent
tooth is minimal.

ALTERNATE / OTHER DIE SYSTEMS


Die lock trays
The

system involves the use of specially segmented trays.

With

a single-pour technique, the impression is formed in the usual

way.
The

Di-Lok tray is filled with stone and is inserted into the

impression while the stone is still wet.


After

the die stone has fully set, the locking and curved arms of the

tray are removed.


The

cast can then be removed by tapping the anterior pad of the tray

base.

ALTERNATE / OTHER DIE SYSTEMS


DVA Model System

Trimmed impression on
alignment fixture.

Drilling holes for dowel pins as


marked.

Marking dowel pin locations on


clear plate

Inserting dowels in the baseplate.


An adhesive is not required.

ALTERNATE / OTHER DIE SYSTEMS


DVA Model System

The impression is poured and stone


is placed around the dowel pins.

The alignment fixture is replaced


over poured impression

Finally the Set cast is removed from


the baseplate with gentle tapping.

The cast is trimmed and sectioned.

COMPATIBILITY OF DIE MATERIAL


WITH IMPRESSION MATERIALS

Dental stone

Electroplated Copper

Impression compound
Zinc oxide eugenol
Agar-agar
Alginate
Impression plaster when used with separator
Rubber base material
Rubber base material

Electroplated silver

Polysulphide
Polyether
Addition silicone

Epoxy Resin

Polyether, Addition silicone

Conclusion
A good

impression and an accurate die are the first step towards the

fabrication of an accurate restoration whether its inlay, onlay or


crown.
Proper

selection of the die material and its manipulation are

paramount to achieve accuracy in the die.


In

conclusion, a wise choice of material, combined with proper

handling and meticulous approach to the details of each step of


fabrication will bring us that much closer to perfection .

INLAY CASTING WAX

Inlay

wax is a specialized dental wax that can be applied to dies

to form direct or indirect patterns for the lost wax technique


used for casting metal or hot pressing of ceramics.

Generally

produced in deep blue, green or purple color.

COMPOSITION OF INLAY WAX


Paraffin-60%
Carnauba-25%
Beeswax-5%
Ceresin-10%
Natural resins(gum dammer)-less than 1%
Organic fillers- added to avoid excessive shrinkage,expansion due
to temp change
Microcrystalline wax- In minute amount.
Candelilla
Coloring agents

COMPOSITION OF INLAY WAX


Paraffin wax(mineral wax) 60%

Generally
Melting
Likely
Does

the main ingredient of inlay waxes.

range 40-71o C.

to flake when trimmed.

not present smooth, glossy surface

Consequently

other waxes and natural resins are added.

COMPOSITION OF INLAY WAX


Carnauba wax (plant wax) 25%
It

is quite hard, melting range 84-910C

Combined

with paraffin toDecrease flow at mouth temp


increase the hardness

It

contributes to glossiness of the wax surface.

COMPOSITION OF INLAY WAX


Beeswax (insect wax) 5%
Melting
Brittle
Used

range 63-700C

at room temp, becomes plastic at body temp

to modify the properties of paraffin wax

COMPOSITION OF INLAY WAX


Natural resin (gum dammar)
Less

than 1%

Added
It

to paraffin to improve its smoothness in molding

renders it more resistant to cracking and flaking

Increases

the toughness of the wax and enhances the smoothness and

lusture of the wax.

COMPOSITION OF INLAY WAX


Organic Fillers

Normally
High

soft wax shrinks more than hard wax

shrinking wax may cause significant pattern distortion

when it solidifies.
For

this reason organic filler is added , they should be

completely miscible with components of inlay wax.


They

should not leave an undesirable residue after burnout.

COMPOSITION OF INLAY WAX


Microcrystalline waxes(mineral)
Similar

to paraffin waxes.

It

has a higher melting range 60-910C

It

is tougher and more flexible than paraffin

It

has less volumetric shrinkage during solidification than paraffin.

COMPOSITION OF INLAY WAX


Candelilla wax (plant wax)
Same

qualities as carnauba wax

Added

to paraffin to partially or entirely replace carnauba

wax.
Its

melting point is lower, and it is not as hard as carnauba

wax.

CLASSIFICATION OF INLAY WAXES


According to ADA SPECIFICATION 4

TYPE

1 -medium wax used for direct wax pattern

TYPE

2 - soft wax used for indirect wax pattern

DENTARUM (Germany)
Crown and Bridge Inlay Wax

In ropes

In bulk

Dark blue-hard, for crowns bridges and inlays.


Light blue-soft, for crowns bridges and inlays
Lilac-stress free, for copings and cervical margins
Red- adhesive, connecting and adhesive wax

Wax Preforms are available (ceratom wax preforms, Dentaurum)

It simplifies wax up and shorten finishing procedure.

DESIRABLE PROPERTIES OF INLAY CASTING WAX

1.) When softened the wax should be uniform.


2) The color should be such that it contrasts with the die material or
prepared tooth.
3) There should be no flakiness or similar surface roughening when the
wax is bent and molded after softening

DESIRABLE PROPERTIES OF INLAY CASTING WAX

4) During carving wax should not pull away with carving instrument or
should not chip as it is carved.
5) Wax should burn out , forming carbon which is later eliminated by
oxidation to volatile gases.
6) The wax pattern should be completely rigid and dimensionally stable
at all times until it is eliminated .

PROPERTIES OF INLAY CASTING WAXES


FLOW
Type of wax T=300C T=370C T=400C T=400C T=450 T=450C
(max) (max)
(min) (max) (min)
(max)
I

---

1.0

---

20

70

90

II

1.0

---

50

---

70

90

The

maximum flow permitted for Type I waxes at 37oC (98oF) is 1%.

Type

I and Type II waxes must have a minimal flow of 70% and a

maximum flow of 90% at 45oC (113oF).

PROPERTIES OF INLAY CASTING WAXES


THERMAL PROPERTIES
Thermal

conductivity of waxes is low and time is required to

both heat them uniformly and to cool them to body or room


temperature.
Inlay

wax thermally expand and contract more per degree of

temp change than any other dental material.


This

is one of the inherent disadvantages of waxes when they

are used in the direct technique.


A

maximum of 0.6% linear change in dimension when heated

from 25-37oC (77-99oF) is permitted for Type I wax.

MANIPULATION OF INLAY WAX


Armamentarium for manipulation of inlay wax

Top to bottom: PKT Nos. 1 to 5.

Electric waxing instruments.

MANIPULATION OF INLAY WAX


Armamentarium for manipulation of inlay wax
B

A
A. Top to bottom, No. 2 Ward and Nos. 1/2
and 3 Hollenback.
.

DPT6 Darby Perry trimmer (wax burnisher).

B. Left to right, closer view of these three


instruments.

Always heat the shank of the


instrument so that wax flows off its tip.

Wax pattern fabrication

Direct

wax pattern technique

Indirect

wax pattern technique

Wax pattern fabrication


Direct

wax pattern technique

-with matrix band adaptation [closed technique]


introduced by Volland

-without matrix band adaptation [open technique]


introduced by Sturrock
-with copper band adaptation.

Wax pattern fabrication

Indication

In easy accessible areas.

When cavity is small with minimal proximal extension.

When cavity walls are flat and line angles are definite.

Direct wax pattern technique


Advantages
The

pattern is carved on tooth and not on model.

Little

laboratory work compared to indirect technique.

Time

saving.

Direct wax pattern technique


Disadvantages
Great

skill and patience is required to carve pattern in mouth

When

it is carved in indirect vision it is difficult and fatigue

Discrepancies

of the pattern at the gingival margin are difficult to

detect until the pattern has been carved and withdrawn


If

the casting fails, the patient has to be recalled

Direct wax pattern technique


With Matrix Band Adaptation [Closed Technique]

Isolate the tooth using cotton rolls.

Apply matrix band and retainer.

Coat

the internal surface of band using separating media like vaseline.

Soften

the inlay wax by heating and moving it over a alcohol flame.

Compress

the softened inlay wax into the prepared tooth for few

minutes with finger pressure. This technique is called compression


technique.

Direct wax pattern technique


With Matrix Band Adaptation [Closed Technique]
Remove

excess of wax and do the carving. With a hot egg burnisher,

contour the occlusal portion of the wax pattern.


Now

remove the matrix band and retainer carefully without disturbing

the wax pattern.


Ask

the patient to bite in centric occlusion for a few seconds after

placing a thin layer of cotton soaked in warm water.


Examine
Do

the occlusal surface for high points and remove them.

the occlusal carving.

Direct wax pattern technique


With Matrix Band Adaptation [Closed Technique]
Pass

a floss through the contact area while holding the pattern in

place.
Smoothen

the proximal surface of the pattern with fine soft silk.

Evaluate

and correct all the margins of the pattern.

Burnish

and remove any excess wax over the axial margins with a

warm hollenback waxing instrument.


Finally,

examine the pattern. There should be a slight excess of wax

over the gingival margin.

Direct wax pattern technique


With Matrix Band Adaptation [Closed Technique]
Once

the satisfactory wax pattern is formed, attach the sprue former

and reservoir to the thickest point of the wax pattern


Remove

the wax pattern from the preparation and examine it for

marginal integrity.

Direct wax pattern technique


Without use of Matrix Band Adaptation [OPEN TECHNIQUE]
Here

the technique is same except that matrix band is not used during

fabrication of wax pattern.

In this, after the carving of occlusal portion is done, use dental floss
to remove extra wax from the proximal portion and to produce proper
contact and contour..

INDIRECT WAX PATERN


INDICATIONS
Large

preparations like onlays, full coverage crowns and MOD

restoration.
Insufficient
When

access and visibility.

minute details like skirts and collars are present

INDIRECT WAX PATERN


ADVANTAGES
Easily
Less

made in inaccessible areas

chair side time

Direct

vision is used in pattern fabrication

Made

on articulated models better occlusal restoration

Polishing
If

is done outside the oral cavity

casting failure occurs, patient recall not necessary

INDIRECT WAX PATERN


DISADVANTAGES
Impression
Dentist
More

may be distorted.

depends on technician.

laboratory work.

Errors

in cast can result in inadequate casting.

Indirect wax pattern technique

The die is lubricated

The occlusal surfaces are developed


with a wax addition technique.

Proximal surfaces are developed,


with correctly located contact
areas

margins are reflowed, and the wax pattern is


finished

DISTORTION OF WAX PATTERN


Wax

distortion is probably the most serious problem during forming

and removal of the pattern from the mouth or the die.


Distortion

results from
-thermal changes
-relaxation of stresses (on cooling)
-occluded air
-molding
-carving
-removal and the time and temperature of storage

DISTORTION OF WAX PATTERN


Waxes

tend to return to their original shape after manipulation, this

property is known as wax memory.


The

casting fits best when the pattern is invested immediately after

its removal from the die.

Inlay wax softened over bunsen burner and left in room temp water for
several hours. It tends to return to its orignal shape, the inner mol were
under compression while outer ones under tension.

PREVENTION Of DISTORTION OF WAX


PATTERN
One

can minimize the incorporation of residual stress by softening

a wax uniformly by heating at 500C for at least 15 min before use ,


also by using warmed carving instruments and a warmed die, by
adding wax to the die in small amounts.
Greater
Inlay

distortion results at higher storage temperature.

wax pattern if allowed to stand longer than 30 minutes,

should be kept in a refrigerator , the distortion will be less as


compared to room temperature.

PREVENTION Of DISTORTION OF WAX


PATTERN
During

spruing distortion can be reduced by use of solid wax sprue or

hollow metal sprue filled with sticky wax. If the pattern was stored
margins should be re-adapted.
Sprue

position- Ideal area for the sprue former is the point of greatest

bulk in the pattern to avoid distorting thin areas and permit complete
flow of the alloy into the mold cavity.
It

should be attached with the pattern on the master die, provided the

pattern can be removed directly in line with its path of withdrawl


from the die.

PREVENTION Of DISTORTION OF WAX


PATTERN
Sprue

diameter- same size as the thickest area of the wax pattern ,

if the pattern is small, the sprue former must also be small.


Length

should be adjusted ,

Gypsum bonded investment 6 mm of the open end of ring


Phosphate bonded investment 3 - 4mm

Dental Investment
Material

INTRODUCTION
When a restoration or appliance is being made by a lost wax
process, the wax pattern is embedded in an investment material.
The wax is then removed from this mold, and the mold space thus
formed will be filled by the molten casting alloy from which the
restoration is to be made

DEFINITION
An investment can be described as a ceramic material which is
suitable for forming a mold into which a metal or alloy is
appropriately cast.
The procedure for forming the mold is described as investing.
Robert G Craig
As these materials can withstand high temperatures, they are also
known as refractory materials.

IDEAL REQUIREMENTS
Easily manipulated
Sufficient strength at room temperature
Stable at higher temperatures
Sufficient expansion

IDEAL REQUIREMENTS
Should

be porous enough to permit the air or other gases in the mold

cavity to escape easily during the casting procedure.


Should

have a smooth surface and fine detail and margins on the

casting should be preserved.


Investment

should break away readily from the surface of the metal

and should not have reacted chemically with it.


Should

be inexpensive.

CLASSIFICATION
A. BASED ON PROCESSING TEMPERATURE

High Temperature
I.

Phosphate Bonded Investment

II.

Silica Bonded Investment

Low Temperature
III.

B.

Gypsum Bonded Investment


BASED ON REFRACTORY MATERIAL
Quartz Investment
Cristoballite Investment

CLASSIFICATION
C. BASED ON TYPE OF BINDER USED
Gypsum bonded investments :
According to ADA Specification 2
Uses
Shrinkage compensation
Type I
Inlay, Crown
Thermal expansion
Type II
Inlay, Crown
Hygroscopic expansion
Type III R.P.D. Frame work Thermal expansion
Phosphate bonded investments
Silicate bonded investments

GENERAL COMPOSITION
Refractory Material

Material that withstands high temperature without decomposing or


disintegrating.

Resists heat and force of casting

Expands and compensates for casting shrinkage

Binder

The refractory material alone does not form a coherent solid mass, so
some kind of binder is needed. Commonly used binders are ;
- Calcium sulfate hemihydrate
Others are Sodium silicate, Ethyl silicate, Ammonium sulfate, Sodium
phosphate.

Other Chemical Modifiers

Usually a mixture of refractory materials and a binder alone is not


enough to produce all desirable properties required of investment.

Other chemicals such as sodium chloride, boric acid, potassium


sulfate, graphite, copper powder or magnesium oxide are often
added in small quantities to modify various physical properties.

GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


ADA SPECIFICATION NO.2

TYPE-1

Inlays or crowns Thermal expansion

TYPE 2

Inlays or crowns Hygroscopic expansion

TYPE 3

Fixed partial dentures with gold alloys

COMPOSITION - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


1.

Binder

-Hemihydrate

Gives strength

Holds ingredients together

Provides rigidity

COMPOSITION - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


2.

Refractory

Silica
Quartz
Tridymite
Cristobalite
Fused Quartz

Silica (SiO2) is added to provide a refractory during the heating of

investment and to regulate thermal expansion.


If proper form of silica is employed in investment, the contraction

during heating in an investment can be eliminated and changed to an


expansion.

COMPOSITION - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Quartz and cristobalite are of particular dental interest.

When quartz, tridymite or cristobalite is heated, change in crystalline form


occurs at transition temperature characteristic of particular form of silica.
Low form

(Alpha quartz)

High form
575C

( Beta quartz)

Cristoballite 200C to 270C


Tridymite 2 inversions at 117C & 163C.

Density decreases as alpha form converts to beta form, with resulting

increase in linear expansion.

COMPOSITION - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


3.

Modifiers
Reducing Agent

Coloring Agent

Carbon
Provides a non oxidizing atmosphere
Powdered copper

Modifying chemicals Boric acid, NaCl


Regulates Setting expansion & Setting time
Prevents most of the shrinkage when
gypsum heated above 300C

SETTING REACTION - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Same as Dental stone.
CaSO4 H2O + H2O CaSO42H2O + 3900 Cal / gmol.
(Ca. Sulfate hemihydrate) (Ca. Sulfate dihydrate)

Sets to form a solid mass which binds the silica particles


together.

Reaction is exothermic.

Microstructure of set material shows rod like particles of


gypsum intermeshed with large irregular particles of silica
refractory.

PROPERTIES- - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


ADA Specification No. 2
Setting Time

9-18 minutes.

This can be altered by addition of K2SO4, NaCl (Increase setting time),


Borax and potassium citrate (decrease setting time).

PROPERTIES- - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Expansion
Expansion aids in enlarging mold.

This property of

investment is needed for compensation of casting shrinkage


of alloy.
Expansions are of 3 types :

Normal setting expansion.

Hygroscopic setting expansion

Thermal expansion

PROPERTIES- - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Normal Setting Expansion

Silica & calcinated gypsum results in setting expansion


greater than that of gypsum used alone.

Silica particles interferes with the intermeshing & interlocking of crystals as they form.

Thus, thrust of crystals is outward during growth, resulting in


increased expansion.

0.6% expansion.

PROPERTIES- - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Factors Affecting Normal Setting Expansion
Greater

the gypsum content of the investment, greater the

exothermic heat transmitted to the wax pattern and greater


the mould expansion.
Lower

the W/P ratio for the investment, greater the

exothermic heat and greater the setting expansion.

PROPERTIES- - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Factors Affecting Normal Setting Expansion
Thinner

the walls of the wax pattern, greater the setting

expasion of the investment.


Softer

the wax, greater the setting expansion. If a wax

softer than Type B inlay wax is used, the setting


expansion may cause a serious distortion of the pattern.

PROPERTIES- - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Hygroscopic Setting Expansion
This

occurs when the gypsum is allowed to set under or in

contact with water.


Hygroscopic

setting expansion of an investment may be more

than six times the normal setting expansion.


The

ADA specification no.2 for Type II investments requires a

minimal hygroscopic setting expansion of 1.2% and a maximal


expansion of 2.2%.

PROPERTIES- - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Hygroscopic Setting Expansion
Water

Immersion Technique :- the investment mould is placed

into water.
Water

Added Technique :- a measured volume of water is

placed on the upper surface of the investment material within


the casting ring.

PROPERTIES- - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Factors Affecting Hygroscopic Setting Expansion

Composition:- Increase in silica content increases the


hygroscopic setting expansion.

W/P ratio:- Higher the W/P ratio of the original investment


water mixture, less the hygroscopic setting expansion.

Spatulation:- Shorter the mixing time, less the hygroscopic


expansion

Shelf life of investment :- The older the investment, less is its


hygroscopic setting expansion

PROPERTIES- - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Factors Affecting Hygroscopic Setting Expansion
Confinement

:- Both the normal and hygroscopic setting expansions

are confined by opposing forces, such as the walls of the casting ring or
the walls of the wax pattern.
Temperature

of the water bath :- Higher the temperature of the water

bath used for immersion, greater the hygroscopic expansion


Amount

of added water :- An increase in the amount of water added,

increases the hygroscopic setting expansion upto a certain point, after


which further addition of water does not create any expansion

PROPERTIES- - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Factors Affecting Hygroscopic Setting Expansion
Particle

size of silica :- Finer particles of silica produce greater

hygroscopic expansion
Silica/binder

ratio :- If this ratio increases, greater will be the

hygroscopic expansion and lesser the strength.

PROPERTIES- - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Thermal Expansion

Thermal expansion of gypsum is directly related to amount of silica


present & to type of silica employed.

The thermal expansions of type II investments to be between 0.0 to


0.6% and of Type I investments which rely principally on thermal
expansion for compensation, to be between 1.0 to 2.0%.

PROPERTIES- - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Thermal Expansion

Thermal expansion is influenced by particle size of quartz, type of


gypsum binder & resultant W/P ratio to provide workable mix

Investments containing cristobalite expand earlier than those


containing quartz.

Expansion occurs at a lower temperature because of lower inversion


temperature of cristobalite compared to quartz.

PROPERTIES- - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Strength

Must be adequate to prevent fracture or chipping of mould


during heating and casting of gold alloy.

Contraction of investment is fairly constant until it cools below


5500C. Thus, when alloy is still quite hot and weak, investment
can resist alloy shrinkage by virtue of strength and constant
dimension.
Compressive strength 2-4 MPa.

PROPERTIES- - GYPSUM BONDED INVESTMENT


Factors Affecting Strength
1.

Alpha hemihydrate ----- strength

2.

Modifiers -------

3.

Water

4.

Heating investment to 700oc may increase or decrease strength

strength

depending on composition.
5.

After investment has cooled to room temparature its strength


decreases.

PHOSPHATE BONDED INVESTMENT

PHOSPHATE BONDED INVESTMENT

Most common type of investment for casting high melting alloys is


phosphate bonded investment.

Common Brands
Silikan, Auro bond, Calsite, Deguvest, Eurocent, Nirobond, etc.

COMPOSITION
Binder- 20%
Acidic part ammonium diacid phosphate
Basic part magnesium oxide
Refractory- 80%
Silica (cristobalite or quartz or mixture of two)
Provide high temperature thermal shock resistance
Provide thermal expansion at high temperature
Modifiers- Carbon

Acts as reducing agent

MODE OF SUPPLY
Powder + liquid
POWDER
Ammonium

diacid phosphate

Magnesium

oxide

Silica
Traces

of carbon

LIQUID
Colloidal

silica

SETTING REACTION
NH4H2PO4 + MgO NH4MgPO4 + H2O
OR
NH4H2PO4 + MgO +H2O NH4MgPO4.6 H2O

SETTING AND THERMAL EXPANSION

When phosphate bonded investments are mixed with water they


exhibit shrinkage between 2000C to 4000C.

This contraction is eliminated when colloidal silica replaces water.

SETTING AND THERMAL EXPANSION

Early thermal shrinkage of phosphate bonded investments is


because of decomposition of binder and is accompanied by
evolution of ammonia.

For gypsum, shrinkage is caused by transformation of calcium


sulfate from hexagonal to rhombic configuration.

Working And Setting Time

Working Time - 2 minutes

SettingTime - 1 hour

Warmer the mix, faster it sets.

Increased mixing time, faster is the set.

Increased L/P ratio, increased is working time.

PROPERTIES

Compressive strength ----- 2.5- 3 Mpa

Setting expansion

Hygroscopic setting expansion ------ 0.8%

Thermal expansion with water----- 0.8%

With special liquid ---1.2%

------ 0.4%

ADVANTAGE
1.

High green strength

2.

High fired strength less mold cracking and few fins on


casting

3.

Can withstand temperature up to 1000c for short period


of time

DISADVANTAGES
4.

Temperature of 1375c ----- mold breakdown and


roughen surface of casting

5.

Special liquid
casting

6.

Produces oxides difficult to remove from castings

---- less porous mold -----incomplete

SILICATE BONDED INVESTMENTS


These investment materials are being used since 1930 but are slowly
loosing there popularity due to complicated and time consuming
procedures involved.

COMPOSITION
Binder ---- silica gel
Refractory ------ silica
Additives---- magnesium oxide
Wetting agent

PROPERTIES

Compressive Strength 1.5 MPa

Setting Contraction

Thermal Expansion

0 - 0.4%
1.5 1.8%, this has only

thermal expansion.

Can Withstand High Temp 10900C to 11800C

Advantages
1.

High permeability, yields sharply defined castings

2.

Low setting expansion

3.

Smooth castings

4.

Low burnout strength easy removal of casting &


cleaning of oxides from castings

Disadvantages
5.

Limited shelf life of liquid

6.

Very expensive

7.

Gives off flammable components during processing

8.

Potential of cracking during burnout.

Investment

Primary use

Dental plaster or stone

Mould for acrylic dentures.

Gypsum-bonded materials

Mould for gold casting alloys.


Mould for base metal and gold

Phosphate-bonded materials

casting

alloys,

mould

for

cast

ceramics and glasses; mould for


soldering.
Silica-bonded materials

Mould for base metal casting alloys.

PROBLEM CAUSED BECAUSE OF INVESTMENTS


PROBLEM

CAUSE

SOLUTION

ROUGH SURFACE

BREAKDOWN OF
INVESTMENT

DONT OVERHEAT
MOULD OR ALLOY

AIR BUBBLES ON
WAX PATTERN

WETTING
AGENT/VACCUM
INVESTING TECHNIQUE

WEAK
INVESTMENT

AVOID USING EXCESS


WATER OR TOO MUCH
WETTING AGENT ON
WAX

FINS

CRACKING ON
INVESTMENT

AVOID HEATING
INVESTMENT RAPIDLY

SULPHUR

BREAKDOWN OF
INVESTMENT

DONT OVERHEAT

ROUNED
MARGINS

BACK PRESSURE OF AIR


DUE TO LOW POROSITY
OF MOULD

PATTERN 6-8 MM FROM


END OF CASTING RING

RECENT ADVANCEMENTS

More recently new investment materials have been marketed for


casting commercially pure titanium.

These investments are based on alumina, spinels, zirconia and


magnesia.

The objective in developing these investments has been to


minimise the interactions between molten titanium and the
investment moulds on casting.

In the magnesia-based investment the expansion is


controlled using zirconium.

As this reaction occurs, investment expands.

INVESTING
Two

main methods of investing the wax pattern

are:
1.

Hand investing.

2.

Vacuum investing.

INVESTING

With the crucible former in place, the


ring is attached tothe mixing bowl.
The mix is hand-spatulated

The vacuum hose is attached

INVESTING

The bowl is inverted, and the


ring is filled under vibration

The vacuum hose is removed


before the mixer is shut off

The filled ring and crucible former are removed


from the bowl.

When the investment has set, the skin at the


top of the ring is trimmed off.

The rubber crucible former is removed,


and any loose particles of investment are
blown off.

The ring is then placed in the furnace for


the recommended burnout schedule.

References:

Philips science of dental materials - Anusavice

Notes on dental materials - E C Combe

Restorative dental materials - Robert G Craig

Fundamentals of fixed Prosthodontics - Shillingberg.

Contemporary fixed Prosthodontics - Stephen F.Rosenstiel

Philip Duke et al ;Physical properties of type IV gypsum, resin


containing and epoxy die materials JPD April 2000 vol 83, no. 4
p-466-73.