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Analysis of Heat exchangers

Efficient heat
exchange comes
in various forms

Akshay Kr Mishra
Sharda University
MECH , 4 YR.

Types of heat exchanger


Parallel flow

Counter flow

Cross flow

Diagonal flow

Radiator type heat exchangers

Radiator type HXs (RHE)

AIR to WATER heat exchanger.


Uses fans to circulate air and cool

the fluid inside tubes of HXs.


Cooling medium is AIR.
Radiator is made via

Working of a radiator type HX

Al alloy.

How to Maintain RHEs


Feed the oil from inlet only.
Flush clean the radiator with

pressurized air once in a week,


to maintain proper air flow.
Dont keep any obstacle in front

of radiator which may obstruct


the air flow.

DAIKIN 90507; TRACTOR PLANT( M/C SHOP)


DAIKIN 80017; TRACTOR PLANT( M/C
SHOP)

L 50; AXLE PLANT(STEERING KNUCKLE LINE)

HH5C-PLC; AXLE PLANT( STEERING KNUCKLE LIN

#50604 HELLER MCH300; BKW HX; TRACTOR PLANT( M/C

Applications of RHE
Forced air heating & cooling
Indoor & outdoor wood furnaces/stoves/boilers
Heat pumps
Chilled water cooling
Permanent aluminum fin to copper coil bond

ensures superior heat transfer properties

Cooling towers
Heat withdrawn from water viacontact

between thewaterand theair.


Heat exchange is b/w air and water and
through the evaporation of a small part of
the water that needs to be cooled.
It allows to cool downto a temperature
lower than the ambient temperature, which
is an important advantage compared to dry
coolers.
A regular maintenance will also minimize
the risk of legionella.

Cooling tower, utility area

Plate type Hxs (PHE)

Constitutes of 2 plates fix frame plate

and pressure plate(movable).


Pack of corrugated metal plates with
portholes for passage of 2 fluids b/w
which Heat transfer takes place.
These plates are fitted with gasket which
seals the inter plate channel and directs
the fluids into alt. channels.

Principle of PHE
Channels are formed b/w the plates & corner

ports are arranged so that the media flows


through alt. channels.
Heat transferred via plate b/w channels &
complete concurrent flow is made for highest
possible efficiency.
Corrugation of plates provides passage b/w
plates, support each plate against adjacent
one and enhances the turbulence, resulting in
efficient heat transfer.

ESSISE PHE; AM 10 FM1; TRACTOR PLANT (PAINT SH

defects

Leakage in plate heat exchanger

CALCIUM SULPHATE SCALING

IRON FOULING

How to maintain PHEs


Back flush the PHE once a week.
check the PHE for leaks, especially during intense

running periods.
Check Regularly the gaskets as soon as possible for
softness & elasticity, as brittle gaskets are no good.
Install a water cleaning system. It will soften the
water & will prevent hard scaling and fouling from
coating the plates. Even chlorination should be
proper.

Effective Heat Transfer- Large surface

areas and corrugated plates allow Plate heat


exchangers to transfer heat very efficiently.
Easy Maintenance
Compact Design
Cost-efficient- PHE are smaller and use less
material to produce.
Materials- PHE are available in a wide
variety of materials. Plates are available in:
Stainless Steel, Titanium, Titanium-Palladium,
Nickel etc. as per our requirement.

Types of PHE

Gasketed PHE

Semi-welded PHE

Welded PHE

1.Gasketed PHE-use high quality gaskets and


design to seal plates together and protect against
leaks.
Plates can easily be removed for cleaning.
expansion, or replacing purposes,drastically
reducing maintenance costs. Applications includeChemical, HVAC etc.

2.Welded PHE- Here plates are welded together.


Extremely durable, ideal for transferring fluids with
high temperatures or corrosive materials.
Mechanical cleaning of plates is not anoption as
with PHE due to welding. Applications includeHazardous liquids, oil cooling

3.Semi-welded PHE A mixture of welded and


gasketed plates.
Contains pairs of two plates welded together
which are then gasketed to other pairs
Easy to service on one side and able to transfer
more intense fluids on the other.
They are perfect for transferring expensive
materials sincethey have a very low risk of fluid
loss.

limitations

Extreme temperature difference b/w 2

fluids-its generally more cost efficient to


use aShell & Tube heat exchanger.As in
a Plate heat exchanger, there can be a
high pressure loss due to the large
amount of turbulence created by the
narrow flow channels.
Gasketed Plate Heat Exchangersare

limited in high fluid temperatures, by the


temperature limitations of the gasket.

BRAZED HEAT EXCHANGER


(BHE)

BHE

BHE is a compact variation of PHE but does not

have carbon steel frame, gaskets or tightening


bolts.
It simply has AISI 316 stainless steel corrugated
channel plates and the heat exchangers are
brazed in a vacuum furnace and helium pressure
tested to ensure leak-free performance.
No pressure retaining parts such as shell of a
shell and tube type etc.
This combination with maximum heat transfer
and high efficiency make it the most efficient
HX.

WORKING OF BHE

EXPLODED VIEW OF BHE

GEA MAKE BHE;AXLE PLANT

Top view of BHE; GEA MAKE; AXLE


PLANT

OPERATING PRINCIPLE
Based on the plate and nozzle orientation,

each fluid passes through alternative channels


within the heat exchanger. All plate material
and nozzles are of Stainless Steel 316.
An extremely high heat transfer coefficient is
attained due to the flow characteristics in each
channel. A specially designed and tested
chevron pattern causes a turbulent flow of the
fluid resulting in higher heat transfer.

TYPES OF BHE
TPL SERIES- In case of media with average viscosity

and high viscosity.The TPL unit has special


turbulators placed between the flow of gaps and by
diagonal media flow together with large diameter
connections very high heat exchangers rates are
reached.
GPL SERIES- Heat transfer plates with V-corrugation
for universal application in case of media with low
velocity. GPL series has thermally optimized plate
corrugation which produces highly turbulent flow
even in case of low mass flow.

TPL SERIES

GPL SERIES

CB-COPPER BRAZED HX
These heat exchangers from the smallest unit

CB14, to the largest unit CB300, are brazed with


99.9 % copper.
This forms a self-contained unit that can handle
both high pressures and high temperatures.
The exceptional heat transfer efficiency makes all
CB units very compact. As a result, they can tackle
large-capacity duties even though there is only
limited installation space available.

CB- COPPER BRAZED HX

Fusion bonded PHE


AlfaNova, the worlds first 100% stainless

steel AND fusion brazed plate heat


exchanger,
Extreme temperature and pressure fatigue
conditions that would destroy a conventional
brazed heat exchanger are no match for the
rugged AlfaNova.
compact, high-performance AlfaNova offers
levels of hygiene and corrosion-resistance
unmatched by any other BHE or any HX.

ALFANOVA- FUSION BONDED PHE

ADVANTAGES OF BHE

High corrosion resistant- All plates uses

SUS316 material.
High pressure resistant
High thermal efficiency
High working temperature- Brazed Plate Heat
Exchanger's SUS316 material structure offers
higher working temperature range up to 200.
Compactness
Low maintenance- The corrugated plates are
designed to achieve turbulence flow at a low flow
rate, thus decreasing the need for frequent
maintenance.

How to maintain BHEs


For heavier fouling use chemicals such as

formic acid, citric acid in concentration


compatible with copper.
Use CIP(cleaning in place) systems to
chemically remove calcium deposits and
other forms of scaling from different plate
surfaces.
Do not leave the unit on standby after
cleaning.
Do not use liquids that are corrosive to
stainless steel or brazing material(Cu or
Ni).

SHELL & TUBE TYPE HXs

Water to water heat exchanger


consists of a shell (a largepressure

vessel) with a bundle of tubes inside it.


One fluid runs through the tubes, and
another fluid flows over the tubes
(through the shell) to transfer heat
between the two fluids.

Tube pitch- The shortest distance between

centers of two adjacent tubes is called the tube


pitch, should not be less than 1.25 times the
tube diameter.
Baffles- Responsible for obstructing and
redirecting the flow of fluid in the shell side of
an exchanger.
Situated normal to the walls of the shell and
force the liquid to flow at right angles to the
axis of the tubes Thus increasing turbulence
resulting in greater heat transfer.

loded view of shell and tube heat exchan

a make HX ; shell and tube type; TRACTOR PLANT( ENGINE S

Shell and tube type HX in diesel generators; utility area

How to Maintain shell & tube HX


At regular intervals , an examination should be made of

internal as well as external of HX.


Intervals b/w cleaning should not inc. because difficulty of
cleaning will inc., as scaling or deposits on tubes will inc.
Before disassembly, make sure that unit has been
depressurized, vented and drained of all hazardous
materials purged.
Circulate hot wash oil and hot water with high vel. to
remove sludge and salt deposits from tubes.

Forced draft ventilation


Controls indoor air quality.
Excess humidity, odors &

contaminants controlled
via dilution or replacement
with outside air.
Ventilation includes both
the exchange of air to the
outside as well as
circulation of air within the
building.

Analysis of HXs used in CNH(Case New Holland)

RHE
9%

PHE

4%

BHE
SHELL & TUBE

7%

COOLING
TOWER

12%
68%

PIE CHART SHOWING HX DISTRIBUTION

TOTAL NO. OF HEAT EXCHANGERS IN CNH- 71


NO. OF RADIATOR TYPE HX - 46

TRACTOR PLANT -27


AXLE PLANT 16
UTILITY AREA- 3
NO. OF PLATE TYPE HX- 8
COOLANT TOWER- 6
NO. OF BRAZED TYPE HX- 5
NO. OF SHELL &TUBE TYPE HX- 6
TRACTOR PLANT- 2
UTILITY AREA - 4

TYPE OF
HXs

PLANT

LINE/SHO
P

M/C NAME MAKE OF


HXs

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#533
MAKINO
A77

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#682
MAKINO
A77

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#615
MAKINO
A81

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#534
MAKINO
A77

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#683
MAKINO
A77

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

# 195
MAKINO
A81

DAIKIN

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#50437

BKW

MODEL/TY
PE OF
HXs

90507

40807

TYPE OF
HXs

PLANT

LINE/SHO
P

M/C NAME MAKE OF


HXs

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#441
MAKINO
A81

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#352
MAKINO
A77

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#685
MAKINO
A77

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#485
MAKINO
A77

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#351
MAKINO
A81

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#456
MAKINO
A77

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#533
MAKINO

DAIKIN

MODEL/TY
PE OF
HXs

80017

TYPE OF
HXs

PLANT

LINE/SHO
P

M/C NAME MAKE OF


HXs

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#440
MAKINO
A77

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#485
MAKINO
A77

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#634
MAKINO
A77

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#684
MAKINO
A77

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#456
MAKINO
A77

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#607
MAKINO
A81

DAIKIN

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE

#352
MAKINO

DAIKIN

MODEL/TY
PE OF
HXs

TYPE OF
HXs

PLANT

LINE/SHO
P

M/C NAME MAKE OF


HXs

MODEL/TY
PE OF
HXs

SHELL AND
TUBE TYPE

TRACTOR

ENGINE
SHOP

YANTRA

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE
SHOP

ENGINE
ASSEMBLY
TEST CELL
#50604
4
HELLER
MCH 300

BKW

WRK10/2R
28-CH2

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE
SHOP

#50603
HELLER
MCH 300

BKW

WRK10/2R
28-CH2

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE
SHOP

#50437
HELLER
MCH 300

BKW

WRK10/2R
28-CH2

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE
SHOP

#50239
HELLER
MCH 300

BKW

WRK10/2R
28-CH2

RHE

TRACTOR

MACHINE
SHOP

#50240
HELLER
MCH 300

BKW

WRK10/2R
28-CH2

TYPE OF
HXs

PLANT

LINE/SHO
P

M/C NAME MAKE OF


HXs

MODEL/TY
PE OF
HXs

PHE

TRACTOR

PAINT
SHOP

CHESSISE
PHE

AM 10 FM1

PHE

TRACTOR

PAINT
SHOP

PRE
Alfa laval
DEGREASIN
G TANK
NO.1

P2FL1
(OLD)

PHE

TRACTOR

PAINT
SHOP

DEGREASIN Alfa laval


G-1 TANK
NO. 2

P2FL1

PHE

TRACTOR

PAINT
SHOP

DEGREASIN Alfa laval


G-2 TANK
NO. 3

P2FL1

PHE

TRACTOR

PAINT
SHOP

PHOSPHAT Alfa laval


E TANK NO.
7

P2FL1
(OLD)

PHE

TRACTOR

PAINT
SHOP

PHOSPHAT Alfa laval


E TANK NO.
7

M6-MFG
(NEW)

PHE

TRACTOR

PAINT
SHOP

CED BATH
TANK NO.

P2FL1

Alfa laval

Alfa laval

TYPE OF
HXs

PLANT

LINE/SHO
P

M/C NAME MAKE OF


HXs

MODEL/TY
PE OF
HXs

BRAZED
HXs

TRACTOR

NDL (NEW
DRIVE
LINE)

NDL M/C 1

FUNKE

BRAZED
RHE
HXs

TRACTOR
AXLE

NDL M/C 2
BEMCO

FUNKE
WARKIN

RHE

AXLE

NDL (NEW
DIFFEREN
DRIVE
TIAL
LINE) LINE
DIFFERENTI
AL LINE

HIND
HH47311797

GK ENGG.

HH5C-PLC

RHE

AXLE

STEERING
KNUCKLE
LINE

BEMCO
20Ton

WARKIN

DSL 50

RHE

AXLE

STEERING
KNUCKLE
LINE

HIND 5Ton

GK ENGG.

HH5C-PLC

RHE

AXLE

STEERING
KNUCKLE
LINE

BEMCO
20Ton

WARKIN

DSL 50

RHE

AXLE

STEERING
KNUCKLE

BEMCO
20Ton

WARKIN

DSL 50

TYPE OF
HXs

PLANT

LINE/SHO
P

M/C NAME MAKE OF


HXs

MODEL/TY
PE OF
HXs

RHE

AXLE

PLANET
CARRIER
LINE

BEMCO
40Ton

WARKIN

DKL 307

RHE

AXLE

PLANET
CARRIER
LINE

BEMCO
40Ton

WARKIN

DKL 307

RHE

AXLE

MACHINE
SHOP

MAC 6290
MAKINO
A100E

YUKEN

RHE

AXLE

MACHINE
SHOP

MAC
11173
MAKINO
A100E

YUKEN

RHE

AXLE

MACHINE
SHOP

MAC 6291
MAKINO
A100E

YUKEN

RHE

AXLE

MACHINE
SHOP

MAKINO
A81

YUKEN

RHE

AXLE

MACHINE

MAKINO

YUKEN

TYPE OF
HX

PLANT

SHOP

RHE

TRACTOR

RHE

MACHINE
NAME

MAKE

MODEL

DRIVE LINE #50525


HELLER
MCH 300

BKW

WRK10/2R2
8-CH2

TRACTOR

DRIVE LINE #50237


HELLER
MCH 300

BKW

WRK10/2R2
8-CH2

RHE

TRACTOR

DRIVE LINE #51276


HELLER
MCH 300

BKW

WRK10/2R2
8-CH2

BHE

AXLE

M/C SHOP

FAMAR
ERGO 500

GEA

WP 1-24E

BHE

AXLE

M/C SHOP

FAMAR
ERGO 500

GEA

WP1-24E

BHE

AXLE

M/C SHOP

FAMAR
ERGO 500

GEA

WP 1-24E

Contingency plans
Radiator type HX

Radiator type HX

Radiator type HX

Plate type HX (PHE)

Plate type HX (PHE)

BRAHMASTRA FOR PHE


When the level of problem is at a level where

above written precautions dont work then use


BRAHMASTRA that is contact the vendor.
And here its ALFA LAVAL.
NAME: ALFA LAVAL INDIA LTD.
ADDRESS: 704-705,Ansal bhavan,16, Kasturbha
Gandhi Marg , Delhi
PHONE NO: 01141293300
EMAIL ID: india.info@alfalaval.com

Shell & tube type

Brahamastra for BHE


well it does not have any modes of failure except that
it stops working, so in that case is contact the
vendor. And here its FUNKE and GEA.
NAME: Funke heat exchangers India pvt ltd.
ADDRESS:14, Hadapsar Industrial estate,
Hadapsar, Opposite Kwality bakery,Pune.
CONTACT PERSON: Ashish B Kale
PHONE NO:02066047894,9403961354
EMAIL ID: info@funke.co.in

NAME: GEA Ecoflex India Pvt Ltd.


ADDRESS: R-493, MIDC, TTC Industrial Area,
Rabale
400701 Navi Mumbai
India
CONTACT PERSON: Virendra Jhamb
FAX: +91 22 27693797
EMAIL ID: virendra.jhamb@geagroup.com

Knowing danger

Universal

PHE

SHELL
HELL & TUBE

THANK YOU