You are on page 1of 87

Good Morning

Physical
properties of
dental materials
presented by
H.Mani Bernard
1st year P.G

Definition
Physical properties are based on the laws of mechanics,
acoustics ,optics, thermodynamics, electricity , atomic
structure or nuclear phenomena.
(ANUSAVICE)

Aphysical propertyis anypropertythat


ismeasurablewhose value describes a
state of aphysical system.
The changes in the physical properties of a
system can be used to describe its
transformations or evolutions between its
momentary states.
Physical properties are often referred to
asobservables.

CONTENTS

ABRASION AND ABRASION RESISTANCE


VISCOSITY
STRESS RELAXATION
CREEP AND FLOW
OPTICAL PROPERTIES
THERMAL PROPERTIES
ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
TARNISH AND CORROSION
SOLUBILITY AND SORPTION
SHELF LIFE.

ABRASION AND ABRASION RESISTANCE

ABRASION:Loss of material from a surface caused by a


mechanical action.
Abration is a complex mechanism in the oral environment that
involves an interaction among numerous factors

MAJOR FACTOR :
Hardness of the material

OTHER FACTORS :
Biting forces
Frequency of chewing
Abrasiveness of the diet
Surface impurities
Roughness
Surface irregularities

Abrasion is further divided into processes of


two body and three body wear.

Two body abrasion-abrasive particles


bonded firmly to abrasive instrument.

Diamond bur is an classic example of two


body wear

Three body abrasion-abrasive particles free


to move between two surfaces.

Non bonded abrasives dental prophylaxis


pastes are three body abrasives.

They are placed in the rotary cup,which is


rotated against a tooth

TWO BODY ABRASIVES

DENTAL BURS

ABRASIVE DISCS

THREE BODY ABRASIVE

MEASUREMENT OF HARDNESS FOR ABRASIVES

The Moh's (Mohs) scale of hardness is the


most common method used to rank
gemstones and minerals according to
hardness.
Mohs hardness refers to a material's ability
to resist abrasion or scratching.
this scale grades minerals on a scale from 1
(very soft) to 10 (very hard)

Mohs Scale of Hardness

DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS OF
AN ABRASIVE :

It should be irregular in shape so that it presents a sharp


edge.

It should be harder than the work it abrades.

FACTORS AFFECTING RATE OF


ABRASION:
Size

of the abrasive particle- larger the sizegreater the abration.

Pressure of the work against the abrasive.

Speed at which the abrasive particles


travels across the work.Greater the
speed ,greater the rate of abration.

Clinical implication
Ceramics are more abrasive to tooth enamel in the
presence of high biting forces and rough ceramic
surface.

MANAGEMENT:
Broader contact areas polished surfaces

RHEOLOGY
Rheology is the study of flow characteristics of materials.
For liquids, flow is measured by the viscosity, where as for
solids one considers creep and viscoelasticity.

VISCOSITY

defined as resistance of a liquid to flow.

it is controlled by internal forces with in the liquid.

viscosity is a measure of consistency of the liquid and its


ability to flow.

Types of Fluid Behavior


1. Newtonian (ideal) Liquids
They are liquids with a constant viscosity
regardless of shear rate.

Examples include water and newly mixed


zinc phosphate cement.
2. Plastic Liquids
They are rigid until a certain yield stress is
applied to them.
The application of this yield stress to
cause flow in a plastic material is called
the Bingham characteristic.

3. Pseudoplastic (shear-thinning) Liquids


Show a decrease in viscosity with an increase in shear rate.
Examples include the polycarboxylate cements and non-water
mixed glass ionomer cements.
4. Dilatant (shear-thickening) Liquids
Show an increase in viscosity with an increase in shear rate.
Traditional (conventional) resin composites are a good
example.
5. Thixotropic Liquids
They are liquids whose viscosity depends upon their previous
shear history.
In other words, if you shear them, their viscosity will decrease;
if you then allow them to remain undisturbed, their viscosity
will increase to pre stressed
levels. Examples include topical fluoride gels.
The opposite of thixotropic is rheopexic.

Thixotrophic

Pseudoplastic
Newtonian

Dilatant

VISCOELASTISITY:
Describes materials that exhibit characteristics of both a viscous liquid and an
elastic solid.
Viscoelastic materials, like alginate, show little permanent deformation when
loaded quickly but exhibit a great deal of permanent deformation if loaded
slowly.
Amount of permanent deformation of elastomeric impression material
minimised by
Removing the impression after material adequately gelled
Negligible pressure to tray during polymerization
Removal of impression along path of loading of tray
Avoid undercuts during tooth preparation

Clinical Applications of Rheology

The aqueous and nonaqueous elastomeric impression


materials, being viscoelastic, should be removed from the
mouth with a snap to minimize permanent deformation.

Ideally, we want cements and light-body (syringe) impression


materials to be pseudoplastic so that with increasing shear
strain rate, they exhibit a decrease in viscosity.

The reason many highly viscous cements (e.g.,


polycarboxylates, non-water mixed glass-ionomer cements)
form thin film thickness layers is because they are
pseudoplastic.

STRESS RELAXATION
Solid - state diffusion process driven by a thermal energy ,atoms can
move back slowly to their equilibrium positions.
As a result material wraps or distorts due to trapped internal stresses.

CLINICAL APPLICATION:
Non crystalline materials like waxes, resins and gels, when
manipulated and cooled, can then under go relaxation at an elevated
temperature.

CREEP AND FLOW

Creep is defined as time dependent plastic strain of a material under a


static load or constant stress. Slippage of molecules over each other is
called FLOW.

Most metals do not creep as they have high melting temperatures, an


exception is amalgam as it has components with melting points only
slightly above room temperatures.

The term flow has been generally used in dentistry to describe the
rheology of amorphous materials such as waxes. The flow of wax is a
measure of its potential to deform under a small static load.

COLOUR
optical properties

IMPORTANT GOAL OF DENTISTRY-restore color and appearance of


natural dentition.
Ideal general purpose,direct filling,tooth colored material is one of the
challenges of current dental materials research

LIGHT

LIGHT-electromagnetic radiation detected by human eye.

The eye is sensitive to wavelengths from approximately 400 nm(violet)


to 700nm(dark red).

MOST SENSITIVE-55Onm[green-yellow]

Direct light

When direct light falls upon an object, it is either absorbed, reflected, or


transmitted.

The spectral distribution of transmitted or reflected light resembles that of


incident light, although certain wavelengths are reduced in magnitude.

Properties of color
OPACITY AND TRANSLUCENCY
As light strikes a surface it is either totally reflected (opaque), totally
transmitted (transparent) or a combination of both (translucent).

Dimensions of color

To accurately describe our perception of a beam of light


reflected from a tooth or restoration surface, 3 variables must be
measured. Color can be described in three dimensional color
space measured as
1.HUE
2.VALUE
3.CHROMA

Hue
HUE-dominant color of an object.
EXAMPLES-red,green,blue.
Hue represents the dominant wavelengths
present in the spectral distribution.

In the Vita shade guide there are 4 hues


'A" for reddish brown
'B" for reddish yellow
'C" for' grayish
'D" for reddish-grey
The primary source of natural tooth colour is dentine and its hue
either in the yellow or yellow-red range.

value

On a scale of
black to white,
white has" high
value", black has
"low value" and
midway between
the black and
white is medium
grey

Value is the only dimension of color that can


exist by itself.

chroma

Chroma represents the degree of


saturation of a particular hue.

In teeth, it is dictated by the dentine and


influenced by the translucency and
thickness of enamel.

MUNSELL COLOR CO-ORDINATE SYSTEM


Developed

by- Albert Henry


Munsell - 1915

CIE L*a*b color chart


L represents the value of an object.
*a* represents red green axis
*b* represents yellow blue axis

Clinical implication

Shade selection

Three factors-considered
Bezold-brucke effect
Metamerism
flourescence

Bezold-brucke effect

As the brightness become too intense color


appears to change.

Patient is visualised against an intense


colored background,a tooth shade may be
selected with a hue that is shifted
somewhat towards the complementary
color of the back ground color.

METAMERISM

The objects that appear to be color matched under one light


source may appear different under another light source.
This change in color perception is referred to as
metamerism.

Spectral

distribution of light reflected from or transmitted is


dependent on the spectral content of incident light.

The appearance of an object is quite dependent on the nature of


light by which the object is viewed.

METAMERISM

FLUORESCENCE
Natural teeth absorbs light at wavelengths
Too short to be visible to the human eye in the
range of 300 to 400 nm referred to as nearultraviolet radiation

Absorbed energy is converted in to light with


longer wavelengths
This phenomenon is called florescence

This property contributes to the vital appearance of teeth.

PRINCIPLES OF SHADE MATCHING

Determine shade at the beginning of the


appointment

Clean the teeth and remove all stains and debris

A shade guide sample should be applied parallel


with the tooth

Obtain value levels by squinting.After value


select chroma and then hue.

Tooth should not be observed for not more than 5


seconds at a time.

SOURCE OF LIGHT
Dental operatory-common sources of light
used are:

1.day light
2.incandascent lamps
3.florescent lamps
Color matching should be done under 2 or
more different light sources,one of which
should be day light.

Shade Guides
Because an important factor in restorations is the
shade determination, it is imperative that guides are
available to assist in the correct shade matching.
VITA Lumin Vacuum Shade Guide contains porcelains
that are pre-fired set out in the colour tones that the
company has available. They are arranged on porcelain
pins that can be removed individually for maximum
shade matching. The main tones groups are rosebrown, rose-white, greytone, and rose-grey.
VITA VMK Individualised Shade Guide is a kit for the
reproduction of intermediate and individual shades, and
therefore demonstrates the offering of a multitude of
possibilities of shade determination of the companies
metal ceramics. This is the main communication
method of shade determination between dentist and
technician. The porcelains are layered onto a ceramic
cap which corresponds in colour to the oxidised metal.
These are also excellent for practice.

How do you determine the tooth shade with VITAPAN


3D-MASTER?
The logical configuration of the shades makes working
with
VITAPAN 3D-MASTER very easy.
The shade selection is a logical progression of three
simplified choices - the desired shade is found very
quickly:In the first step of the shade taking procedure
the value (lightness) is determined. Select the value
level from the five value groups (levels 1 - 5) that is
closest to the value of the tooth to be compared. Pull
out the medium shade sample (M) from the selected
value group.

In the second step the chroma (levels 1 2,3)


is determined. Select the color sample of the
selected M group that is closest to the tooth to be
compared. In the third step the hue (L, M, R) is
determined. Check whether the natural tooth
displays a "more yellowish" (L) or "more reddish"
{R) shade than the color sample of the M-group
that has been selected in the second step. Now the
best matching shade sample is determined and the
information is recorded in the color communication
form.

VITAPAN 3D-MASTER divides the tooth color space into 5 levels of value.

In the medium (M) hue there are three levels of color samples for the
chroma. Deviations towards the more yellowish hues (L) or more
reddish hues (R) exist in 2 chromas.

A deviation of the medium hue (M) towards yellow or red can be


compared with the corresponding hue groups (L,

Value (lightness) level


In the first step the value or lightness is determined.

Chroma
In the second step the chroma or color saturation
is determined.

Hue
In the third step the hue is verified.

RECENT ADVANCES IN SHADE SELECTION

Basic design
All color-measuring devices consist of a detector, signal
conditioner, and software that process the signal in a manner
that makes the data usable in the dental operatory or laboratory.
Because of the complex relationship between these elements,
accurate colorimetric analysis is difficult at best.

The recent devices works on the principle of


- Colorimeter
- Spectrophotometer
- Digital color analyzer
Can transfer esthetic plan from dentist to lab
Comprehensive optic shade communication
It displays the patient tooth in terms of Lightness,chroma&Hue
The first system to combine digital color imaging with
colorimetric analysis was introduced by Cynovad (SaintLaurent, Canada).

Currently Available Shade matching devices

SPECTROSHADE

Patended windows
based system

Allows taking images


in any lighting.

Shade eye NCC

SHADE SCAN

SHADE RITE DENTAL


VISION

THERMAL PROPERTIES

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

Thermal conductivity is the rate of heat flow through a material


occurs through the interaction of crystal lattice vibrations,motion
of electrons and interaction with atom.

The thermal conductivity (k) or coefficient of thermal


conductivity is the quantity of heat in calories/second that passes
through a specimen 1 cm thick having a cross sectional area of
1cmsq when the temperature differential between the surfaces
perpendicular to the heat flow of the specimen is 1c.

materials

Thermal
conductivity[W.m .k]

1.enamel

0.87

2.dentin

0.59

3.silver

385

4.copper

370

5.water

0.55

materials with high thermal conductivity


conductors.

Materials with low thermal conductivityinsulators.

SI unit-watts per meter per degree kelvin.

Such filling material as cements are


relatively poor conductors and insulate the
pulp area.

THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY
It is a measure of the rate at which a body
with a non uniform temperature reaches a
state of thermal equilibrium.
The mathematical formula that relates thermal
conductivity and thermal diffusivity is
h=(k/Cp X P)
K-thermal conductivity, Cp-temperature
dependent specific heat capacity,Ptemperature dependent density.
SI Unit:mms

Thermal diffusivity of different materials


materials

Thermal diffusivity mm sq/sec

1.enamel

0.47

2.dentin

0.18

3.amalgam

9.6

4.composite

0.68

5.porcelain

0.64

6.Acrylic resin

0.13

SPECIFIC HEAT

The specific heat of the substance is the quantity of heat


required to raise the temperature of 1gm of the substance by
1 degree centigrade.

The specific heat of both enamel and dentin has been found
to be higher than that of metals used for fillings .

During melting and casting procedures,specific heat of


metal or alloy is important,the total amount of heat must be
applied to the mass to raise temperature to the melting
point.

LINEAR COEFFICIENT OF THERMAL


EXPANSION

The

linear coefficient of thermal expansion


is defined as the change in length per unit
of the original length of a material when
its temperature is raised by 1c.

Materials
Inlay waxes

Coefficient x 10-6 / oC
350 450

Silicone impression materials

210

Polysulfide
materials

140

impression

Acrylic resin

76.0

Mercury

60.6

Composite resins
Anterior

17 50

Posterior

14 40

Zinc oxide eugenol cement


Amalgam

35
22.1 28.0

Gold

14.4

Porcelain

12.0

CLINICAL IMPLICATION

The high expansion coefficient of inlay wax is also


important because it is highly susceptible to
temperature changes.

For example,an accurate wax pattern that fits a


prepared tooth contracts significantly when it is
removed from the tooth or from a die in a hot
area and then stored in a cooler area. This
dimensional change is transferred to a cast
restoration that is made from the lost wax
process.

Thermal stresses produced from the thermal


expansion or contraction difference are also
important in the production of metal
ceramic restorations.

Consider a porcelain veneer that is fired to a


metal substrate .it may contract to a
greater etent than the metal during
cooling,and induce tangential tensile
stresses or tensile hoop..

Tensile stresses in the porcelain may cause


immediate or delayed crack formation .

Although these thermal stresses cannot be


eliminated completely,they can be reduced
appreciably by selection of materials whose
expansion or contraction coefficients are
matched fairly closely(within 4%)

Knowledge of coefficient of thermal expansion is essential


because a tooth restoration may expand or contract more than
the tooth during a change in temperature,thus the restoration
may leak,or it may debond from the tooth.
When coefficients of thermal expansion of a restorative material
and tooth structure are different,

PERCOLATION

i.e ingress and egress of fluids between the tooth and the
restoration.

Polymerised resins have strong bonds but weak chain


links,atoms can move freely vibrates in two direction
perpendicular to long axis of polymer chain.

ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY

The ability of a material to conduct electric


current is called as conductivity or ,conversely
,as the specific resistance or resistivity.

The carious tooth has been observed to have a


lower electrical resistance compared to normal
tooth.
Zinc oxide eugenol have high resistivity,followed
by zinc polycarboxylate and zinc phosphate.
GIC most conductive of cements close to dentin.

TARNISH AND CORROSION

Corrosion occurs whenever chemically different sites act as an anode


and cathode. This corrosion requires the presence of an
electrolyte,typically saliva.
Electrochemical corrosion seen in dental amalgam is:
1.galvanic corrosion
2.crevice corrosion
3.stress corrosion
Galvanic corrosion associated with macroscopically different
electrode sites.eg:Au &amalgam restorations.
Other corrosions occur microscopically. Cathode-residual amalgam
alloy particles,anode-Sn-Hg or Cu-Sn in low copper & high copper
amalgams.

CORROSION

GALVANISM

Presence of dissimilar fillings in


opposing or adjacent teeth

Fillings in conjunction with saliva,as an


electrolyte,make up an electric cell

When the fillings contact each other,the cell


is short circuted and there is a flow of
current that occurs through pulp.this
phenomenon is called galvanism.

SOLUBILITY

ALL MATERIALS ARE SOLUBLE IN ORAL FLUIDS


TO SOME EXTENT.

PORCELAIN AND CERAMICS ARE LEAST


SOLUBLE.

LOSS OF SMALL ORGANIC MOLECULES FROM


DENTURE LINERS AND TISSUE CONDITIONERS
LEADS TO MATERIAL HARDENING IN THE
MOUTH, THEREBY TISSUE IRRITATION.

ABSORPTION

UPTAKE OF FLUID OR SUBSTANCE BY A MATERIAL.

OCCURS MOSTLY IN POLYMERIC MATERIALS


PMMA 1 TO 2% BY WEIGHT COMPONSATES FOR
POLYMERISATION SHRINKAGE , BUT ALSO CAN
OCCUR IN INTERFACE OF METAL AND PORCELAIN
LEADS TO SUBTLE DISCOLORATION OF THE
PORCELAIN.

UPTAKE OF FOREIGN MATERIALS MAY LEADS


TO WASH OUT OF CEMENTS EVENTUALLY
LOOSENING OF RESTORATION.

SHELF LIFE

GENERAL DETEROITATION AND CHANGE IN


QUALITY OF MATERIAL DURING SHIPMENT OR
STORAGE.

TEMPERATURE ,HUMIDITY AND TIME OF


STORAGE ARE SIGNIFICANT.

THIS IS IMPORTANT IN GYPSUM PRODUCTS AND


IN IMPRESSION MATERIALS.

conclusion

The physical properties of dental materials are an apt


indicator towards of their clinical performance in the
oral cavity.

A thorough working knowledge of each of these


materials enable dentist to choose best material suited
to particular clinical situation.

REFERENCES

PHILIPS SCIENCE OF DENTAL MATERIALS: ELEVENTH


EDITION ANUSAVICE.

CRAIGS RESTORATIVE DENTAL MATERIALS: TWELFTH


EDITION

ART & SCIENCE OF OPERATIVE DENTISTRY:FIFTH EDITION


STURDEVANT.

GLOSSARY OF PROSTHODONTIC TERMS.

Dent Clin N Am 48 (2004) 341358


Advances in color matching
Jane D. Brewer, DDS, MSa, Alvin Wee, BDS, MSb,c,
Robert Seghi, DDS, MS

THANK YOU