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GENETIC

ENGINEERING
AND
CLONING

Can you imagine a world where


you can pick your childs trait?

What is genetic
engineering?
Genetic engineering is the process
of manually adding new DNA to an
organism.

Understanding Genetic
Engineering: Basic Biology

DNA

It is the recipe for


life.
GENE
It is a molecule found
in the nucleus of
every cell and is
made up of 4
subunits represented
It is the small segments of
by the letters A, T, G,
DNA. Each gene holds theand C.
instructions for how to
produce a single protein

How is DNA important in genetic


engineering?
DNA is a universal language, meaning
the genetic code means the same thing
in all organisms. This characteristic is
critical to the success of genetic
engineering. When a gene for a desirable
trait is taken from one organism and
inserted into another, it gives the
recipient organism the ability to express
that same trait.

GENETIC ENGINEERING
It is also used to create
more perfect plants; the
goal is to develop crops
that are resistant to
disease or insects. Or
that produce more seeds,
more or better fruit or a
bigger overall harvest.

By tinkering with the genetic make up of


plants, scientist can encourage desired
traits and eliminate unwanted ones.

Another sample of genetic engineering


that is similar to cloning is the creation
of animals hybrids ( crosses between 2
species of animals.) or of Chimeras,
which are combinations of animals and
humans. The goal of these is usually to
find new ways of creating substance or
organs that can be used in humans.

CLONING

What is Cloning?
Cloning is a form of genetic engineering in
which the DNA of a person, animal, plant, or
even a bacterium is used to produce a perfect
or near perfect genetic replica of the original.
True cloning is the creation of a genetic twin of
the original organism.
Modern cloning method that has received the
most attention is known as Somatic cell
nuclear transfer, the process involves
removing the nucleus of an egg cell or ovum.
The resulting embryo will be genetically, the
same as the organism that provided the

The announcement, in February 23, 1997,


that a newborn sheep named Dolly had
been cloned from another sheep made
world wide news.

Cloning does not have to result in an


entire animal. In many cases, cloning
is used to create a cell line which is
the result of cloning individual cells.
This can be used to produce substance
that are beneficial to humans, such as
insulin

Potential uses of Cloning:


1.Replacing organs and other tissues
2.Infertility provides couples and
individuals who are unable to have
children with another potential option.
3.Saving endangered species
Problems with Cloning:
4.Low success rate
5.Massive quantities f human eggs
required

Ethical Considerations:

It is not the Science


that worries people,
but the way that it is
applied.

Reference:
Stanley,D. (2000).Genetic engineering: The cloning
debate. New York: Rosen.