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Projections of

BASICS

Planes

A plane is a two dimensional object having length and breadth only. Its thickness is

always neglected. Various shapes of plane figures are considered such as square,

rectangle, circle, pentagon, hexagon, etc.

(i)

(v)

(ii)

(iii)

(vi)

(iv)

(vii)

Figure 3.1

1. Perpendicular planes which have their surface perpendicular to any one of the

reference planes and parallel or inclined to the other reference plane.

2. Oblique planes which have their surface inclined to both the reference planes.

74

Traces of a Plane

The trace of a

plane is the line

of intersection or

meeting of the

plane

surface

with the reference

POSITIONS

OF Aif PLANE

plane;

A

plane figure is

positioned with reference to the reference planes by referring its surface

necessary

the

in

the following

possible positions.

plane

surface is

extended

1. Surface oftothe plane kept perpendicular to HP and parallel to VP

intersect

2. Surface the

of the plane kept perpendicular to VP and parallel to HP

reference plane.

3. Surface of the plane kept perpendicular to both HP and VP

The intersection

of the plane kept inclined to HP and perpendicular to VP

line4.of Surface

the plane

5.

of the plane kept inclined to VP and perpendicular to HP

surfaceSurface

with HP

is 6.called

Surface the

of the plane kept inclined to both HP and VP

Horizontal Trace

Projections

of aofPlane with its Surface Perpendicular to HP and Parallel to VP

(HT) and that

VP

is

called

the plane ABCD having its surface perpendicular to HP and parallel to

Consider a square

Vertical

Trace

VP as in Fig. 3.2(i).

(VT).

(i)

(ii)

Figure 3.2

75

Projections of Planes

The front view is projected onto VP which is a square a ,b ,c ,d having true shape

1

and size. The top view is projected onto HP and is a line ab(c)(d) parallel

to XY. The

The plane surface is extended to meet HP to get the HT which coincides with the top

view of the plane. It does not have a VT because the plane is parallel to VP.

The projections and traces obtained are drawn with reference to the XY line as

Projections of a Plane with its Surface Perpendicular to VP and Parallel to HP

shown in Fig. 3.2(ii).

Consider a square plane ABCD with its surface perpendicular to VP and parallel to HP

as in Fig. 3.3(i).

(i)

(ii)

Figure 3.3

The top view is projected onto HP which is a square abcd having true shape and

size. The front view is projected onto VP and is a line ab(c)(d) parallel to XY. The

invisible corners are enclosed in ( ).

The plane surface is extended to meet VP to get the VT which coincides with the

front view of the plane. It does not have a HT because the plane is parallel to HP.

The projections and traces obtained are drawn with reference to the XY line as

shown in Fig. 3.3(ii).

76

Consider a square plane ABCD having its surface perpendicular to both HP and VP as

in Fig. 3.4(i).

The front view bc(d)(a) and top view ab(c)(d) are projected onto VP and HP

respectively. Both the views are lines perpendicular to the XY line. The true shape of the

plane is obtained in the side view which is projected onto a profile plane (PP) which is

perpendicular to both HP and VP. In this case, the left side view abcd is obtained on

the PP which is at the right side of the given object (plane).

The plane surface is extended to meet HP and VP to get HT and VT which coincide

with the top and front views respectively.

The projections and traces obtained are drawn with reference to the XY line as

shown in Fig. 3.4(ii).

(i)

(ii)

Figure 3.4

Consider a square plane ABCD with its surface inclined at an angle q to HP and

perpendicular to VP as in Fig. 3.5(i).

77

Projections of Planes

The top view abcd is projected onto HP. It is smaller than the true shape and size.

The front view is projected onto VP and is a line ab(c)(d) inclined at an angle q to

XY. The invisible corners are enclosed in ( ).

The plane surface is extended to meet HP to get the HT which is a line perpendicular

to XY. The plane surface is also extended to meet VP to get the VT which is a line

inclined at an angle q to XY.

The projections and traces obtained are drawn with references to the XY line as

shown in Fig. 3.5(ii).

(i)

(ii)

Figure 3.5

Consider a square plane ABCD with its surface inclined at an angle f to VP and

perpendicular to HP as shown in Fig. 3.6(i).

The front view abcd is projected onto VP. It is smaller than the true shape

and size. The top view is projected onto HP and is a line ab(c)(d) inclined at an angle f to

XY. The invisible corners are enclosed in ( ).

The plane surface is extended to meet VP to get the VT which is a line perpendicular

to XY. The plane surface is also extended to meet HP to get the HT which is a line

inclined at an angle f to XY.

78

The projections and traces obtained are drawn with reference to the XY line as

shown

in Fig. 3.6(ii).

(i)

(ii)

Figure 3.6

Note:

(i) When a plane is placed with its surface inclined to one plane and perpendicular

to the other plane, its projections cannot be drawn directly. It is obtained in two

steps and will be discussed in the examples that follow.

(ii) When a plane is placed with its surface inclined to both the reference planes, its

projections are obtained in three steps which will be discussed in the following

examples.

79

Projections of Planes

80

81

Projections of Planes

PRACTICE PROBLEMS

Problem 1 A pentagonal plate of side 35mm is placed with its surface vertical and

parallel to VP. Draw its projections when one of the sides is perpendicular to HP.

Solution When a plane is placed with its surface parallel to VP and perpendicular to

HP, draw its front view which will have the true shape and size. Project the top view

which will be a line parallel to XY.

To draw the projections

1. Draw a line perpendicular to XY. Arbitrarily mark the side 35 mm of the pentagon

on this line and construct the pentagon. Name the corners as abcde.

2. Project the top view of the plane by projecting all the corners from the front view

which is a line a(b)e(c)d drawn parallel to the XY line.

Problem 2 An equilateral triangular plate of side 50mm is kept with its plane parallel

to HP and one of the sides of the plate inclined at 45 to VP. Draw its projections.

Solution When a plane is placed with its surface parallel to HP and perpendicular to

VP, draw its top view which will have the true shape and size. Project the front view

which will be a line parallel to XY.

To draw the projections

1. Draw a line inclined at 45 to XY. Arbitrarily mark the side 50mm of the

triangular plate on this line and construct the triangle. Name the corners as

a,b and c in top view .

2. Project the front view a(c)b of the plane by projecting the top view which is

a line drawn parallel to XY line.

82

Projections of Planes

83

both HP and VP. Draw its projections when two of the sides are parallel to HP.

Solution When a plane is placed with its surface perpendicular to both HP and VP,

draw its side view which will have the true shape and size. Project the top and front

views which are lines perpendicular to XY.

To draw the projections

1. Draw a line parallel to XY in the side view. Arbitrarily mark the side 30 mm of

the hexagon on this line and construct the hexagon in the left side view. Name

the corners as abcd, etc.

2. Project the top view of the plane by projecting all the corners from the side view.

From a draw a perpendicular line to meet XY, from this point draw a line at 45

to XY to meet x y and a line parallel to XY. Mark the top view a arbitrarily on

1 1

this line. Similarly the other corners b,c and d are projected to get the top

view

3. a(b)(c)def as a line perpendicular to XY.

Project the front view a by drawing a

vertical line from top view a and a

horizontal line from a to get the

intersection point a. Similarly draw

vertical lines from b, c, d, e and f. Draw

horizontal lines from b, c, d, e and

f to get the front view b, c, d, e

and f perpendicular to XY.

84

85

Projections of Planes

an ellipse in the top view, having its major axis 60mm and minor axis 30mm. Draw its

projections and find the inclination of the plate with HP.

Solution When a plane is placed with its surface inclined to HP and perpendicular to

VP, its projections are obtained in two steps.

Step 1: Assume that the plane has its surface parallel to HP and perpendicular to VP.

Draw its top view which will have the true shape and size. Project the front view which

will be a line parallel to XY.

Step 2: Reproduce the front view tilted to the given angle q to HP and project the top

view of the plane which will be smaller than the true shape and size.

To draw the projections

1. Assume that the plate has its surface parallel to HP and perpendicular to VP.

Draw

2. its top viewit is a circle of radius 30 mm.

As the circle does not have any corners, divide the circle into equal parts, say 8,

(students are asked to divide the circle into a minimum of 12 parts) in such a

way that 8 points are marked on its circumference and project them to the front

4. view.

5.

Draw the end projectors in front view as 30mm (minor axis of ellipse) and

reproduce the front view by drawing an arc to cut the end projector, in such a way

that the end a is on XY line.The angle made by the reproduced front view with

XY is the inclination of the plane with HP (q).

1

1

Draw horizontal lines from a, b,

c, 1etc.,

and vertical lines from a, b, c, etc., to

smooth

curve to

the

of

get

the required

topget

view

a ,top

b , view

c , etc.

an

minor axis 30mm and major axis 60mm.

theellipse

circlehaving

as

86

Projections of Planes

87

Problem 5 Draw the projection of a circular lamina which has 50mm as diameter

and its plane vertical and inclined at 45 to the VP. Its centre is 40mm above HP and

60mm infront of VP.

Solution When a plane is placed with its surface inclined to VP and perpendicular to

HP, its projections are obtained in two steps.

Step

1: Assume that the plane has its

surface parallel to VP and perpendicular to

HP. Draw its front view which will have the

true shape and size. Project the top view

which will be a line parallel to XY.

Step 2: Reproduce the top view tilted to the given angle f to VP and project the front

view of the plane which will be smaller than the true shape and size.

1. Draw the front view of the circle considering the centre 40mm above XY line and

To radius

draw the

projections

25mm.

2. As the circle

does not have

any corners,

divide

the

circle

into

3.

equal

parts,

say

8,

4.

(students are

1

1

asked

to

horizontal

lines

from

a

b

5. Draw

1

1

1

divide

the

1 1 1

ccircle

, etc., into

and vertical

lines from

a

to getathe

required

front view abc, etc.

top

view

, bof

,c,

6. etc.,

minimum

1 1 1

12 parts) in

Join

to get the front view of the

suchabc,

a way

that 8 points

circular plate which is an ellipse.

are marked

on

1 1 1

its

circumference

and

project

them to the

front view.

Project the top view of the plane by projecting the front view abc etc to get the

top view a(b)(c)(d)efgh as a line on XY line.

Tilt and reproduce the top view a(b)(c)(d)efgh to the required angle 45 with XY in

such a way that the centre (c )g is 60 mm from the XY line.

88

89

Projections of Planes

Problem 6 A regular hexagon of side 35 mm has a corner in the HP. Its surface is

inclined at 45 to HP. The top view of the diagnol through the corner in HP makes an

angle of 60 with VP. Draw its projections.

Solution In this position, the surface of the plate is inclined to both HP and VP, its

projections are obtained in three steps.

Step 1: Assume that the plane has its surface parallel to HP and perpendicular to VP.

Draw its top view which will have the true shape and size. Project the front view which

will be a line parallel to the XY line.

Step 2: Reproduce the front view tilted to the given angle q to HP and project the top

view of the plane which will be smaller than the true shape and size.

Step 3: Reproduce the top view by considering the side/diagonal of the plate that makes,

the given angle with VP. Project the front view of the plane which is also smaller than

the true shape and size.

To draw the projections

1. Draw the top view of the hexagon considering that one of the sides is parallel to

XY. Then only while tilting the surface to the required angle with HP, a corner of

the plane will rest on HP.

2. The front view of the plane is projected and obtained on XY as a line ab(f )(e)c

3. d

Tilt and reproduce the front view ab(f )(e)cd to the given angle 45 with XY

4. in

such a way that the end a is on XY line.

Draw horizontal lines from top view a, b, c, etc., and vertical lines from front view

5. a1, b1, c1, etc., to get the top view a1,b1c1d1, etc., smaller than the true shape

1 1

1

1

1

1

1

1

and size.

to the given angle 60 to VP.

6. inclined

Reproduce

the lines

top view

, d, etc.,

, e , and

f invertical

such a

wayfrom

that

the

diagonal

Draw

horizontal

from a

a,,bb, ,c c

lines

top

view

a , b , a d is

1

the true shape and size.

2

, 2c

90

Projections of Planes

91

Problem 7 Draw the projections of a regular pentagon of side 40 mm which has its

surface inclined at 30 to VP and a side parallel to VP and inclined at 60 to HP.

Solution In this position, the surface of the plate is inclined to both VP and HP. Its

projections are obtained in three steps.

Step 1: Assume that the plate has its

surface

parallel

to

VP

and

perpendicular to HP. Draw its front view

which will have the true shape and size.

Project the top view which will be a line

parallel to XY line.

Step 2: Reproduce the top view tilted to the given angle f to VP and project the front

view of the plane which will be smaller than the true shape and size.

Step 3: Reproduce the front view by considering the side of the plate that makes the

given angle with HP. Project the top view of the plane which is also smaller than the

Drawand

the size.

front view of the pentagon considering one of the sides perpendicular to

true1.shape

XY. Then only while tilting the surface to the required angle with VP, this side of

To the

draw

the will

projections

plane

rest on VP.

2. The top view of the plane is projected and obtained on XY as a line.

3. Tilt and reproduce the top view line to the given angle 30 with XY in such a way

that the end a(b) is on the XY line.

4. Draw horizontal lines from front view a, b c, etc and vertical lines from top view

a1, b 1, c 1, etc., to get the front view of the plane which is smaller than the true

5.

Reproduce the front view in such a way that the side a1b

horizontal lines from a1, b1, c1, etc., and vertical lines from a2, b2, c2,

6. Draw

angle 60 to HP.

etc., to

get the required top view of the pentagon plate which is smaller than the true

shape and size.

92

Projections of Planes

93

Problem 8 Draw the projections of a regular hexagon of side 25 mm, having one of

its sides on the ground and inclined at 60 to VP and its surface making an angle

of

45 with the ground.

Solution In this position, the surface of the plate is inclined to both HP and VP, its

projections are obtained in three steps.

Step 1: Assume that the plane has its surface parallel to HP and perpendicular to VP.

Draw its top view which will have the true shape and size. Project the front view which

will be a line parallel to the XY line.

Step 2: Reproduce the front view tilted to the given angle q to HP and project the top

view of the plane which will be smaller than the true shape and size.

Step 3: Reproduce the top view by considering the side of the plate that makes, the

given angle with VP. Project the front view of the plane which is also smaller than the

true shape and size.

To draw the projections

1. Draw the top view of the hexagon considering one of the sides is perpendicular to

XY. Then only while tilting the surface to the required angle with HP, this side of

the plane will rest on HP.

2. The front view of the plane is projected and obtained on XY as a line (a)b(f )c(e

3. )d.

Tilt and reproduce the front view (a)b(f )c(e)d to the given angle 45 with

4. XY in

such a way that the end (a)b is on XY line.

Draw horizontal lines from top view a, b, c etc and vertical lines from front view a

true

5. 1, b1, c1, etc., to get the top view a1,b1,c1,d1,e1,f 1, smaller than the

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

shape and size.

to the given angle 30 to VP.

Draw

horizontal

lines

from

vertical

lines

from

view

6. inclined

Reproduce

the top

view

a , a

b ,1,cb

, 1d, c

, e1 etc

, f ,and

in such

a way

that

thetop

side

a , ab1, b

is1,

c1,

etc., to get the required front view a2,b2,c2,d2,e2,f 2 of the plate smaller

than the

true shape and size.

94

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