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3

Projections of
BASICS

Planes

A plane is a two dimensional object having length and breadth only. Its thickness is
always neglected. Various shapes of plane figures are considered such as square,
rectangle, circle, pentagon, hexagon, etc.

(i)

(v)

(ii)

(iii)

(vi)

(iv)

(vii)

Figure 3.1

There are two types of planes


1. Perpendicular planes which have their surface perpendicular to any one of the
reference planes and parallel or inclined to the other reference plane.
2. Oblique planes which have their surface inclined to both the reference planes.

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Traces of a Plane
The trace of a
plane is the line
of intersection or
meeting of the
plane
surface
with the reference
POSITIONS
OF Aif PLANE
plane;
A
plane figure is
positioned with reference to the reference planes by referring its surface
necessary
the
in
the following
possible positions.
plane
surface is
extended
1. Surface oftothe plane kept perpendicular to HP and parallel to VP
intersect
2. Surface the
of the plane kept perpendicular to VP and parallel to HP
reference plane.
3. Surface of the plane kept perpendicular to both HP and VP
The intersection
of the plane kept inclined to HP and perpendicular to VP
line4.of Surface
the plane
5.
of the plane kept inclined to VP and perpendicular to HP
surfaceSurface
with HP
is 6.called
Surface the
of the plane kept inclined to both HP and VP
Horizontal Trace
Projections
of aofPlane with its Surface Perpendicular to HP and Parallel to VP
(HT) and that
VP
is
called
the plane ABCD having its surface perpendicular to HP and parallel to
Consider a square
Vertical
Trace
VP as in Fig. 3.2(i).
(VT).

(i)

(ii)
Figure 3.2

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Projections of Planes

The front view is projected onto VP which is a square a ,b ,c ,d having true shape
1

and size. The top view is projected onto HP and is a line ab(c)(d) parallel
to XY. The

invisible corners are enclosed in ( ).


The plane surface is extended to meet HP to get the HT which coincides with the top
view of the plane. It does not have a VT because the plane is parallel to VP.
The projections and traces obtained are drawn with reference to the XY line as
Projections of a Plane with its Surface Perpendicular to VP and Parallel to HP
shown in Fig. 3.2(ii).
Consider a square plane ABCD with its surface perpendicular to VP and parallel to HP
as in Fig. 3.3(i).

(i)

(ii)
Figure 3.3

The top view is projected onto HP which is a square abcd having true shape and
size. The front view is projected onto VP and is a line ab(c)(d) parallel to XY. The
invisible corners are enclosed in ( ).
The plane surface is extended to meet VP to get the VT which coincides with the
front view of the plane. It does not have a HT because the plane is parallel to HP.
The projections and traces obtained are drawn with reference to the XY line as
shown in Fig. 3.3(ii).

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Projections of a Plane with its Surface Perpendicular to both HP and VP


Consider a square plane ABCD having its surface perpendicular to both HP and VP as
in Fig. 3.4(i).
The front view bc(d)(a) and top view ab(c)(d) are projected onto VP and HP
respectively. Both the views are lines perpendicular to the XY line. The true shape of the
plane is obtained in the side view which is projected onto a profile plane (PP) which is
perpendicular to both HP and VP. In this case, the left side view abcd is obtained on
the PP which is at the right side of the given object (plane).
The plane surface is extended to meet HP and VP to get HT and VT which coincide
with the top and front views respectively.
The projections and traces obtained are drawn with reference to the XY line as
shown in Fig. 3.4(ii).

(i)

(ii)
Figure 3.4

Projections of a Plane with its Surface Inclined to HP and Perpendicular to VP


Consider a square plane ABCD with its surface inclined at an angle q to HP and
perpendicular to VP as in Fig. 3.5(i).

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Projections of Planes

The top view abcd is projected onto HP. It is smaller than the true shape and size.
The front view is projected onto VP and is a line ab(c)(d) inclined at an angle q to
XY. The invisible corners are enclosed in ( ).
The plane surface is extended to meet HP to get the HT which is a line perpendicular
to XY. The plane surface is also extended to meet VP to get the VT which is a line
inclined at an angle q to XY.
The projections and traces obtained are drawn with references to the XY line as
shown in Fig. 3.5(ii).

(i)

(ii)
Figure 3.5

Projections of a Plane with its Surface Inclined to VP and Perpendicular to HP


Consider a square plane ABCD with its surface inclined at an angle f to VP and
perpendicular to HP as shown in Fig. 3.6(i).
The front view abcd is projected onto VP. It is smaller than the true shape
and size. The top view is projected onto HP and is a line ab(c)(d) inclined at an angle f to
XY. The invisible corners are enclosed in ( ).
The plane surface is extended to meet VP to get the VT which is a line perpendicular
to XY. The plane surface is also extended to meet HP to get the HT which is a line
inclined at an angle f to XY.

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The projections and traces obtained are drawn with reference to the XY line as
shown
in Fig. 3.6(ii).

(i)

(ii)
Figure 3.6

Note:
(i) When a plane is placed with its surface inclined to one plane and perpendicular
to the other plane, its projections cannot be drawn directly. It is obtained in two
steps and will be discussed in the examples that follow.
(ii) When a plane is placed with its surface inclined to both the reference planes, its
projections are obtained in three steps which will be discussed in the following
examples.

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Projections of Planes

Space for Rough Work

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Projections of Planes

PRACTICE PROBLEMS
Problem 1 A pentagonal plate of side 35mm is placed with its surface vertical and
parallel to VP. Draw its projections when one of the sides is perpendicular to HP.
Solution When a plane is placed with its surface parallel to VP and perpendicular to
HP, draw its front view which will have the true shape and size. Project the top view
which will be a line parallel to XY.
To draw the projections
1. Draw a line perpendicular to XY. Arbitrarily mark the side 35 mm of the pentagon
on this line and construct the pentagon. Name the corners as abcde.
2. Project the top view of the plane by projecting all the corners from the front view
which is a line a(b)e(c)d drawn parallel to the XY line.

Problem 2 An equilateral triangular plate of side 50mm is kept with its plane parallel
to HP and one of the sides of the plate inclined at 45 to VP. Draw its projections.
Solution When a plane is placed with its surface parallel to HP and perpendicular to
VP, draw its top view which will have the true shape and size. Project the front view
which will be a line parallel to XY.
To draw the projections
1. Draw a line inclined at 45 to XY. Arbitrarily mark the side 50mm of the
triangular plate on this line and construct the triangle. Name the corners as
a,b and c in top view .
2. Project the front view a(c)b of the plane by projecting the top view which is
a line drawn parallel to XY line.

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Problem 3 A regular hexagonal plate of side 30 mm has its surface perpendicular to


both HP and VP. Draw its projections when two of the sides are parallel to HP.
Solution When a plane is placed with its surface perpendicular to both HP and VP,
draw its side view which will have the true shape and size. Project the top and front
views which are lines perpendicular to XY.
To draw the projections
1. Draw a line parallel to XY in the side view. Arbitrarily mark the side 30 mm of
the hexagon on this line and construct the hexagon in the left side view. Name
the corners as abcd, etc.
2. Project the top view of the plane by projecting all the corners from the side view.
From a draw a perpendicular line to meet XY, from this point draw a line at 45
to XY to meet x y and a line parallel to XY. Mark the top view a arbitrarily on
1 1
this line. Similarly the other corners b,c and d are projected to get the top
view
3. a(b)(c)def as a line perpendicular to XY.
Project the front view a by drawing a
vertical line from top view a and a
horizontal line from a to get the
intersection point a. Similarly draw
vertical lines from b, c, d, e and f. Draw
horizontal lines from b, c, d, e and
f to get the front view b, c, d, e
and f perpendicular to XY.

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Projections of Planes

Problem 4 A circular plate of negligible thickness and 60mm diameter appears as


an ellipse in the top view, having its major axis 60mm and minor axis 30mm. Draw its
projections and find the inclination of the plate with HP.
Solution When a plane is placed with its surface inclined to HP and perpendicular to
VP, its projections are obtained in two steps.
Step 1: Assume that the plane has its surface parallel to HP and perpendicular to VP.
Draw its top view which will have the true shape and size. Project the front view which
will be a line parallel to XY.
Step 2: Reproduce the front view tilted to the given angle q to HP and project the top
view of the plane which will be smaller than the true shape and size.
To draw the projections
1. Assume that the plate has its surface parallel to HP and perpendicular to VP.
Draw
2. its top viewit is a circle of radius 30 mm.

3. Project and get the front view which is a line on XY.


As the circle does not have any corners, divide the circle into equal parts, say 8,
(students are asked to divide the circle into a minimum of 12 parts) in such a
way that 8 points are marked on its circumference and project them to the front
4. view.

5.

Draw the end projectors in front view as 30mm (minor axis of ellipse) and
reproduce the front view by drawing an arc to cut the end projector, in such a way
that the end a is on XY line.The angle made by the reproduced front view with
XY is the inclination of the plane with HP (q).
1
1
Draw horizontal lines from a, b,
c, 1etc.,
and vertical lines from a, b, c, etc., to

6. Join a1, b 1, c 1, etc., by drawing a


smooth
curve to
the
of
get
the required
topget
view
a ,top
b , view
c , etc.
an
minor axis 30mm and major axis 60mm.
theellipse
circlehaving
as

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Problem 5 Draw the projection of a circular lamina which has 50mm as diameter
and its plane vertical and inclined at 45 to the VP. Its centre is 40mm above HP and
60mm infront of VP.
Solution When a plane is placed with its surface inclined to VP and perpendicular to
HP, its projections are obtained in two steps.
Step
1: Assume that the plane has its
surface parallel to VP and perpendicular to
HP. Draw its front view which will have the
true shape and size. Project the top view
which will be a line parallel to XY.
Step 2: Reproduce the top view tilted to the given angle f to VP and project the front
view of the plane which will be smaller than the true shape and size.
1. Draw the front view of the circle considering the centre 40mm above XY line and
To radius
draw the
projections
25mm.
2. As the circle
does not have
any corners,
divide
the
circle
into
3.
equal
parts,
say
8,
4.
(students are
1
1
asked
to
horizontal
lines
from
a
b
5. Draw
1
1
1
divide
the
1 1 1
ccircle
, etc., into
and vertical
lines from
a
to getathe
required
front view abc, etc.
top
view
, bof
,c,
6. etc.,
minimum
1 1 1
12 parts) in
Join
to get the front view of the
suchabc,
a way
that 8 points
circular plate which is an ellipse.
are marked
on
1 1 1
its
circumference
and
project
them to the
front view.
Project the top view of the plane by projecting the front view abc etc to get the
top view a(b)(c)(d)efgh as a line on XY line.
Tilt and reproduce the top view a(b)(c)(d)efgh to the required angle 45 with XY in
such a way that the centre (c )g is 60 mm from the XY line.

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Lesson Plan for Engineering Graphics

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Projections of Planes

Problem 6 A regular hexagon of side 35 mm has a corner in the HP. Its surface is
inclined at 45 to HP. The top view of the diagnol through the corner in HP makes an
angle of 60 with VP. Draw its projections.
Solution In this position, the surface of the plate is inclined to both HP and VP, its
projections are obtained in three steps.
Step 1: Assume that the plane has its surface parallel to HP and perpendicular to VP.
Draw its top view which will have the true shape and size. Project the front view which
will be a line parallel to the XY line.
Step 2: Reproduce the front view tilted to the given angle q to HP and project the top
view of the plane which will be smaller than the true shape and size.
Step 3: Reproduce the top view by considering the side/diagonal of the plate that makes,
the given angle with VP. Project the front view of the plane which is also smaller than
the true shape and size.
To draw the projections
1. Draw the top view of the hexagon considering that one of the sides is parallel to
XY. Then only while tilting the surface to the required angle with HP, a corner of
the plane will rest on HP.
2. The front view of the plane is projected and obtained on XY as a line ab(f )(e)c
3. d
Tilt and reproduce the front view ab(f )(e)cd to the given angle 45 with XY
4. in
such a way that the end a is on XY line.
Draw horizontal lines from top view a, b, c, etc., and vertical lines from front view
5. a1, b1, c1, etc., to get the top view a1,b1c1d1, etc., smaller than the true shape
1 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
and size.
to the given angle 60 to VP.
6. inclined
Reproduce
the lines
top view
, d, etc.,
, e , and
f invertical
such a
wayfrom
that
the
diagonal
Draw
horizontal
from a
a,,bb, ,c c
lines
top
view
a , b , a d is
1

c , etc., to get the required front view a , b


the true shape and size.

2
, 2c

, d , e , f of the plate smaller than

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Lesson Plan for Engineering Graphics

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91

Problem 7 Draw the projections of a regular pentagon of side 40 mm which has its
surface inclined at 30 to VP and a side parallel to VP and inclined at 60 to HP.
Solution In this position, the surface of the plate is inclined to both VP and HP. Its
projections are obtained in three steps.
Step 1: Assume that the plate has its
surface
parallel
to
VP
and
perpendicular to HP. Draw its front view
which will have the true shape and size.
Project the top view which will be a line
parallel to XY line.
Step 2: Reproduce the top view tilted to the given angle f to VP and project the front
view of the plane which will be smaller than the true shape and size.
Step 3: Reproduce the front view by considering the side of the plate that makes the
given angle with HP. Project the top view of the plane which is also smaller than the
Drawand
the size.
front view of the pentagon considering one of the sides perpendicular to
true1.shape
XY. Then only while tilting the surface to the required angle with VP, this side of
To the
draw
the will
projections
plane
rest on VP.
2. The top view of the plane is projected and obtained on XY as a line.
3. Tilt and reproduce the top view line to the given angle 30 with XY in such a way
that the end a(b) is on the XY line.
4. Draw horizontal lines from front view a, b c, etc and vertical lines from top view
a1, b 1, c 1, etc., to get the front view of the plane which is smaller than the true
5.

shape and size.


Reproduce the front view in such a way that the side a1b

1 is inclined to the given

horizontal lines from a1, b1, c1, etc., and vertical lines from a2, b2, c2,
6. Draw
angle 60 to HP.
etc., to
get the required top view of the pentagon plate which is smaller than the true
shape and size.

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Problem 8 Draw the projections of a regular hexagon of side 25 mm, having one of
its sides on the ground and inclined at 60 to VP and its surface making an angle
of
45 with the ground.
Solution In this position, the surface of the plate is inclined to both HP and VP, its
projections are obtained in three steps.
Step 1: Assume that the plane has its surface parallel to HP and perpendicular to VP.
Draw its top view which will have the true shape and size. Project the front view which
will be a line parallel to the XY line.
Step 2: Reproduce the front view tilted to the given angle q to HP and project the top
view of the plane which will be smaller than the true shape and size.
Step 3: Reproduce the top view by considering the side of the plate that makes, the
given angle with VP. Project the front view of the plane which is also smaller than the
true shape and size.
To draw the projections
1. Draw the top view of the hexagon considering one of the sides is perpendicular to
XY. Then only while tilting the surface to the required angle with HP, this side of
the plane will rest on HP.
2. The front view of the plane is projected and obtained on XY as a line (a)b(f )c(e
3. )d.
Tilt and reproduce the front view (a)b(f )c(e)d to the given angle 45 with
4. XY in
such a way that the end (a)b is on XY line.
Draw horizontal lines from top view a, b, c etc and vertical lines from front view a
true
5. 1, b1, c1, etc., to get the top view a1,b1,c1,d1,e1,f 1, smaller than the
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
shape and size.
to the given angle 30 to VP.
Draw
horizontal
lines
from
vertical
lines
from
view
6. inclined
Reproduce
the top
view
a , a
b ,1,cb
, 1d, c
, e1 etc
, f ,and
in such
a way
that
thetop
side
a , ab1, b
is1,
c1,
etc., to get the required front view a2,b2,c2,d2,e2,f 2 of the plate smaller
than the
true shape and size.

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Space for Rough Work