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PRINSIP DASAR

NEUROIMAGING
Oleh

Edrial N. Eddin

MEDICAL IMAGING

X-Ray

MRI

NEUROIMAGING

A PET scan showing activity in the speech


centre of the brain

NEUROIMAGING
Pengukuran Makroskopik aktivitas otak manusia dapat diperoleh
maupun dilihat melalui instrument medis yang dengan
mengunakan teknologi "imaging" seperti :
MEG (Magnetoenchepalograph) memantau aktivitas
kemagnetan otak
EEG (Electroenchepalograph) memantau aktivitas listrik
otak
TMS (Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation)
X Ray
CT Scan (CAT Scan - Computed Axial Tomography)
MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging)
NIRS (Near Infrared Spectroscopy)
PET (Positron Emission Tomography)
SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography)

BIOMEDICAL IMAGING
GOAL :
Create images of the interior of the living human
body from the outside for diagnostic purposes.
Biomedical Imaging is a multi-disciplinary field involving :
Physics (matter, energy, radiation, etc.)
Math (linear algebra, calculus, statistics)
Biology/Physiology
Engineering (implementation)
Computer science (image reconstruction, signal
processing)

X-RAY IMAGING

Year discovered:

1895 (Rntgen, NP 1905)

Form of radiation:

X-rays = electromagnetic
radiation (photons)

Energy / wavelength of radiation:

0.1 100 keV / 10 0.01 nm


(ionizing)

Imaging principle:

X-rays penetrate tissue and


create "shadowgram" of
differences in density.

Imaging volume:

Whole body

Resolution:

Very high (sub-mm)

Applications:

Mammography, lung diseases,


orthopedics, dentistry,
cardiovascular, gastro intestine

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Contoh X-Ray Images

What do you see?


What dont you see?

X-Ray Computed
Tomography

Year discovered:
Form of radiation:
Energy / wavelength of radiation:

Imaging principle:

Imaging volume:
Resolution:
Applications:

1972 (Hounsfield, NP 1979)


X-rays
10 100 keV / 0.1 0.01 nm
(ionizing)
X-ray images are taken under
many angles from which
tomographic ("sliced") views
are computed
Whole body
High (mm)
Soft tissue imaging (brain,
cardiovascular, GI)

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Contoh X-Ray CT Images

What do you see?

Nuclear imaging (PET/SPECT)

Year discovered:
Form of radiation:
Energy / wavelength of radiation:

Imaging principle:

Imaging volume:
Resolution:
Applications:

1953 (PET), 1963 (SPECT)


Gamma rays
> 100 keV / < 0.01 nm
(ionizing)
Accumulation or "washout" of
radioactive isotopes in the
body are imaged with x-ray
cameras.
Whole body
Medium Low (mm - cm)
Functional imaging (cancer
detection, metabolic
processes, myocardial
infarction)

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Contoh SPECT/PET Images


SPECT

What do you see?

PET

Magnetic Resonance
Imaging

Year discovered:

Form of radiation:

Energy / wavelength of radiation:

Imaging principle:
and
response
Imaging volume:
Resolution:
Applications:

1945 ([NMR] Bloch, NP 1952)


1973 (Lauterbur, NP 2003)
1977 (Mansfield, NP 2003)
1971 (Damadian, SUNY DMS)
Radio frequency (RF)
(non-ionizing)
10 100 MHz / 30 3 m
(~10-7 eV)
Proton spin flips are induced,
the RF emitted by their
(echo) is detected.
Whole body
High (mm)
Soft tissue, functional imaging

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Contoh MR Images

What do you see?

Ultrasound Imaging

Year discovered:
Form of radiation:

1952 (clinical: 1962)


Sound waves (non-ionizing)
NOT EM radiation!
Frequency / wavelength of radiation: 1 10 MHz / 1 0.1 mm

Imaging principle:

Imaging volume:
Resolution:
Applications:

Echoes from discontinuities in


tissue density/speed of sound
are registered.
< 20 cm
High (mm)
Soft tissue, blood flow
(Doppler)

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

For comparison, this is


wavelength/frequency range of US,
but US is NOT electromagnetic!

Contoh Ultrasound Images


SPECT

What do you see?

Optical Tomography

Year discovered:

1989 (Barbour)

Form of radiation:

Near-infrared light (nonionizing)

Energy / wavelength of radiation:


Imaging principle:

Imaging volume:
Resolution:
Applications:

~1 eV/ 600 1000 nm


Interaction (absorption,
scattering) of light w/ tissue.
~103 cm3
Low (~ 1cm)
Perfusion, functional imaging

ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM

Contoh Diffuse Optical


Tomography Images
Brain SPECT

Breast
Arm

What do you see?

INSTRUMENTASI KEDOKTERAN
INSTRUMENTASI : Segala ikhwal yang

menyangkut INSTRUMEN

INSTRUMEN :

alat yang menambah ketelitian,


memperdalam dan memperpanjang
jangkauan manusia.
membantu manusia untuk mengetahui
besaran di sekitarnya.

PERALATAN ELEKTROMEDIK
(1)
PERALATAN ELEKTROMEDIK PADA
DASARNYA DIGUNAKAN, UNTUK MEDICAL
TREATMENT DAN DIAGNOSIS PASIEN.
BIASANYA DILENGKAPI DENGAN INTRUKSIINSTRUKSI YANG DIPERLUKAN TERHADAP
PASIEN.
DILENGKAPI DENGAN SISTEM PENGAMAN
AGAR ALAT-ALAT TIDAK TERKONTAK
LANGSUNG DENGAN TUBUH PASIEN.

PERALATAN ELEKTROMEDIK
(2)
SEMUA ORANG PERLU DIHINDARI TERHADAP
MUATAN LISTRIK YANG BERASAL DARI
PERALATAN ELEKTROMEDIK, DENGAN
MEMBUAT STANDARD PENGAMANAN.
MENGINGAT TINGKAT BAHAYA BAGI PASIEN
DAN PENGGUNA ALAT LISTRIK YANG
TERKONTAK DENGAN TUBUH MANUSIA, MAKA
:

PERALATAN ELEKTROMEDIK
(3)
1. ALAT YANG DIGUNAKAN ADALAH HARUS MEMENUHI
STANDAR SERTA YANG AMAN.
2. ALAT YANG DIGUNAKAN TIDAK TERGOLONG TUA
(KOMPONEN SUDAH TIDAK SESUAI DGN SPESIFIKASI
TEKNISNYA),
3. KOMPONEN DENGAN UTILITAS RENDAH (SEPERTI
TABUNG VAKUM), SEBAIKNYA DIGANTI.
4. BILA MUNGKIN HARUS ADA SEORANG AHLI LISTRIK
UNTUK MENGATAKAN LAYAK TIDAKNYA PEMAKAIAN.

KONSEP DASAR
PERALATAN
ELEKTROMEDIK

KONSEP DASAR
PERALATAN
ELEKTROMEDIK

KONSEP DASAR
PERALATAN
ELEKTROMEDIK

A/D Converter: Resolution

Implementasi pada Gambar Digital


Resolution Degree to which a measurand can be broken into
identifiable adjacent parts ex pictures dpi (dots per square inch)

Less Resolution

More Resolution

Another Example is the number of levels of resolution ex multimeter or binary


data word
3
2.5
2
1.5
1

3
2
1

Binary Resolution if you have 8 Bit that will represent 10 V what is the resolution
of the system? Resolution = 10 0 / 255 = 39 mV per bit
8 bits gives you 28 = 256 values or 256 -1 = 255 segments

Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi

Sensitivity is the minimum input parameter that creates a


detectable output change
Precision is the degree of reproducibility of the
measurements
Resolution is the smallest detectable incremental input
parameter that can be detected in the output signal
Accuracy is the maximum difference between the actual
value and the indicated value

Analog vs Digital
Gambar / citra yang dihasilkan peralatan medis dapat berupa
gambar dalam bentuk analog ataupun digital.
Agar dapat diolah maupun diproses oleh komputer, gambargambar tersebut harus dalam bentuk digital.

Citra Digital
Definisi :
Citra digital adalah hasil penangkapan suatu objek fisik
menggunakanperalatan pencitraan digital, dimana setiap
bagian dari gambar tersebut direpresentasikan dalam bentuk
piksel (picture elements) yang tersusun berdasarkan
perbandingan kolom dan baris yang telah ditetapkan
sebelumnya.
Keuntungan :
Suatu citra digital dapat diedit, dimanipulasi, dikirim, dihapus,
dikopi atau dimasukkan ke berkas komputer lainnya atau ke
halaman web.

Citra Digital
Kerugian :
Kualitas Pembesaran Gambar sangat tergantung dari
resolusi pengambilan gambar.
Citra digital dapat berupa :
Black and White
Gray scale
Color

MEDICAL IMAGES

One-dimentional Signals
Two-dimentional Images
Three-Dimentional Images
Four-Dimentional Images
Five- or Higher-Dimentional?

Konsep Dasar Pengambilan


Gambar

MRI System Block Diagram

Magnetic Resonance Image


The MRI is a medical
diagnostic technique
that creates images of
the body using the
principle of nuclear
magnetic resonance.

Computed Axial
Tomography
This system uses X rays
and computers to produce
three-dimensional images
of the human body. It
provides detailed views of
the bodys soft tissues,
including blood vessels,
muscle tissue, and organs,
such as the brain.