You are on page 1of 22

Plasma Treatment In Textile

The physical definition
of plasma is an ionized gas with
an essentially equal density of positive and negative
Different reactive species in plasma chamber interact with
the substrate surface cleaning, modification or coating
occurs dependent of the used parameter.
Plasma process can be carried out in different manners,
substrate can be treated directly in the plasma zone.
substrate can be positioned outside the plasma;
remote process.
substrate can be achieved in the plasma followed by a
subsequent grafting.
substrate can be treated with a polymer solution or
gas which will be fixed or polymerized by a
subsequent plasma treatment.

Plasma Treatment In Textile


Plasma Treatment In Textile


Dyeability of Cotton Substrate;

The effect of plasma treatment in air and oxygen
appears to increase
rate of dyeing
direct dye uptake in the absence of electrolyte
in the dye bath.
Oxygen treatment is more effective than air plasma
It increases the rate and extent of dye uptake for the
direct dye studied depends more on the oxygen component of the air than on the
nitrogen component, which supports an oxidative mechanism of attack on the cotton.

The contributory factors leading to increase in

dye uptake are as follows,
change of the fabric surface area per unit volume
due to the surface erosion.
etching effect of the plasma effect on the fibred
mages the fiber surface and also removes surface
fiber impurities.
chemical changes in the cotton fiber surface.
possibility of the formation of free radicals on the
cellulosic chains of cotton.
Thus the action of oxygen and air plasma treatments
modifies the surface properties of cotton and leads to
an increase in the rate and extent of uptake of direct


This new process utilizes supercritical fluid carbon
dioxide (CO2) for dyeing textile-materials.
It is a completely waterless dyeing process using
only nominal amounts of CO2, nearly all of which
is recycled.
DryDye fabrics dyed with this unique waterless
process will have the same dye qualities and
durability as current, conventionally-dyed fabrics.
Textile S.CO2-Dyeing-1.swf

Textile S.CO2-Dyeing-2.swf


No waste water
(problem in textile
No require additives
No final drying

Hybrid materials consisting of organic dyes
and layered silicate nanoparticles
Nanoclay: particle size < 20nm
Ionic-exchange reaction: Colorant + Nanoclay (H+)
Nanoclays: Smectite group
Montmollonite: laminar
Sepiolite: acicular


In the past.
nearly 25 % biodegraded in aerobic waste-water treatment
Remaining 75%was absorbed by the activated sludge and
dumped in landfills along with the sludge.
Better dispersing action
90% biodegradable.
can be applied in continuous & exhaust dyeing as well as textile
suited for customers with automated liquid dispensing systems.


Sense the conditions in the environment and
respond to those conditions
Initially, smart colorants were developed for
specialized applications but now have become
available for application on textiles / Garments
Smart colorants can be classified into three categories
Photo chromic color
Thermo chromic color
Glow in the dark color

Pre-treated fibres:
PET: with UV, N,N-dimethylacrylamide
CO: DMDHEU, PUR, acetone

Changes in structure of colorants

[6] Novel

reactive disperse dyes has been synthesized.

Control the solubility and dye process.

Equations to predict the solubility.

1. Ultrasonic assisted dyeing?

1.1 What are Ultrasonic radiations?
There is a compression or rarefaction during each cycle of
wave. When ultrasonic waves are absorbed in liquid
system, the phenomenon of cavitations takes place, which
is the alternate wave formation, oscillation and collapse of
tiny bubbles or cavities. During the rarefaction of the
portion of the wave cycle, dissolved gas molecules act as
nuclei for the formation of cavities, which may expand
relatively slowly up to a diameter as much as 0.1 cm. and
then quickly collapse during the compression portion of the

The use of ultrasound in the dyeing of textile can be explained
as: when ultrasound waves are absorbed in the liquid system
the phenomenon of cavitations takes place. Cavitations can
liberate entrapped gases from liquid or porous materials like
textiles, dye bath etc. The influence of ultrasound on dyeing is
explained to have three-way effects:
(I) Dispersion: Breaking up of micelles and high molecular weight
aggregates in to uniform dispersion in the dye bath.
(ll) Degassing: Expulsion ( dissolved or entrapped gases or air
molecules from fiber capillaries and interstices at the cross over points
of fiber in to liquid and removed cavitations.
(Ill) Diffusion: Accelerating the rate of diffusion of dye inside the
fiber by piercing the insulating layer covering the fiber and
accelerating the interaction between dye and fiber.

Effects I and II are promoted by the mechanical

action of cavitations, while effect III is due to both
the mechanical action and the heating of the fiber
surface. In case of water soluble dyes, ultrasound
constitutes mostly an effective means of
mechanical agitation, whereas in case of pigments,
which are not soluble in water, ultrasound provides
means of pigment dispersion and penetration,
which is not provided by the conventional method.
The dyeing results are affected by the frequency of
the ultrasound used. Irradiation at very low
frequencies of the order of 50 or 100 cps produces
no effects. Frequencies in the range between 22
and 175 KHz have been found to be most effective,
the latter frequency being preferable for silk, wool
and nylon

Ultrasonic offers many potential advantages in

textile wet processing:

Energy savings by dyeing at lower

temperatures and reduced processing
Environmental improvements by reduced
consumption of auxiliary chemicals
Processing enhancement by allowing
real-time control of color shade
Slower overall processing costs, thereby
increasing industry competitiveness.

1.2 Microwaves
Microwaves are electromagnetic waves
whose frequency ranges from 1000MHz
to10,00,000 MHz. Microwaves are so called
since they are defined in terms of their
wavelength in the sense that micro refers
to tiny. In other words the wavelengths of
microwaves are short at the above range
of frequency, typically from few cms to few
mm. The higher frequency edge of
microwave borders on the infrared and
visible light region of the spectrum.

Microwave dyeing:
Microwave dyeing takes into account only the
dielectric and the thermal properties. The dielectric
property refers to the intrinsic electrical properties
that affect the dyeing by dipolar rotation of the dye
and influences the microwave field upon the
dipoles. The aqueous solution of dye has two
components which are polar, in the high frequency
microwave field oscillating at 2450MHz. It influences
the vibrational energy in the water molecules and
the dye molecules. The heating mechanism is
through ionic conduction, which is a type of
resistance heating. Depending on the acceleration
of the ions through the dye solution, it results in
collision of dye molecules with the molecules of the
fiber. The mordant helps and affects the penetration
of the dye and also the depth to which the

2. Air Dyeing
AirDye technology manages the application of color
to textile without the use of water, providing a
sustainable alternative to traditional cationic or vat
dyeing processes. The process does not pollute
water, greatly reduces energy use, lowers costs,
and satisfies the strictest standards of global
AirDye is a subsidiary
AirDye Solutions As a world
innovator, AirDye Solutions is passionate about
creating new printing and dyeing technologies that
improve quality, value, and accessibility while
helping to sustain the planet.

AirDye Technology
Does not pollute water in the color application
process. By using air instead of water to convey
dye, no hazardous waste is emitted and no water is
Greatly reduces energy requirements, thereby
lowering costs and satisfying the strictest standards
of global responsibility.
Does not use boilers, screen printing machines,
drying ovens, or cleaning and scouring chemicals,
thereby eliminating major sources of pollution.
Eliminates water in the color application step and
simplifies the process, creating revolutionary
possibilities of new industry and employment in
unfarmable, arid regions of the world.

Gives consumers a way to choose style and

sustainability at a realistic price at the point of
purchase, thereby initiating world change.
Is easy to specify, reduces cost, offers beauty and
quality, and reduces environmental impact.
Offers style without sacrifice. There is no dye-lot
variation, no post-dye washing or treatments, and
no minimum quantity.
Offers exciting new options:
Dye different colors on opposite sides of fabric.
Dye fabric a solid color.
Dye one side a solid color and the opposite side a
Dye one side of fabric with a print and the
opposite side with another print.
Dye opposite sides of fabric with the same print.

How it Works?
Conventional dyeing, such as vat dyeing or cationic dyeing, can
produce visually acceptable results. On the down side, it uses
polluting chemicals, a huge amount of precious water, and does
not provide permanent coloration. Sublimation printing has been
used to decorate synthetic textiles, but this process has limited
AirDye technology produces superior results compared to
sublimation printing and conventional dyeing, but that is just the
beginning of its advantages. AirDye technology also reduces
detrimental impacts on the environment. And, because the dye is
in the fiber rather than on the fiber, bleach and cleaning agents
cant get to it; so colors look richer and last longer. The result is
more beautiful colors and maximum color durability, with
substantially less water and discharged chemicals.
For the mechanism of AirDyeing