You are on page 1of 109

History of Science

Brief History of Modern Science

• Discovery - A new method of acquiring knowledge was
invented by a series of European thinkers from 1550 to
1700. Among these thinkers are Galileo, Descartes,
Kepler, and Newton

• Definition of Science- A special method and
knowledge executed by practitioners of science called
scientists.
Meaning of Science
• Science is practiced by specially trained people with a
specific world view. Scientists try to be objective, non-
sentimental, unemotional, honest, and unbiased
• Scientists work in laboratories where conditions are
carefully controlled.
• Scientists report their findings in peer-reviewed journals to
other scientists
• Scientists do not claim more than what they can prove
External World
• Science deals with things or objects in the external
world. External world is anything that can be
measured and described in mathematical terms
• The external world the scientist believes follows
rules of mathematics.
• The external world contains solar systems,
galaxies, quanta, quarks, quasars, four forces, six
lepton, six lepton and six hadrons
Science Language
• Scientists describe the results of controlled
experiments in a specialized language and/or in
mathematics.
• Is the external world understandable because our
brains conform to the external world or because
the external world is essentially mathematical in
nature as is the human mind?
Philosophical Foundations of Science
Originated in the 17th century
• Science removed animism as a physical
explanation. Greek philosophers thought
movement was a sign of life. Planets were moved
by angels. Newton’s 1st law of motion changed
this attitude.
• Science changed man’s position from the center of
the universe to its periphery. Man’s place in the
universe was seen as minor.
• Scientific achievement revived human pride in
place of an obsession with sin.
Aristotelian Science
Theory of Matter
Matter stuff out of which things are made
In sublunary world (below the moon) there
are four elements or essences:
earth, water, air, and fire.
These four elements never found pure always mixed.
Heavy things made out of earth
Light things made mix of water,air, and fire
Aristotelian Science
• Above sun, planets are stars imbedded in
the crystalline sphere
• The crystalline sphere made out of pure
quintessence ( 5th essence)
• Different laws pertain to the sublunary
world than to the world above the moon
Aristotelian Science
• Motion
• Natural state of all sublunary things is rest
• All objects seek rest
• Earth, Air, and water seek down for rest
• Fire seek rest upward
• Bodies seek the grave, the souls seek
heaven
Aristotelian Science
Motion
• Two kinds of motion -- violent and natural
• Things move because they’re pulled or pushed
• Sun, planets, and stars move in uniform, circular
motion
• Circles are ideal and circular motion is an aspect
of quintessence.
• Earth is at center of Universe
Aristotelian Science
• Violent Motion
• A projectile exhibits violent motion
• Question: why does an object keep moving
after leaving the bow or hand?
• Answer: air moves from the front of the
object to the back and pushes the object
along.
Aristotelian Science
Violent Motion
Archimedes (287-212
BCE )
Sicilian geometrician who
calculated an accurate value for
π, demonstrated the relationship
between the volume of spheres
and cylinders, discovered
methods for determining the
center of gravity of plane figures,
and provided a foundation for the
science of hydrostatics.
Archimedes also invented many
ingenious machines, including a
pump for raising water, effective
levers and compound pulleys, and
a mechanical planetarium. He
died defending Syracuse against a
Roman siege during the second
Punic war.
Ptolemy & Epicycles
more accurate measurement required more
epicycles

From World Book © 2002 World Book, Inc., 233 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 2000, Chicago, IL
60601. All rights reserved. World Book diagram by Precision Graphics
Thomas Aquinas (1224-1274 )

• Although matters of such
importance should be accepted on
the basis of divine revelation alone,
Aquinas held, it is at least possible
(and perhaps even desirable) in
some circumstances to achieve
genuine knowledge of them by
means of the rigorous application of
human reason. As embodied souls
• (hylomorphic composites), human
beings naturally rely on sensory
information for their knowledge of
the world. Reading hint: Although
the rigidly formal structure of the
Summa articles can be rather
confusing to a modern reader, the
central portion beginning with the
words, " I answer that ..." is always a
direct statement of Aquinas's own
position.
Roger Bacon

• Bacon, Roger (1214-1292 )English
philosopher who translated many
Aristotelian treatises from Arabic into
Latin. Although passionately interested
in alchemy and magic, Roger defended
reliance upon mathematics and
experimental methods for the
improvement of human knowledge
generally and theological understanding
in particular in the Opus Maius (Greater
Work ) (1267) { at Amazon.com } and
On Experimental Science (1268). His
novel educational doctrines were
supposed to violate the condemnation
of 1277 , and much of Roger's later
work, including the Compendium Studii
Theologiae (1292) was suppressed.
William of Ockham,

• William of Ockham
• (1285-1349 )English philosopher who
defended the logic, physics, and
metaphysics of Aristotle in Summa
Logicae (The Whole of Logic ) (1328) vol.
1 { at Amazon.com } and vol. 2 { at
Amazon.com } and the Dialogus . An
extreme nominalist , Ockham held that
general terms are signs that indefinitely
signify discrete (though similar)
particulars. Ockham is best known for
his statement of the law of parsimony as
the ontological principle often called
Ockham's Razor : " Frustra fit per plura
quod potest fieri per pauciora " ["It is
pointless to do with more what can be
done with less"]. Thus, according to
Ockham, we ought never to postulate
the reality of any entity unless it is
logically necessary to do so.
Copernicus b. 1473 Poland
• Polish astronomer who developed the theory that the
earth is a moving planet. In Copernicus's time, most
astronomers accepted the theory the Greek
astronomer Ptolemy had formulated nearly 1,400
years earlier.
• Some astronomers before Ptolemy had suggested that
the earth did in fact move. Copernicus decided that the
simplest and most systematic explanation of heavenly
motion required that every planet, including the earth,
revolve around the sun. The earth also had to spin
around its axis once every day. The earth's motion
affects what people see in the heavens, so real motions
must be separated from apparent ones.
• Copernicus skillfully applied this idea in his
masterpiece, On the Revolutions of the Heavenly
Spheres (1543). In this book, he demonstrated how the
earth's motion could be used to explain the movements
of other heavenly bodies. Copernicus could not prove
his theory, but his explanation of heavenly motion was
mathematically strong and was less complicated than
Ptolemy's theory. By the early 1600's, such
astronomers as Galileo in Italy and Johannes Kepler in
Germany began to develop the physics that would
prove Copernicus' theory correct.
A 1543 volume by
Copernicus
From World Book © 2002 World Book, Inc., 233 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite 2000, Chicago, IL 60601. All rights
reserved. World Book illustration by Rob Wood
Tycho Brahe b. 1546
• Danish astronomer. Brahe developed a systematic approach for observing the planets and stars. He
stressed the importance of making such observations on a regular basis. The telescope had not yet been
invented, and so Brahe used his eyesight and such instruments as astrolabes and quadrants to estimate the
positions of celestial objects. His observations were far more precise than those of any earlier astronomer.

• Brahe's observations of planetary motion revealed that the tables then in use to predict the positions of the
planets were inaccurate. His sighting of a supernova (type of exploding star) in 1572 helped disprove the
ancient idea that no change could occur in the heavens beyond the orbit of the moon.

• Like many astronomers of his time, Brahe refused to accept the Copernican theory of the solar system.
According to this theory, the earth and the other planets move around the sun. Brahe reasoned that if the
earth revolved around the sun, he should have been able to measure changes in the positions of the stars
resulting from the earth's movement. He did not realize that such changes were too small for his
instruments to detect. However, Brahe's observational data later enabled Johannes Kepler, a German
astronomer and mathematician, to confirm the Copernican theory.

• Brahe was born in Knudstrup (then a Danish city but now in Sweden), near Malmo. As a member of the
nobility, he attended universities in Denmark, Germany, and Switzerland. Brahe built an elaborate
observatory on the island of Hven (now called Ven), where he made many of his observations.
Tycho Brahe b. 1546
• Danish astronomer. Brahe developed a
systematic approach for observing the planets
and stars. He stressed the importance of
making such observations on a regular basis.
The telescope had not yet been invented, and
so Brahe used his eyesight and such
instruments as astrolabes and quadrants to
estimate the positions of celestial objects. His
observations were far more precise than those
of any earlier astronomer.

• Brahe's observations of planetary motion
revealed that the tables then in use to predict
the positions of the planets were inaccurate.
His sighting of a supernova (type of
exploding star) in 1572 helped disprove the
ancient idea that no change could occur in the
heavens beyond the orbit of the moon.
Tycho Brahe b. 1546

• Like many astronomers of his time, Brahe refused to
accept the Copernican theory of the solar system.
According to this theory, the earth and the other
planets move around the sun. Brahe reasoned that if the
earth revolved around the sun, he should have been
able to measure changes in the positions of the stars
resulting from the earth's movement. He did not realize
that such changes were too small for his instruments to
detect. However, Brahe's observational data later
enabled Johannes Kepler, a German astronomer and
mathematician, to confirm the Copernican theory.
• Brahe was born in Knudstrup (then a Danish city but
now in Sweden), near Malmo. As a member of the
nobility, he attended universities in Denmark,
Germany, and Switzerland. Brahe built an elaborate
observatory on the island of Hven (now called Ven),
where he made many of his observations.
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
Johannes Kepler b. 1571
• Discovered three laws of planetary motion.

• Newton later used Kepler's three laws to arrive at the principle of universal gravitation
• Kepler's laws are:
(1) Every planet follows an oval-shaped path, or orbit, around the sun, called an ellipse. The sun is
located at one focus of the elliptical orbit.
(2) An imaginary line from the center of the sun to the center of a planet sweeps out the same area in
a given time. This means that planets move faster when they are closer to the sun.
(3) The time taken by a planet to make one complete trip around the sun is its period. The squares of
the periods of two planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from the sun.

• Kepler formed an association with Tycho Brahe, which shaped the rest of his life.
His most significant discoveries were trying to find an orbit to fit all Brahe's observations of the
planet Mars. Earlier astronomers thought a planet's orbit was a circle or a combination of circles.
However, Kepler could not find a circular arrangement to agree with Brahe's observations. He
realized that the orbit could not be circular and resorted to an ellipse in his calculations. The ellipse
worked, and Kepler destroyed a belief that was more than 2,000 years old.

• Kepler was the first astronomer to openly uphold the theories of the Polish astronomer Nicolaus
Copernicus.
Johannes Kepler b. 1571

• Discovered three laws of planetary motion.

• Newton later used Kepler's three laws to
arrive at the principle of universal gravitation
• Kepler's laws are:
(1) Every planet follows an oval-shaped path,
or orbit, around the sun, called an ellipse.
The sun is located at one focus of the
elliptical orbit.
(2) An imaginary line from the center of the
sun to the center of a planet sweeps out the
same area in a given time. This means that
planets move faster when they are closer to
the sun.
(3) The time taken by a planet to make one
complete trip around the sun is its period.
The squares of the periods of two planets are
proportional to the cubes of their mean
distances from the sun.
Johannes Kepler b. 1571

• Kepler formed an association with Tycho
Brahe, which shaped the rest of his life.
His most significant discoveries trying to
find an orbit to fit all Brahe's observations of
the planet Mars. Earlier astronomers thought
a planet's orbit was a circle or a combination
of circles. However, Kepler could not find a
circular arrangement to agree with Brahe's
observations. He realized that the orbit could
not be circular and resorted to an ellipse in
his calculations. The ellipse worked, and
Kepler destroyed a belief that was more than
2,000 years old.

• Kepler was the first astronomer to openly
uphold the theories of the Polish astronomer
Nicolaus Copernicus.
Johannes Kepler b. 1571

FIRST LAW
• The orbits of the planets are
ellipses, with the Sun at one
focus of the ellipse.
Johannes Kepler b. 1571

SECOND LAW
• The line joining the planet to the
Sun sweeps out equal areas in
equal times as the planet travels
around the el
Johannes Kepler b. 1571

THIRD LAW
• The ratio of the squares of the
revolutionary periods for two
planets is equal to the ratio of the
cubes of their semi-major axes:
Paracelsus (Phillippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus
von Hohenheim) ( 1493-1541 )

• Swiss chemist and physician.
Rejecting the ancient reliance
on concern for bodily
"humours," Paracelsus
transformed the practice of
medicine by employing
careful observation and
experimentation. Although his
chemical knowledge was
rudimentary by modern
standards, Paracelsus
envisioned using
pharmaceutical methods for
treating disease and
something like inoculation for
preventing it.
Robert Boyle (1627-1691)

• An Irish scientist considered the founder of modern chemistry. He helped establish the
experimental method in chemistry and physics.

• Boyle is best known for his experiments on gases that led to the formulation of Boyle's
law (see GAS (Gas laws)). This law says the volume of a gas at constant temperature
varies inversely to the pressure applied to the gas. Boyle also helped improve the air
pump, and with it he investigated the nature of vacuums.

• Boyle introduced many new methods for determining the identity and chemical
composition of substances. He disproved the theory that air, earth, fire, and water were
the basic elements of all matter. Boyle argued that all basic physical properties were due
to the motion of atoms, which he called "corpuscles."

• Boyle lived in England for most of his life. He was a founding member of the Royal
Society of London, one of the world's foremost scientific organizations. Boyle described
his experiments in many books. He was born at Lismore Castle, Ireland.
Robert Boyle (1627-1691)
Galileo Galilei 1564 - 1657

Italian astronomer and physicist, has been called the
founder of modern experimental science. Galileo made the
first effective use of the refracting telescope to discover
important new facts about astronomy. He also discovered
the law of falling bodies as well as the law of the
pendulum. Galileo designed a variety of scientific
instruments. He also developed and improved the
refracting telescope, though he did not invent it.
Galileo Galilei

From World Book © 2002 World Book, Inc., 233 N. Michigan Avenue, Suite
2000, Chicago, IL 60601. All rights reserved. Uffizi Gallery, Florence,
Italy (Art Resource)
Astronomy and Kinematics

• In 1610 Galileo made observations of sunspots and of
Venus, noting that the planet progresses through phases
similar to those of the moon. This fact confirmed his
doubts about Ptolemaic astronomy and deepened his
conviction of the truth of Copernicus' theory that the earth
and planets revolve around the sun. Publication of these
findings, starting in 1610, brought him wide renown.
Astronomy and Kinematics

• Galileo also pursued research on motion-especially the
motion of freely falling bodies. The problem, as he saw it,
was that the Aristotelian theory of motion, which referred
all motion to a stationary earth at the center of the
universe, made it impossible to believe the earth actually
moves. Galileo went to work to develop a theory of motion
consistent with a moving earth.
Galileo and Inertia
• http://id.mind.net/~zona/mstm/physics/mechanics
From World Book © 2002 World Book, Inc., 233 N.
Michigan Avenue, Suite 2000, Chicago, IL 60601.
All rights reserved. Museo di Fisica e Storia
Naturale, Florence, Italy (SCALA/Art Resource)
From World Book © 2002 World
Book, Inc., 233 N. Michigan Avenue,
Suite 2000, Chicago, IL 60601. All
rights reserved. © J. M. Charles,
Photo Researchers
Astronomy and Kinematics

• Among the most important results of this search were the
law of the pendulum and the law of freely falling bodies.
Galileo observed that pendulums of equal length swing at
the same rate whether their arcs are large or small. Modern
measuring instruments show that the rate is actually
somewhat greater if the arc is large. Galileo's law of falling
bodies states that all objects fall at the same speed,
regardless of their mass; and that, as they fall, the speed of
their descent increases uniformly.
Pendulum

The Italian physicist Galileo discovered the laws of the pendulum. He
noticed that a hanging lamp would swing with an almost constant
period, whether the arc was large or small. He believed that a
pendulum could regulate the movements of clocks. The Dutch
scientist Christiaan Huygens patented the first pendulum clock in
1657. Galileo's observations are still correct as long as the pendulum's
swing is small. But modern measuring instruments have shown that
the period of a pendulum increases when it has a large swing.
Pendulum
• The Simple
Pendulum
• If a pendulum of mass m attached to a
string of length L is displaced by an
angle from the vertical, it experiences a
net restoring force due to gravity:
• In this small angle approximation, the
amplitude of the pendulum has no effect
on the period. This is what makes
pendulums such good time keepers. As
they inevitably lose energy due to
frictional forces, their amplitude
decreases, but the period remains
constant.
Pendulum
Figure showing the more intense
scattering of blue light by the
atmosphere relative to red light.
Rayleigh scattering is more dramatic after
sunset. This picture was taken about one hour
after sunset at 500m altitude, looking at the
horizon where the sun had set.
Rayleigh scattering causes the blue hue of the
daytime sky and the reddening of the sun at
sunset
Rene’ Descartes

“I think, therefore I am”
Method of Doubt

Descartes used a certain method to try to isolate a definite
truth, or something that can not be doubted. Descartes
tried to achieve this absolute truth by starting analysis
with radical doubt.
Rene Descartes
• Rene Descartes was one of the
founders of modern philosophy.
In this painting, Descartes
conducts a scientific
experiment for Queen Christina
of Sweden shortly before his
death in 1650.

• Detail of Rene Descartes
Conducts a Demonstration
Before Queen Christina of
Sweden (about 1700) oil on
canvas by Dumesnil (The Art
From World Book © 2002 World Book, Inc., 233 N. Michigan Avenue, Archive)
Suite 2000, Chicago, IL 60601. All rights reserved. Detail of Rene
Descartes Conducts a Demonstration Before Queen Christina of Sweden
(about 1700) oil on canvas by Dumesnil (The Art Archive)
Gilbert, William (1540-1603),
• Gilbert, William (1540-1603), an English doctor and scientist, was the first person
to use the word electricity. He has been called the "Galileo of Magnetism" because
of his celebrated book De Magnete, which he published in 1600. It was concerned
with the properties of magnetism, with electricity, and with the use of compasses in
navigation.

• Gilbert's most important discoveries in the field of magnetism were the laws of
attraction and repulsion, magnetic dip, and the properties of loadstones. Gilbert
based his findings on observation and practical experiments. This practice differed
greatly from that of most of the scientists of his time, who developed only abstract
theories, unsupported by experiments.

• Gilbert was born in Colchester, in Essex, England, and was educated at St. John's
College, Cambridge. He was physician to Queen Elizabeth I and attended her
during her last illness. Gilbert died on Nov. 30, 1603.
William Harvey (1578-1657)

• An English physician who became
famous for his discovery of how
blood circulates in mammals,
including human beings. He
described his discovery in An
Anatomical Study of the Motion of
the Heart and of the Blood in
Animals (1628). This work became
the basis for all modern research on
the heart and blood vessels.
Bacon, Francis (1561-1626)
• English philosopher, essayist, jurist, and statesman. He was one of the earliest and most
influential supporters of empirical (experimental) science and helped develop the
scientific method of solving problems.
• Bacon believed all previous claims to knowledge, particularly of medieval science, were
doubtful because they were based on poor logic. He believed the mind makes hasty
generalizations, which prevent the attainment of knowledge. But he also believed that
the mind could discover truths that would enable humanity to conquer disease, poverty,
and war by gaining power over nature. To discover truths, the human mind must rid
itself of four prejudices. Bacon called these prejudices Idols of the Mind.
• Bacon believed the mind could attain truth if it followed the inductive method of
investigation. He developed four steps of doing so: (1) listing all known cases in which a
phenomenon occurs; (2) listing similar cases where the phenomenon does not occur; (3)
listing the cases in which the phenomenon occurs in differing degrees; and (4)
examination of the three lists. These steps would lead to the cause of a phenomenon.
• Bacon suggested the use of preliminary hypotheses (assumptions) to aid scientific
investigation. His treatment of hypothesis is still a subject of study. Bacon also wrote an
unfinished romance called New Atlantis (published in 1627, after his death). The book
describes an imaginary island where the inhabitants dedicate themselves to the study of
science.
Bacon, Francis (1561-1626)
• Four very significant stumbling-blocks in the way of
grasping the truth, which hinder every man (sic)
however learned, and scarcely allow anyone to win a
clear title to wisdom, namely: the example of weak and
unworthy authority, longstanding custom, the feeling of
the ignorant crowd, and the hiding of our own ignorance
while making a display of our apparent knowledge.
Isaac Newton 1642 - 1727

• Proposed three laws of mechanics:
1. Inertia - A body continues to move in a straight line unless acted upon by a force
2. F = ma Acceleration is proportional to the applied force. As long as the force is
applied the velocity increases.
3. For every action there is a reaction

• Explained motion of planets and moon
• Proposed law of universal gravitation
• Explained tides
• Assumed laws on Earth were same as in the heavens
• Discovered light composed of different color
• Invented reflector telescope
Newton’s Rules of Reasoning

• Use no more hypothesis than needed a restatement of Ockham’s Razor
• Apply same cause to same effect
• Properties on earth are same as properties (laws) in other parts of universe
• Offer hypotheses supported only by experiment
• “ we are to look upon propositions inferred by general induction from
phenomena as accurately or very nearly true, not withstanding any contrary
hypothesis that may be imagined till such time as other phenomena occur by
which they may either be made more accurate or liable to exception
Antoine Lavoisier 1743 - 1794

French chemist who, through a conscious revolution,
became the father of modern chemistry. As a student,
he stated "I am young and avid for glory." He was
educated in a radical tradition, a friend of Condillac
and read Maquois's dictionary. He won a prize on
lighting the streets of Paris, and designed a new
method for preparing saltpeter. He also married a
young, beautiful 13-year-old girl named Marie-Anne,
who translated from English for him and illustrated
his books. Lavoisier demonstrated with careful
measurements that transmutation of water to earth
was not possible, but that the sediment observed from
boiling water came from the container. He burnt
phosphorus and sulfur in air, and proved that the
products weighed more than he original.
Nevertheless, the weight gained was lost from the air.
Thus he established the Law of Conservation of
Mass.
Systematic Classification

Carolus Linnaeus
Systema Naturae 1758
THE LINNEAN HIERARCHY FOR
HUMANS
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Primates
Family Hominidae
Genus Homo
Species Homo sapiens
Early Ideas about Evolution
Speices changes through time in
Catastrophism
response to environment Heritable characteristics

Comte de Buffon
(Georges Louis Leclerc)
Baron Cuvier
1707-1788 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
1769-1832
Environment, but 1744-1829
other mechanisms too

Erasmus Darwin
1731-1802
Understanding the Depth of Time

James Hutton Charles Lyell
1726-1797 1797 - 1875
Alexander Von Humboldt

Thomas Malthus
1766-1834
Charles Darwin & Alfred Wallace

How did they arrive at the same conclusions?
Darwin and Wallace Volumes
Heat Engines, Heat Pumps, and Refrigerators

Getting something useful from heat
Michael Faraday, b. Sept. 22, 1791 d. Aug. 25, 1867

The English chemist and physicist
Michael Faraday, b. Sept. 22, 1791, d.
Aug. 25, 1867, is known for his
pioneering experiments in electricity
and magnetism. Many consider him the
greatest experimentalist who ever lived.
Several concepts that he derived
directly from experiments, such as lines
of magnetic force, have become
common ideas in modern physics.
Dmitri Mendeleev (c. 1860)
• Russian chemist
• Looked for common
properties in elements
• Then arranged by atomic
mass
• Noticed similar properties
appeared at regular
intervals  “periodic”
The world first saw Mendeleev’s periodic table when it was
published in a German scientific journal.
Henry Moseley (1911)
• English scientist
• Elements fit into
patterns better if
arranged by atomic
number
e.g. Te and I
Modern Periodic Table
What you need to identify in the
modern periodic table:
• Metals
• Nonmetals
• Metalloids
• Transition metals  good conductors, shiny
• Alkali metals  most reactive metals
• Alkaline metals  reactive metals
• Halogens  most reactive nonmetals
• Noble gases  don’t react
JAMES CLERK MAXWELL 1831-1879

James Clerk Maxwell was one of the
greatest scientists who have ever lived.
To him we owe the most significant
discovery of our age - the theory of
electromagnetism. He is rightly
acclaimed as the father of modern
physics. He also made fundamental
contributions to mathematics,
astronomy and engineering.
Maxwell, James Clerk (1831-1879)
• Scottish scientist, one of the greatest mathematicians and physicists of the 1800's is best
known for his research on electricity and magnetism and for his kinetic theory of gases.
This theory explains the properties of a gas in terms of the behavior of its molecules.
Maxwell also investigated color vision, elasticity, optics, Saturn's rings, and
thermodynamics, a branch of physics that deals with heat and work.

• Maxwell based his work on electricity and magnetism on the discoveries of the English
physicist Michael Faraday. In 1864, Maxwell combined his ideas with those of Faraday and
certain other scientists and formed a mathematical theory that describes the relationship
between electric and magnetic fields. Both these fields exert forces on electrically charged
objects. Maxwell showed that waves in combined electric and magnetic fields, called
electromagnetic waves, travel at the speed of light. In fact, Maxwell argued that light itself
consists of electromagnetic waves. In the late 1880's, the German physicist Heinrich R.
Hertz conducted experiments that confirmed Maxwell's theory.
• Maxwell's equations indicate that light moves at a particular speed, represented by the letter
c. The value of c is now known to be 186,282 miles (299,792 kilometers) per second.
Maxwell assumed that c was the speed of light relative to the ether. According to this
assumption, light would travel faster or slower than c in an inertial frame moving relative to
the ether.
Michelson and Morley

During the 1800's, physicists tried unsuccessfully to measure the speed of the
earth relative to the ether. According to classical physics, the ether was
motionless. In the early 1880's, Hendrik A. Lorentz, a Dutch physicist, explained
the failure of these experiments by assuming that the ether was partially
dragged along as the earth moved through it. Two American physicists, Albert A.
Michelson and Edward W. Morley, developed an instrument that made far more
precise measurements than earlier devices. Their experiments helped destroy
the ether theory. In 1887, Michelson and Morley demonstrated that the earth's
movement around the sun had no effect on the speed of light. Their finding could
be understood only by assuming that the ether near the surface of the earth
moved at the same speed as the earth. However, this assumption contradicted
the results of many other experiments.
From World Book © 2002 World Book, Inc., 233 N.
Michigan Avenue, Suite 2000, Chicago, IL 60601.
All rights reserved. (C) Hulton/Archive
Principles of Relativity
Einstein introduced a new principle, the
special principle of relativity. This principle
has two parts: (1) There is no ether, and the
speed of light is the same for all observers,
whatever their relative motion. (2) The laws
of nature are the same in all inertial frames,
where the laws are understood to include
those described by Maxwell.
Albert Einstein (1879-1955),

• Was one of the greatest scientists of all time. He is best known for his theory of
relativity, which he first advanced when he was only 26. He also made many other
contributions to science.

• Relativity. Einstein's relativity theory revolutionized scientific thought with new
conceptions of time, space, mass, motion, and gravitation. He treated matter and energy
as exchangeable, not distinct. In so doing, he laid the basis for controlling the release of
energy from the atom.

• Thus, Einstein was one of the fathers of the nuclear age. Einstein's famous equation, E
equals m times c-squared (energy equals mass times the velocity of light squared),
became a foundation stone in the development of nuclear energy. Einstein developed his
theory through deep philosophical thought and through complex mathematical
reasoning. The great scientist was once reported to have said that only a dozen people in
the world could understand his theory. However, Einstein always denied this report.
Discoveries of 20th Century
• 1900 Quantum nature of energy • 1913 Leavitt discovers
• 1903 First motorized airplane • 1913Bohr describes atomic
flew structure
• 1915 General theory of relativity
• Special theory of relativity
published • 1922 Banting and Best isolate
insulin
• 1907Radiometric dating finds • 1924 Hubble identifies new galaxy
earth 2.2 billion years old
• 1926 Television developed
• Ehrlich finds cure for syphilis • 1927 Big bang theory introduced
• 1912 Leavitt discovers • 1927 Heisenberg state uncertainty
Cepheid's period and principle
luminosity
• 1912 Wegener proposes
continental drift
Discoveries of 20th Century
• 1928 Fleming discovers penicillin • 1947 Libby introduces C14 dating
• 1929 Hubble finds universe • 1947 Transistor invented
expanding • 1953 Salk polio vaccine
• 1931 Lawrence invents cyclotron • 1953 Miller makes amino acids in
laboratory
• 1935 Nylon invented
• 1953 Mid-Atlantic rift discovered
• 1942 Fermi creates 1st controlled
• 1953 Watson and Crick describe
nuclear reaction DNA
• 1945 ENIAC built • 1954 First kidney transplant
• 1945 Atomic bomb detonated • 1959 Leaky finds early hominid
Discoveries of 20th Century
• 1960 Hess propose sea-floor spreading • 1977 found near deep ocean vents
• 1965 Penzias and Wilson observe • 1980 Alvarez finds evidence for
cosmic background microwave dinosaur killing asteroid
radiation • 1992 World wide Web
• 1967 Pulsars discovered
• 1992 The risk of carbon dioxide
• 1969 Apollo lands on moon
buildup and global warming is
• 1971 First commercial microprocessor recognised.
introduced
• 1974 Johanson finds 3.2 million year • 1992 The first 'xenotransplant'
old Lucy from one type of animal to
• 1975 Personal computer launched another involving genetically
• 1976 Cosmic string theory introduced
engineered tissue (liver) is
carried out successfully.
st
Discoveries of 21 Century
• 1997 Dolly the sheep is born. She
has been produced by Ian Wilmut
and his team at the Roslin Institute
near Edinburgh
• 2000 World Wide Web estimated to
cover 1 billion pages.

• As homework the student list other
discoveries during the past 4 years
Deductive and Inductive
Reasoning
A deductive argument is one in which it is claimed that it is impossible for the
premises to be true but the conclusion false. Thus, the conclusion follows
necessarily from the premises and inferences. In this way, it is supposed to be
a definitive proof of the truth of the claim (conclusion). Here is an example:
1. All men are mortal. (premise)
2. Socrates was a man. (premise)
3. Socrates was mortal. (conclusion)
As you can see, if the premises are true (and they are), then it simply isn't
possible for the conclusion to be false.

An inductive argument is one in which the premises are supposed to support
the conclusion in such a way that if the premises are true, it is improbable that
the conclusion would be false. Thus, the conclusion follows probably from the
premises and inferences. Here is an example:
1. Socrates was Greek. (premise)
2. Most Greeks eat fish. (premise)
3. Socrates probably ate fish. (conclusion)
Deductive and Inductive
Reasoning
inductive
The meerkat is closely related to the suricat
The suricat thrives on beetle larvae
Therefore, probably the meerkat thrives on beetle larvae
Deductive and Inductive
Reasoning
deductive
The meekat is a member of the mongoose family
All members of the mongoose family are carnivores
Therefore, it necessarily follows that the meerkat is a carnivore
mongoose

cobra
Inductive Mathematical Reasoning

Find a General Rule for the Number series: 0, 2, 8, 18, 32, 50, 72…..

Explain the Fibonacci Series: 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34,……

Stable Atomic Nuclei have the following number of nucleons (proton and neutrons):
2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126, … What is the next member in the series?
Logical Fallacies
http://www.intrepidsoftware.com/fallacy/toc.php
• Novelty, Appeal to
• Abusive ad hominem
• No True Scotsman
• Accent
• Numbers, Appeal to
• Ambiguity (index)
• Money, Appeal to
• Amphiboly
• Oversimplification and Exaggeration
• Age, Appeal to
• Pity, Appeal to (Argumentum ad Misercordiam)
• Authority, Appeals to (4 types)
• Poisoning the Well
• Authority, Legitimate Appeal to
• Poverty, Appeal to
• Ad Hominem (5 types)
• Presumption
• Begging the Question
• Quantifier Fallacy
• Circumstantial ad hominem
• Quoting out of Context
• Complex Question
• Reification / Hypostatization
• Composition
• Fallacies of Relevance (index)
• Correlation vs. Causation
• Scope Fallacy
• Division
• Suppressed Evidence
• Emotion and Desire, Appeals to (5 types)
• Tradition, Appeal to
• Equivocation
• Tu Quoque (two wrongs don't make a right
• Unqualified Authority, Appeal to
• Genetic Fallacy
• False Dilemma
• Illicit Observation
• Flatter, Appeal to
• Force / Fear, Appeal to (Argumentum ad Baculum)
Logical Fallacies
• Straw Man
• Definition:
• The author attacks an argument which is different from, and
• usually weaker than, the opposition's best argument.
• Examples:
• (i) People who opposed the Charlottown Accord probably just
• wanted Quebec to separate. But we want Quebec to stay in
• Canada.
• (ii) We should have conscription. People don't want to enter
• the military because they find it an inconvenience. But they
• should realize that there are more important things than
• convenience.
• Proof:
• Show that the opposition's argument has been
• misrepresented by showing that the opposition has a stronger
• argument. Describe the stronger argument.
Logical Fallacies
• Definition:
• The truth of the conclusion is assumed by the premises.
• Often, the conclusion is simply restated in the premises in a
• slightly different form. In more difficult cases, the premise is
• a consequence of the conclusion.
• Examples:
• (i) Since I'm not lying, it follows that I'm telling the truth.

• (ii) We know that God exists, since the Bible says God exists.
• What the Bible says must be true, since God wrote it and
• God never lies. (Here, we must agree that God exists in order
• to believe that God wrote the Bible.)
• Proof:
• Show that in order to believe that the premises are true we
• must already agree that the conclusion is true.
Logical Fallacies
• Coincidental Correlation
• (post hoc ergo propter hoc )
• Definition:
• The name in Latin means "after this therefore because of this".
• This describes the fallacy. An author commits the fallacy when
• it is assumed that because one thing follows another that the
• one thing was caused by the other.
• Examples:
• (i) Immigration to Alberta from Ontario increased. Soon
• after, the welfare rolls increased. Therefore, the increased
• immigration caused the increased welfare rolls.
• (ii) I took EZ-No-Cold, and two days later, my cold
• disappeared.
• Proof:
• Show that the correlation is coincidental by showing that: (i)
• the effect would have occurred even if the cause did not
• occur, or (ii) that the effect was caused by something other
• than the suggested cause.
Scientific Development From 1543 to 1789
`1543: Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) publishes De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, which argues that the Sun is
the center of the Solar System.
*1543: Andrea Vesalius (1514-1564) publishes Concerning the Structure of the Human Body, the first modern
anatomical text.
*1600: William Gilbert (1540-1603) publishes Concerning the Magnet.
*1605: Francis Bacon (1561-1626) publishes Advancement of Learning.
*1609: Astronomia Nova is published by Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), in which he presented his first two Laws of
Planetary Motion.
*1610: Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) publishes Sidereal Messenger, describing his observations using the telescope.
*1619: Kepler publishes his Third Law in Harmonia Mundi.
*1628: William Harvey (1578-1657) publishes On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals, in which he proves
that the heart circulates blood throughout the body.
*1632: Galileo publishes Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, in which he compares the Copernican and Ptolemaic
solar systems.
*1637: Rene Descartes publishes his Discourse on Method, in which he lays the foundation for modern philosophy.
*1644-9: Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), in a series of works, revives the traditions of Epicureanism and Skepticism.
*1660: Robert Boyle (1627-1691) publishes New Experiments Physico-Mechanical Touching the Spring of the Air, in
which he states his laws of gases.
*1662: The Royal Society of London is founded.
*1666: The French Academy of Science is founded.
*1677: Anton von Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), using a microscope, discovers male spermatoza.
*1678: Christian Huygens (1629-1695) proposes the wave theory of light.
*1687: Isaac Newton (1642-1727) publishes his Principia Mathematica.
*1704: Isaac Newton publishes his Optics.
*1735: Carolus Linnaeus publishes his Systema Naturae, which establishes the science of taxonomy.
*1789: Antoine Lavoisier publishes his treatise on chemistry, laying the foundation for the modern theory of chemical
elements.
Scientific Development From 1543 to 1789

• 1543: Nicolas Copernicus (1473-1543) publishes De Revolutionibus Orbium
Coelestium, which argues that the Sun is the center of the Solar System.
• 1543: Andrea Vesalius (1514-1564) publishes Concerning the Structure of
the Human Body, the first modern anatomical text.
• 1600: William Gilbert (1540-1603) publishes Concerning the Magnet.
• 1605: Francis Bacon (1561-1626) publishes Advancement of Learning.
• 1609: Astronomia Nova is published by Johannes Kepler (1571-1630), in
which he presented his first two Laws of Planetary Motion.
• 1610: Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) publishes Sidereal Messenger, describing
his observations using the telescope.
• 1619: Kepler publishes his Third Law in Harmonia Mundi.
Scientific Development From 1543 to 1789
*1628: William Harvey (1578-1657) publishes On the Motion of the Heart and
Blood `in Animals, in which he proves that the heart circulates blood throughout the
body.
*1632: Galileo publishes Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, in which he
compares the Copernican and Ptolemaic solar systems.
*1637: Rene Descartes publishes his Discourse on Method, in which he lays the
foundation for modern philosophy.
*1644-9: Pierre Gassendi (1592-1655), in a series of works, revives the traditions of
Epicureanism and Skepticism.
*1660: Robert Boyle (1627-1691) publishes New Experiments Physico-Mechanical
Touching the Spring of the Air, in which he states his laws of gases.
*1662: The Royal Society of London is founded.
Scientific Development From 1543 to 1789

*1666: The French Academy of Science is founded.
*1677: Anton von Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723), using a microscope, discovers male
spermatoza.
*1678: Christian Huygens (1629-1695) proposes the wave theory of light.
*1687: Isaac Newton (1642-1727) publishes his Principia Mathematica.
*1704: Isaac Newton publishes his Optics.
*1735: Carolus Linnaeus publishes his Systema Naturae, which establishes the
science of taxonomy.
*1789: Antoine Lavoisier publishes his treatise on chemistry, laying the
foundation for the modern theory of chemical elements.
These tiny fluctuations have
evolved
into clusters of galaxies today
How Small Is A Particle?
Molecular Biology Overview
Nucleus
Cell

Chromosome

Gene (DNA)
Protein Gene (mRNA),
single strand

Graphics courtesy of the National Human Genome Research Institute

104
Copyright © 2002
Method of Doubt
He used 3 different foundations of belief in this method:

•Analysis of the Senses

•The Dream Hypothesis

•The Evil Genius
Since he is able to think,
then it is derived that he
is alive and breathing.
Three Types of Ideas
Innate------------Adventum ---------------Distinct

• Innate Ideas: Ideas that are in our souls by
nature.
• Adventum Ideas: Ideas that we “learn”
• Distinct Ideas: Ideas that we “invent”
Adventum Ideas
Descartes’s main interest is in the Adventum Ideas.

• Descartes described the ideas as:
• It is not evident that the things that exist
outside oneself are the causes of one’s ideas
because the things that exist outside oneself
and that seem are responsible for one’s ideas,
are in reality material things.
Objectives of the Philosophy of
Descartes
Mathematics and Philosophy are the basics of
Descartes’ fundamental studies.

• Don’t try to prove a multitude of truths, but
instead develop a system in which nothing is
said that is not evident.

• Use reason so you can be able to succeed in
life.