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National Conference on Agriculture

Kharif, 2012

5th & 6th March, 2012

Presentation on

WATER MANAGEMENT & DRY


LAND FARMING

Department of Agriculture, Assam

EXTENT OF RAINFED AREA (2011)


Rainfall
Zone

No. of
Districts

Rainfall (mm)
Actual Normal

Cropped Area Cropping


(lakh ha.) Intensity

%
Departure

Net

Gross

Arid

Nil

Semi
Arid

Nil

Subhumid

962.5

1698.3

-43%

4.34

5.95

137%

Humid

23

1479.4

2084.5

-29%

23.77

35.04

148%

28.11

40.99

146%

Total :

WATER MANAGEMENT & DRY LAND FARMING


IN ASSAM
Even with annual rainfall of 2296.3 mm(2011) suffer
from moisture stress

Most of the rainfall received during monsoon (JunSept) and major portion of the rainwater is lost
through run off, causing erosion, adding water logging
of low areas

After monsoon less water


production

in profile to support agril

MAJOR CONSTRAINTS

Degradation of crop field due to water logging, siltation


is very common.

Soil erosion by high velocity run off.

Low rain water use efficiency.

Less investment in water use efficiency.

Inappropriate Natural resource management practices


followed by farmers.

Lack of proper technique available for dry land farming


suitable for the region .

MAJOR CONSTRAINTS

Due to erratic behaviour & improper distribution of


rainfall agriculture becomes risky ,farmers do not want
to adopt proper methods , tools whatever available for
dryland farming.

Loss of soil fertility due to high velocity run off for


undulating topography.

Low investment

Traditional cultivation

Low use of fertilizers

Shifting cultivation.

EXTENT OF LAND DEGRADATION &


OTHER PROBLEMS

Waterlogged in crop field in summer due to poor


management of seasonal stream going through the
field.

Crop field affected due to siltation from seasonal


stream

Gully formation in crop field, rapid top soil erosion in


hilly districts

Gully formation at NAKTI, District Cachar

DEGRADED FIELD OF RAONAJAN


District Sonitpur Assam

SOIL HEALTH STATUS

ZONE & DISTRICT WISE SOIL TYPE


Zone
North Bank
Plains Zone

Districts under the zone

Types of Soil

Darrang, Udalguri,
Sonitpur, Lakhimpur &
Dhemaji

Old & new alluvial, sandy,


sandy loam and clayey in low
lying areas. Soils are mostly
acidic.

Upper
Tinsukia, Dibrugarh,
Brahmaputra
Sibsagar, Jorhat
Valley Zone
Golaghat
Central
Nagaon & Morigaon
Brahmaputra
Valley Zone

Soils are mostly alluvial & old


& alluvium in the central belt
New & old alluvial
Mostly
acidic in nature

soil.

ZONE & DISTRICT WISE SOIL TYPE


Lower
Brahmaputra
Valley Zone

Kamrup-Rural, KamrupNew & old alluvial soil.


Metro, Nalbari, Baksa, Mostly sandy & sandy loan in
Barpeta, Bongaigaon,
texture, acidic in nature.
Chirang,
Kokrajhar,
Goalpara & Dhubri

Barak
Valley Zone

Cachar, Karimganj
Hailakandi

Hill Zone

Karbi Anglong & North Lateritic, red loam and old


Cachar Hills
Alluvial soils. Slightly acidic to
neutral in nature.

& Alluvial soils in plains and red


loam soils in the sub-mountain
tracts. Extensive low marshy
land. Acidic in nature.

AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONEWISE AVAILABILITY OF


MAJOR NUTRIENT IN ASSAM
Agro-Climatic Zone

Availability of Organic Carbon (N) per ha.

Lower Brahmaputra Valley

Medium (225 550 Kg.) to High (>550 Kg.)

Central Brahmaputra Valley

High (>550 Kg.)

Upper Brahmaputra Valley

High (>550 Kg.)

North Bank Plain

Medium (225 550 Kg.) to High (>550 Kg.)

Barak Valley

Medium (225 550 Kg.) to High (>550 Kg.)

Hill

High (>550 Kg.)

Agro-Climatic Zone

Availability of Phosphorus (P 2O 5 ) per


ha.

Lower Brahmaputra Valley

Low (<12.5 Kg.) to Medium (12.5 25 Kg.)

Central Brahmaputra Valley

Low (<12.5 Kg.) to Medium (12.5 25 Kg.)

Upper Brahmaputra Valley

Medium (12.5 25 Kg.)

North Bank Plain


Barak Valley

Low (<12.5 Kg.) to Medium (12.5 25 Kg.)


Low (<12.5 Kg.)

AGRO-CLIMATIC ZONEWISE AVAILABILITY OF


MAJOR NUTRIENT IN ASSAM
Agro-Climatic Zone

Availability of Potash (K2O) per ha.

Lower Brahmaputra Valley

Low (<22.5 Kg.) to Medium (22.5 36.5 Kg.)

Central Brahmaputra
Valley

Medium (22.5 36.5 Kg.)

Upper Brahmaputra Valley

Medium (22.5 36.5 Kg.)

North Bank Plain

Low (<22.5 Kg.) to Medium (22.5 36.5 Kg.)

Barak Valley

Low (<22.5 Kg.) to Medium (22.5 36.5 Kg.)

Hill

Medium (22.5 36.5 Kg.) to High (>36.5 Kg.)

Zinc
34%

Micronutrient deficiency in Soils of


Assam
Copper

Iron

Manganese

Boron

Molybdenum

<1%

2%

20%

CROPPING PATTERN &


CROPPING INTENSITY

Agro-Climatic
Zone
North Bank
Plains Zone

Major Cropping Pattern


Winter (Sali) Paddy Summer (Boro)
Paddy / Rabi Vegetables / Rabi Oilseeds
/ Rabi Pulses
Sugarcane

Upper
Brahmaputra
Valley Zone

Winter (Sali) Paddy Rabi Oilseeds /


Rabi Vegetables / Rabi Pulses
Sugarcane

Central
Brahmaputra
Valley Zone

Winter (Sali) Paddy Summer (Boro)


Paddy / Rabi Vegetables / Rabi Oilseeds
/ Rabi Pulses Summer Vegetables
Jute Summer Paddy
Sugarcane

Contd
Barak Valley Zone

Winter (Sali) Paddy Autumn (Ahu)


Paddy / Summer Vegetables.
Sugarcane

Lower Brahmaputra
Valley Zone

Winter (Sali) Paddy Summer (Boro)


Paddy / Rabi Vegetables / Rabi Oilseeds
/ Rabi Pulses Summer Vegetables
Sali Paddy Rabi Oilseeds / Rabi
Pulses
Jute Summer (Boro) Paddy
Sugarcane

Hill Zone

Winter (Sali) Paddy Maize / Rabi


Vegetables
Sugarcane

PRODUCTION & PRODUCTIVITY


IN RAINFED / DRY LAND AREAS

COMPARISON OF PRODUCTIVITY
Field Crops (Assam vis--vis National Average) :

Sl. No. Crop


Rice
1

Assam

National Average

Gap

1983

2240

257

Wheat

1256

2938

1682

Maize

714

2507

1793

Pulses

557

689

132

Rapeseed & Mustard

585

1179

594

Total Oilseeds

581

1159

578

Jute
1808
2344
7
8Horticultural
Sugarcane
36196 vis--vis Assam)
68596 :
Crops (National Average
Sl. No. Crop
National Average
Assam

536
32400
Gap

Fruits

11446

12480

1034

Vegetables

16756

17192

436

Spices

1630

2530

900

DISTRICTWISE IRRIGATION
SOURCE AND COVERAGE

Sl.
No.

District

Net
cropped
area
(hectare)

% area
under
assured
irrigation

Baksa

26687

7275

33962

66085

51%

Barpeta

17445

28810

46255

159311

29%

Bongaigaon

1793

39737

41530

67635

61%

Cachar

2318

7338

9656

115386

8%

Chirang

6093

4222

10315

46767

22%

Darrang

4150

39414

43564

103833

42%

Dhemaji

1080

17367

18447

67506

27%

Dhubri

1589

50424

52013

134349

39%

Dibrugarh

2320

7473

9793

139498

7%

10

Goalpara

3686

54778

58464

80753

72%

11

Golaghat

1738

9786

11524

119046

10%

Net/assured irrigated Area


by Source (hectare)
Major /
Minor Total
Medium

Sl.
No.

District

14

Kamrup (R&M)

11011

41695

52706

220571

24%

15

K. Anglong

43066

7404

50470

126399

40%

16

Karimganj

332

6157

6489

76035

9%

17

Kokrajhar

16872

18588

35460

86556

41%

18

Lakhimpur

1922

19760

21682

100169

22%

19

Morigaon

1699

20247

21946

92011

24%

20

N.C.Hills

4994

982

5976

28171

21%

21

Nagaon

46367

51098

97465

235626

41%

22

Nalbari

1450

31397

32847

67730

48%

23

Sibsagar

4047

6356

10403

136822

8%

24

Sonitpur

24891

21027

45918

165141

28%

Net/assured irrigated Area by


Source (hectare)
Major / Minor Total
Medium

Net
% area
cropped
under
area
assured
(hectare) irrigation

GROUND WATER STATUS


Potential

Present utilisation

15.14 lakh
hectare

5.17 lakh hectare

Scope for further


utilisation
9.97 lakh hectare

MONTHLY RAINFALL

Month

Rainfall (mm) during 2011


Actual

Normal

Departure

Pattern

10.1
10.3

16.7
32

-40%
-68%

Deficient

90

78.1

15%

Normal

April

74.7

172.9

-57%

Deficient

May

225.4

304.2

-26%

Deficient

June

267.6

427.3

-37%

Deficient

July

382

454.2

-16%

Normal

August

268.8

356.7

-25%

Deficient

September

191.6

285.7

-33%

Deficient

October

31.4

131.8

-76%

Scanty

November

11.4

24.9

-54%

Deficient

December

2.3

11.8

-81%

Scanty

1565.6

2296.3

-32%

Deficient

January
February
March

Annual

Scanty

STATUS OF POTENTIAL EVAPOTRANSPIRATION (PET) IN DIFFERENT ZONES


OF ASSAM
Zone

Annual
PET
(mm)

Annual
Water
Surplus
(mm)

Annual
Water
Deficit
(mm)

Beginning
of Soil
Moisture
Recharge

End of Water
Surplus

Lower Assam

1253

1166

194

April 15

October 20

Central West
Assam

1150

439

148

April 15

October 12

Central Assam

1171

647

124

April 12

October 20

Eastern Assam

1118

1433

162

March 18

October 20

Upper Assam

998

1576

16

March 18

November 5

South Assam

1171

1927

73

March 20

November 5

State Average :

1144

1198

120

April 12
March 20

October 12
November 5

MANAGEMENT EFFORTS MADE FOR WATER


HARVESTING,
WATER
USE
EFFICIENCY,
AGRONOMIC MANAGEMENT, DIVERSIFICATION
INTO LOW WATER INTAKE CROPS ETC.

Gully Control Measure

Loose Boulder Check Dam : Lakhimpur District

Decongestion of drainage line : Sonitpur District

Earthen Bund on contour : Sonitpur District

AGRONOMIC MANAGEMENT, DIVERSIFICATION


INTO LOW WATER INTAKE CROPS ETC.

Govt. assistance for large scale production of Vermi


compost under different scheme to increase the use
organic matter.

Growing of Black gram , Green gram in water


stressed area.

Maize is introduced in water stressed pockets.

Popularization of cultivation of Green Manuring Crops


like Dhaincha.

INDEGENOUS & USEFUL CROP / PLAN VARIETIES


& PRACTICES BY FARMERS

Cultivation of Banana, Ginger, Turmeric by mulching


with paddy straw.

Putting check-dam on seasonal streams for surface


irrigation.

Zero Tillage in Rabi Vegetable cultivation.

SUGGESTIONS
Cultivation of non traditional crops like medicinal plant,
dye providing crops etc are also to be encouraged in dry
land farming

Application of organic matter, green manuring to be


promoted.

Proper crop rotation.


Water harvesting, management of drainage lines in field
to be encouraged in community approach.

Research to evolve flexible cropping system & other


aspects of dryland
marketable surplus.

Conversion

farming

of area under
permanent land use system.

targeting

Shifting

to

generate

Cultivation

to