Closed-Loop Corrective Action

What Will be Covered?
• What is CLCA? • Determine the cause of a problem (nonconformity) • Corrective action procedures • Is corrective action necessary? • Determine corrective action needed

What Will be Covered ?
• • • • • • Implement corrective action Handle customer complaints Handle product nonconformity Ensure effectiveness of action Software available for CLCA Summary/Exercise

What is Closed-Loop Corrective Action (CLCA)?
• Corrective Action: • Closed Loop:
– An action planned or taken to stop something from recurring. – Fix the process by eliminating the root cause of a problem so that it will not reoccur

What is Closed-Loop Corrective Action (CLCA)?
“The pattern of activities which traces the symptoms of a problem to its cause, produces solutions for preventing the recurrence of the problem, implements the changes and monitors that the changes have been successful.”
Hoyle, David

Determine the Cause of a Nonconformity
• Validate causes before planning or taking action
– – Identify the nonconformity Collect data on nonconforming item, quantity, frequency, etc. – Identify when, where and under what conditions problem occurred

Determine the Cause of a Nonconformity
• Investigate thoroughly; many tools can help

– The common seven quality tools when – The simple why? Why? Technique can often reveal the root cause of a problem very quickly

Sources of Causes
• • • Deficiencies in communication Deficiencies in documentation Deficiencies in personnel training and motivation • Deficiencies in materials • Deficiencies in tools and equipment • Deficiencies in the operating environment

Corrective Action Procedures
• Sources of nonconformity causes are variable • It may be practical to employ corrective action provisions in procedures rather than a single corrective action procedure

Is Corrective Action Necessary?
• All nonconformances are costly but correction is also costly • Assess the degree of corrective action necessary

– Determine the magnitude of the problem and the risks encountered

Is Corrective Action Necessary?
• A manager needs to know:
– What is the problem? – Has the problem been confirmed? – What are the consequences of doing nothing? – What is the preferred solution? - How much will it cost/save? – What are the alternatives and their relative costs? – How long before the problem damages the business

Determine Corrective Action Needed
• Immediate action such as warning notices, alerts, etc. • Longer term action such as changes to plans, procedures, specifications, training, etc. • Record both the cause and the proposed solutions

Implementing Corrective Action
• Implement and record changes to documented procedures resulting from corrective action

– Track implementation of corrective actions – Link procedural change to the corrective action procedure – Prevent recurrence of problem

Effective Handing of Customer Complaints
• Record complaint (including details)
– Define when a customer message is classified a complaint – Capture complaints from all interface channels with customer

• • •

Acknowledge complaint Investigate nature of complaint Establish a process for satisfying customer • Monitor progress

Report of Product Nonconformity
• Internal report
– Use TQM procedures for control of nonconforming product – Similar procedures to those for handling customer complaints

• External report

Ensure Effectiveness of Corrective Action
• Verify that planned action has been taken • Verify that the action has been effective in eliminating the original nonconformance

Summary – Can Also be Used as an Exercise
• A closed-loop corrective action process
– Identify the problem – Investigate the root cause of the problem – Develop a plan which eliminates the cause – Implement the plan – Verify the effectiveness of the eliminating the cause