Measurement and Scaling

Fundamentals and
Comparative Scaling


Chapter Outline
1) Overview
2) Measurement and Scaling
3) Primary Scales of Measurement

Nominal Scale


Ordinal Scale


Interval Scale


Ratio Scale

4) A Comparison of Scaling Techniques

Constant Sum Scaling iv. Paired Comparison ii. Q-Sort and Other Procedures 6) Verbal Protocols 7) International Marketing Research 8) Ethics in Marketing Research .8-3 Chapter Outline 5) Comparative Scaling Techniques i. Rank Order Scaling iii.

 Rules must not change over objects or time.   .  One-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the characteristics being measured.8-4 Measurement and Scaling Measurement means assigning numbers or other symbols to characteristics of objects according to certain prespecified rules.  The rules for assigning numbers should be standardized and applied uniformly.

Scaling is the process of placing the respondents on a continuum with respect to their attitude toward department stores. with 1 = Extremely Unfavorable. Consider an attitude scale from 1 to 100. Measurement is the actual assignment of a number from 1 to 100 to each respondent.8-5 Measurement and Scaling Scaling involves creating a continuum upon which measured objects are located. Each respondent is assigned a number from 1 to 100. and 100 = Extremely Favorable. .

in .4 0 to 10 Scale Ratio Time to Finish.1 9.8-6 Primary Scales of Measurement Scale Figure 8.2 9.1 13.2 14.6 15.1 Nominal Numbers Finish Assigned to Runners Ordinal Interval 7 8 3 Finish Rank Order of Winners Performance Rating on a Third place Second place First place 8.

8-7 Primary Scales of Measurement Nominal Scale      The numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects. percentages. . The numbers do not reflect the amount of the characteristic possessed by the objects.g.. e. and mode. are permissible. When used for identification. The only permissible operation on the numbers in a nominal scale is counting. there is a strict one-to-one correspondence between the numbers and the objects. all of which are based on frequency counts. Only a limited number of statistics.

Sears 10.C. Rich’s 5. Penney 6.2 Nominal Scale Ordinal Scale Interval Scale Ratio Scale Preference Preference Ratings $ spent last No. Saks Fifth Avenue 9.Wal-Mart 7 2 8 3 1 5 9 6 4 10 79 25 82 30 10 53 95 61 45 115 1-7 5 7 4 6 7 5 4 5 6 2 11-17 15 17 14 16 17 15 14 15 16 12 0 200 0 100 250 35 0 100 0 10 . Macy’s 3. Store Rankings 3 months 1. Kmart 4. Lord & Taylor 2. J. Neiman Marcus 7. Target 8.8-8 Illustration of Primary Scales of Measurement Table 8.

e. Any series of numbers can be assigned that preserves the ordered relationships between the objects.   .g. In addition to the counting operation allowable for nominal scale data.. median.  Can determine whether an object has more or less of a characteristic than some other object.8-9 Primary Scales of Measurement Ordinal Scale  A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which the objects possess some characteristic. quartile. ordinal scales permit the use of statistics based on centiles. but not how much more or less. percentile.

It is not meaningful to take ratios of scale values.8-10 Primary Scales of Measurement Interval Scale       Numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal values in the characteristic being measured. and in addition the arithmetic mean. standard deviation. and other statistics commonly used in marketing research. It permits comparison of the differences between objects. The location of the zero point is not fixed. Both the zero point and the units of measurement are arbitrary. . Any positive linear transformation of the form y = a + bx will preserve the properties of the scale. Statistical techniques that may be used include all of those that can be applied to nominal and ordinal data.

All statistical techniques can be applied to ratio data. are allowed. It is meaningful to compute ratios of scale values. ordinal. . Only proportionate transformations of the form y = bx. and interval scales. where b is a positive constant.8-11 Primary Scales of Measurement Ratio Scale      Possesses all the properties of the nominal. It has an absolute zero point.

1 .8-12 Primary Scales of Measurement Table 8.

2 Scaling Techniques Noncomparative Scales Comparative Scales Paired Rank Comparison Order Constant Q-Sort and Sum Other Procedure s Likert Continuous Itemized Rating ScalesRating Scales Semantic Differential Stapel .8-13 A Classification of Scaling Techniques Figure 8.

   In noncomparative scales. Comparative scale data must be interpreted in relative terms and have only ordinal or rank order properties. each object is scaled independently of the others in the stimulus set. The resulting data are generally assumed to be interval or ratio scaled. .8-14 A Comparison of Scaling Techniques  Comparative scales involve the direct comparison of stimulus objects.

Same known reference points for all respondents. . Tend to reduce halo or carryover effects from one judgment to another. Easily understood and can be applied. Involve fewer theoretical assumptions.8-15 Relative Advantages of Comparative Scales      Small differences between stimulus objects can be detected.

8-16 Relative Disadvantages of Comparative Scales   Ordinal nature of the data Inability to generalize beyond the stimulus objects scaled. .

The data obtained are ordinal in nature.8-17 Comparative Scaling Techniques Paired Comparison Scaling      A respondent is presented with two objects and asked to select one according to some criterion. [n(n . . it is possible to convert paired comparison data to a rank order.1) /2] paired comparisons are required Under the assumption of transitivity. With n brands. Paired comparison scaling is the most widely used comparative scaling technique.

For each pair. bThe number of times a brand was preferred is obtained by summing the 1s in each column.8-18 Obtaining Shampoo Preferences Using Paired Comparisons Figure 8.3 Instructions: We are going to present you with ten pairs of shampoo brands. a . A 0 means that the row brand was preferred over the column brand.   Recording Form: J hirmack 0 Sassoon Shoulders 0 1 Finesse 1a Vidal Sassoon 1 1 Head & Shoulders 0 0 0 Pert 1 1 0 1 Number of Times Preferredb 3 2 0 4 0 1 1 0  0  1  0    1  A 1 in a particular box means that the brand in that column was preferred over the brand in the corresponding row. please indicate which one of the two brands of shampoo you would prefer J hirmack Finesse Vidal Head & Pert  for personal use.

A paired comparison taste test . The introduction of New Coke illustrates this point. The test is done in private and a minimum of 1. where imagery. because image plays a major role in the purchase of Coke.000 responses is considered an adequate sample. self-perception and brand reputation are very important factors in the consumer’s purchasing decision. The consumer is asked to sample two different products and select the one with the most appealing taste.8-19 Paired Comparison Selling The most common method of taste testing is paired comparison. may not be a good indicator of performance in the marketplace. New Coke was heavily favored in blind paired comparison taste tests. A blind taste test for a soft drink. but its introduction was less than successful.

1) scaling decisions need be made in rank order scaling. Only (n . .8-20 Comparative Scaling Techniques Rank Order Scaling     Respondents are presented with several objects simultaneously and asked to order or rank them according to some criterion. Furthermore. rank order scaling also results in ordinal data. It is possible that the respondent may dislike the brand ranked 1 in an absolute sense.

Then find the second most preferred brand and assign it a number 2. Begin by picking out the one brand that you like most and assign it a number 1. The criterion of preference is entirely up to you. The least preferred brand should be assigned a rank of 10. No two brands should receive the same rank number.4 Instructions: Rank the various brands of toothpaste in order of preference. . There is no right or wrong answer.8-21 Preference for Toothpaste Brands Using Rank Order Scaling Figure 8. Just try to be consistent. Continue this procedure until you have ranked all the brands of toothpaste in order of preference.

Macleans Ultra Brite 5. Plus White _________ 10. Close Up _________ 8. Form Brand Rank Order 1.8-22 Preference for Toothpaste Brands Using Rank Order Scaling Figure 8. Gleem _________ 6. Aim _________ 4. _________ _________ 7. Pepsodent _________ 9.4 cont. Crest _________ 2. Stripe _________ . Colgate _________ 3.

the respondent assigns it zero points. such as 100 points to attributes of a product to reflect their importance. it receives twice as many points. The sum of all the points is 100. Hence. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attribute.8-23 Comparative Scaling Techniques Constant Sum Scaling     Respondents allocate a constant sum of units. . If an attribute is unimportant. the name of the scale.

there are eight attributes of bathing soaps.8-24 Importance of Bathing Soap Attributes Using a Constant Sum Scale Figure 8. The more points an attribute receives. it should receive twice as many points. assign it zero points. . If an attribute is not at all important. the more important the attribute is.5 Instructions On the next slide. If an attribute is twice as important as some other attribute. Please allocate 100 points among the attributes so that your allocation reflects the relative importance you attach to each attribute.

Fragrance 13 6. Moisturizing 8.8-25 Importance of Bathing Soap Attributes Using a Constant Sum Scale Figure 8. Form Average Responses of Three Segments 8 Attribute 2 Segment III 3 1. Mildness 53 2. Price 5 5. Packaging 100 Sum 7. Cleaning Power Segment2I 4 9 17 0 5 3 60 100 4 II Segment 17 7 9 19 9 20 15 100 . Shrinkage 7 4.5 cont. Lather 9 3.