Prepared By:

Chemical Engineering
(Mehran University of
Engineering And Technology,
Sind, Pakistan)





is a process of formation of
the compound of pure metal by the
chemical reaction between metallic
surface and its environment.
It is an oxidation process. It causes
loss of metal.
Hence, disintegration of a metal by
its surrounding chemicals through a
chemical reaction on the surface of
the metal is called corrosion.

temperature and the design.  Example: Formation of rust on the surface of iron. formation of green film on the surface of copper. Corrosion comes in many different forms and can be classified by the cause of the chemical deterioration of a metal. 4 . the environmental chemicals.  The responsible factors for the corrosion of a metal are the metal itself.

General Attack Corrosion II. Environmental Craking V. Intergranular (Intercrystalline ) corrosion VII. High Temperature Corrosion 5 . De-alloying VIII. Galvanic corrosion IV. Flow Assisted Corrosion VI.Fretting Corrosion IX.TYEPS OF CORROSION Listed below are 10 common types of corrosion: I. Localized Corrosion III.

General Attack Corrosion  Also known as uniform attack corrosion. general attack corrosion is the most common type of corrosion and is caused by a chemical or electrochemical reaction that results in the deterioration of the entire exposed surface of a metal.1. 6 .

• General attack corrosion accounts for the greatest amount of metal destruction by corrosion. 7 . the metal deteriorates to the point of failure. manageable and often preventable.• Ultimately. due to the fact that it is predictable. but is considered as a safe form of corrosion.

localized corrosion specifically targets one area of the metal structure. Localized corrosion is classified as one of three types: a) b) c) Pitting Corrosion Crevice Corrosion Filiform Corrosion 8 . Localized Corrosion Unlike general attack corrosion.2.

a) Pitting corrosion Pitting results when a small hole. or cavity. producing a localized galvanic reaction. usually as a result of de-passivation of a small area. while part of the remaining metal becomes cathodic. forms in the metal. This area becomes anodic. 9 .

This form of corrosion is often difficult to detect due to the fact that it is usually relatively small and may be covered and hidden by corrosion-produced compounds 10 .The deterioration of this small area penetrates the metal and can lead to failure.

Acidic conditions. like those found under gaskets and washers and clamps. or a depletion of oxygen in a crevice can lead to crevice corrosion. 11 . crevice corrosion occurs at a specific location.b) Crevice Corrosion Similar to pitting. This type of corrosion is often associated with a stagnant microenvironment.

c) Filiform Corrosion Occurring under painted or plated surfaces when water breaches the coating. filiform corrosion begins at small defects in the coating and spreads to cause structural weakness 12 .

or dissimiliar metal corrosion.3. or sacrificial metal. Galvanic Corrosion Galvanic corrosion. 13 . The anode. where one metal becomes the anode  and the other the cathode. corrodes and deteriorates faster than it would alone. occurs when two different metals are located together in a corrosive electrolyte. while the cathode deteriorates more slowly than it would otherwise. A galvanic couple forms between the two metals.

Three conditions must exist for galvanic corrosion to occur: Electrochemically dissimilar metals must be present The metals must be in electrical contact The metals must be exposed to an 14 .

15 .

temperature and stressrelated conditions can result in the following types of environmental corrosion: 16 .4. Environmental Cracking Environmental cracking is a corrosion process that can result from a combination of environmental conditions affecting the metal. Chemical.

a) Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) b) Corrosion fatigue c) Hydrogen-induced cracking d) Liquid metal embrittlement 17 .

Flow-Assisted Corrosion (FAC) Flow-assisted corrosion.5. results when a protective layer of oxide on a metal surface is dissolved or removed by wind or water. 18 . or flowaccelerated corrosion. exposing the underlying metal to further corrode and deteriorate.

These boundaries can be more vulnerable to corrosion than the bulk of the metal. This often occurs due to impurities in the metal. 19 . Transgranular and Intergranular Corrosion Intergranular corrosion is a chemical or electrochemical attack on the grain boundaries of a metal. which tend to be present in higher contents near grain boundaries.6.

The most common type of de-alloying is dezincification of unstabilized brass. The result of corrosion in such cases is a deteriorated and porous copper. 20 .8. De-Alloying De-alloying. or selective leaching. is the selective corrosion of a specific element in an alloy.

weight and/or vibration on an uneven. as well as to surfaces exposed to vibration during transportation. rough surface. 21 . Corrosion. Fretting corrosion is often found in rotation and impact machinery. bolted assemblies and bearings. resulting in pits and grooves. occurs on the surface. Fretting Corrosion:  Fretting corrosion occurs as a result of repeated wearing.9.

22 . which contain vanadium or sulfates can. during combustion. These compounds are very corrosive towards metal alloys normally resistant to high temperatures and corrosion. including stainless steel.Fuels 10. High-Temperature Corrosion used in gas turbines. form compounds with a low melting point. High temperature corrosion can also be caused by high temperature oxidization. sulfidation and carbonization. diesel engines and other machinery.


the following information must be collected: 24 . The rate. of the metal. or speed. In order to calculate the rate of corrosion.The rate of corrosion is the speed at which a metal deteriorates in a specific environment. and condition. is dependent upon environmental conditions as well as the type.

a) Weight loss (the decrease in metal weight during the reference time period) b) Density (density of the metal) c) Area (total initial surface area of the metal piece) d) Time (the length of the reference time period) 25 .

26 .Electrochemical methods provide an alternative to traditional methods used to determine the rate of corrosion. Direct and quantitative determination of corrosion rates can be determined from simple electrochemical measurement like a linear sweep voltammetry (LSV).

there is a linear relationship between the metal dissolution rate or corrosion rate. According to Faraday's law.The corrosion rate depends on the kinetics of both anodic (oxidation) and cathodic (reduction) reactions. and the corrosion current icorr 27 . RM.

ρ is the density.485 C/mol). (96. The ratio M/n is also sometime referred to as equivalent weight.where M is the atomic weight of the metal. n is the charge number which indicates the number of electrons exchanged in the dissolution reaction and F is the Faraday constant. 28 .

The NOVA convenient Tafel plots. When reaction mechanisms for the corrosion reaction are known.Calculation of corrosion rates requires the determination of corrosion currents. the corrosion currents can be calculated using Tafel Slope Analysis. slopes and software provides a interface for making calculating Tafel corrosion rates 29 .

Tafel Slope analysis tool from the Analysis menu. a Tafel plot is added as shown in Figure.Selecting the Corrosion Rate. 30 .