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You are on page 1of 59

Eric G. Paterson

Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

The Pennsylvania State University

Spring 2005

Note to Instructors

These slides were developed1, during the spring semester 2005, as a teaching aid for the

undergraduate Fluid Mechanics course (ME33: Fluid Flow) in the Department of Mechanical

and Nuclear Engineering at Penn State University. This course had two sections, one taught by

myself and one taught by Prof. John Cimbala. While we gave common homework and exams,

we independently developed lecture notes. This was also the first semester that Fluid

Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications was used at PSU. My section had 93 students

and was held in a classroom with a computer, projector, and blackboard. While slides have

been developed for each chapter of Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, I

used a combination of blackboard and electronic presentation. In the student evaluations of my

course, there were both positive and negative comments on the use of electronic presentation.

Therefore, these slides should only be integrated into your lectures with careful consideration of

your teaching style and course objectives.

Eric Paterson

Penn State, University Park

August 2005

This Chapter was not covered in our class. These slides have been developed at the request of McGraw-Hill

Objectives

Appreciate the consequences of

compressibility in gas flows

Understand why a nozzle must have a

diverging section to accelerate a gas to

supersonic speeds

Predict the occurrence of shocks and

calculate property changes across a

shock wave

Understand the effects of friction and

heat transfer on compressible flows

ME33 : Fluid Flow

Stagnation Properties

Recall definition of enthalpy

energy u and flow energy P/

For high-speed flows,

enthalpy and kinetic energy

are combined into

stagnation enthalpy h0

Stagnation Properties

Steady adiabatic flow through

duct with no shaft/electrical

work and no change in

elevation and potential energy

remains constant during

steady-flow process

ME33 : Fluid Flow

Stagnation Properties

If a fluid were brought to a complete stop (V2 = 0)

is brought to rest adiabatically.

During a stagnation process, kinetic energy is

converted to enthalpy.

Properties at this point are called stagnation

properties (which are identified by subscript 0)

Stagnation Properties

If the process is also reversible,

the stagnation state is called the

isentropic stagnation state.

Stagnation enthalpy is the same

for isentropic and actual

stagnation states

Actual stagnation pressure P0,act is

lower than P0 due to increase in

entropy s as a result of fluid

friction.

Nonetheless, stagnation

processes are often approximated

to be isentropic, and isentropic

properties are referred to as

stagnation properties

Stagnation Properties

For an ideal gas, h = CpT, which allows the h0 to be

rewritten

temperature an ideal gas attains when it is brought to rest

adiabatically.

V2/2Cp corresponds to the temperature rise, and is called the

dynamic temperature

pressure and density can be expressed as

Stagnation Properties

When using stagnation enthalpies, there is no

need to explicitly use kinetic energy in the

energy balance.

states 1 and 2.

If the fluid is an ideal gas with constant specific

heats

Important parameter in

compressible flow is the speed

of sound.

Speed at which infinitesimally

small pressure wave travels

piston

Creates a sonic wave moving to

the right

Fluid to left of wave front

experiences incremental change

in properties

Fluid to right of wave front

maintains original properties

10

Construct CV that encloses

wave front and moves with it

Mass balance

cancel

11

Neglect

H.O.T.

Energy balance ein = eout

cancel

12

cancel

Neglect

H.O.T.

Using the thermodynamic relation

conservation gives

For an ideal gas

13

Since

R is constant

k is only a function of T

Speed of sound is only

a function of

temperature

14

Second important

parameter is the

Mach number Ma

Ratio of fluid velocity

to the speed of sound

Ma < 1 : Subsonic

Flow regimes

classified in terms of

Ma

Ma = 1 : Sonic

Ma > 1 : Supersonic

Ma >> 1 : Hypersonic

Ma 1 : Transonic

ME33 : Fluid Flow

15

For flow through

nozzles, diffusers, and

turbine blade passages,

flow quantities vary

primarily in the flow

direction

Can be approximated as

1D isentropic flow

Consider example of

Converging-Diverging

Duct

ME33 : Fluid Flow

16

Example 12-3 illustrates

Ma = 1 at the location of the

smallest flow area, called the

throat

Velocity continues to increase

past the throat, and is due to

decrease in density

Area decreases, and then

increases. Known as a

converging - diverging

nozzle. Used to accelerate

gases to supersonic speeds.

17

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area

Relationship between V, , and A are complex

Derive relationship using continuity, energy,

speed of sound equations

Continuity

18

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area

Derived relation (on

image at left) is the

differential form of

Bernoullis equation.

Combining this with result

from continuity gives

Using thermodynamic

relations and rearranging

19

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area

For Ma < 1, (1 - Ma2) is positive dA and dP have

the same sign.

Pressure of fluid must increase as the flow area of the duct

increases, and must decrease as the flow area decreases

opposite signs.

Pressure must increase as the flow area decreases, and

must decrease as the area increases

20

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area

A relationship between dA and dV can be

derived by substituting V = -dP/dV (from the

differential Bernoulli equation)

For subsonic flow (Ma < 1)

For supersonic flow (Ma > 1)

For sonic flow (Ma = 1)

21

dA/dV < 0

dA/dV > 0

dA/dV = 0

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area

Comparison of flow properties in subsonic and supersonic nozzles and diffusers

22

Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases

Relations between static properties and stagnation properties in

terms of Ma are useful.

Earlier, it was shown that stagnation temperature for an ideal gas

was

in terms of Ma

23

Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases

(slide 8)

in Table A-13 for k=1.4

For Ma = 1, these ratios are called critical

ratios

ME33 : Fluid Flow

24

Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases

25

Converging or converging-diverging nozzles are

found in many engineering applications

Steam and gas turbines, aircraft and spacecraft

propulsion, industrial blast nozzles, torch nozzles

(pressure at discharge) on the exit velocity,

mass flow rate, and pressure distribution along

the nozzle

26

Converging Nozzles

State 1: Pb = P0, there is no

flow, and pressure is constant.

State 2: Pb < P0, pressure along

nozzle decreases.

State 3: Pb =P* , flow at exit is

sonic, creating maximum flow

rate called choked flow.

State 4: Pb < Pb, there is no

change in flow or pressure

distribution in comparison to

state 3

State 5: Pb =0, same as state 4.

ME33 : Fluid Flow

27

Converging Nozzles

Under steady flow conditions, mass flow rate is

constant

slides 23 and 24 gives

flow area, and Ma

ME33 : Fluid Flow

28

Converging Nozzles

The maximum mass flow rate through a nozzle

with a given throat area A* is fixed by the P0 and

T0 and occurs at Ma = 1

processes, medical devices, flow meters, and

anywhere the mass flux of a gas must be known

and controlled.

29

Converging-Diverging Nozzles

The highest velocity in a converging nozzle

is limited to the sonic velocity (Ma = 1),

which occurs at the exit plane (throat) of the

nozzle

Accelerating a fluid to supersonic velocities

(Ma > 1) requires a diverging flow section

Converging-diverging (C-D) nozzle

Standard equipment in supersonic aircraft and

rocket propulsion

guarantee supersonic velocity

Requires proper back pressure Pb

30

Converging-Diverging Nozzles

1. P0 > Pb > Pc

Flow remains subsonic, and

mass flow is less than for

choked flow. Diverging section

acts as diffuser

2. Pb = PC

Sonic flow achieved at throat.

Diverging section acts as

diffuser. Subsonic flow at exit.

Further decrease in Pb has no

effect on flow in converging

portion of nozzle

ME33 : Fluid Flow

31

Converging-Diverging Nozzles

3. PC > Pb > PE

Fluid is accelerated to supersonic

velocities in the diverging section as

the pressure decreases. However,

acceleration stops at location of

normal shock. Fluid decelerates and

is subsonic at outlet. As Pb is

decreased, shock approaches nozzle

exit.

4. PE > Pb > 0

3. Flow in diverging section is

supersonic with no shock forming in

the nozzle. Without shock, flow in

nozzle can be treated as isentropic.

32

Review

Sound waves are created by small pressure

disturbances and travel at the speed of sound

For some back pressures, abrupt changes in

fluid properties occur in C-D nozzles, creating

a shock wave

which shock waves develop and how they

affect the flow.

33

Normal Shocks

Shocks which occur in a plane

normal to the direction of flow

are called normal shock

waves

Flow process through the

shock wave is highly

irreversible and cannot be

approximated as being

isentropic

Develop relationships for flow

properties before and after the

shock using conservation of

mass, momentum, and energy

ME33 : Fluid Flow

34

Normal Shocks

Conservation of mass

Conservation of energy

Conservation of momentum

Increase in entropy

35

Normal Shocks

Combine conservation of mass

and energy into a single

equation and plot on h-s

diagram

Fanno Line : locus of states

that have the same value of

h0 and mass flux

and momentum into a single

equation and plot on h-s

diagram

Rayleigh line

correspond to Ma = 1.

Above / below this point is

subsonic / supersonic

36

Normal Shocks

There are 2 points where the

Fanno and Rayleigh lines

intersect : points where all 3

conservation equations are

satisfied

Point 1: before the shock

(supersonic)

Point 2: after the shock

(subsonic)

shock, the stronger the shock

will be.

Entropy increases from point 1

to point 2 : expected since

flow through the shock is

adiabatic but irreversible

ME33 : Fluid Flow

37

Normal Shocks

Equation for the Fanno line for

an ideal gas with constant

specific heats can be derived

line is

intersection points

38

Oblique Shocks

Not all shocks are

normal to flow

direction.

Some are inclined to

the flow direction, and

are called oblique

shocks

39

Oblique Shocks

At leading edge, flow is

deflected through an

angle called the turning

angle

Result is a straight

oblique shock wave

aligned at shock angle

relative to the flow

direction

Due to the displacement

thickness, is slightly

greater than the wedge

half-angle .

ME33 : Fluid Flow

40

Oblique Shocks

Like normal shocks, Ma decreases across the

oblique shock, and are only possible if upstream

flow is supersonic

However, unlike normal shocks in which the

downstream Ma is always subsonic, Ma2 of an

oblique shock can be subsonic, sonic, or

supersonic depending upon Ma1 and .

41

Oblique Shocks

All equations and

shock tables for

normal shocks apply

to oblique shocks as

well, provided that we

use only the normal

components of the

Mach number

-Ma relationship

Ma1,n = V1,n/c1

Ma2,n = V2,n/c2

42

Oblique Shocks

43

Oblique Shocks

If wedge half angle

> max, a detached

oblique shock or bow

wave is formed

Much more

complicated that

straight oblique

shocks.

Requires CFD for

analysis.

ME33 : Fluid Flow

44

Oblique Shocks

bodies, however, -Ma relationship and

resulting diagram is different than for 2D bodies

45

Oblique Shocks

For blunt bodies,

without a sharply

pointed nose, = 90,

and an attached

oblique shock cannot

exist regardless of

Ma.

46

Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves

successful Mach wave turns

the flow ay an infinitesimal amount

ME33 : Fluid Flow

opposite direction across the shock

Example : wedge at angle of attack

greater than wedge half angle

This type of flow is called an expanding

flow, in contrast to the oblique shock

which creates a compressing flow.

Instead of a shock, a expansion fan

appears, which is comprised of infinite

number of Mach waves called PrandtlMeyer expansion waves

Each individual expansion wave is

isentropic : flow across entire expansion

fan is isentropic

Ma2 > Ma1

P, , T decrease across the fan

47

Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves

Prandtl-Meyer expansion fans also occur in

axisymmetric flows, as in the corners and trailing

edges of the cone cylinder.

48

Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves

Interaction between shock waves and expansions

waves in over expanded supersonic jet

49

and Negligible Friction

Many compressible flow problems encountered in

practice involve chemical reactions such as combustion,

nuclear reactions, evaporation, and condensation as well

as heat gain or heat loss through the duct wall

Such problems are difficult to analyze

Essential features of such complex flows can be

captured by a simple analysis method where

generation/absorption is modeled as heat transfer

through the wall at the same rate

Still too complicated for introductory treatment since flow may

involve friction, geometry changes, 3D effects

We will focus on 1D flow in a duct of constant crosssectional area with negligible frictional effects

ME33 : Fluid Flow

50

and Negligible Friction

Consider 1D flow of an ideal gas

with constant cp through a duct

with constant A with heat transfer

but negligible friction (known as

Rayleigh flow)

Continuity equation

X-Momentum equation

51

and Negligible Friction

Energy equation

CV involves no shear, shaft, or other forms of work, and

potential energy change is negligible.

Entropy change

In absence of irreversibilities such as friction, entropy changes

by heat transfer only

52

and Negligible Friction

Infinite number of

downstream states 2 for a

given upstream state 1

Practical approach is to

assume various values for

T2, and calculate all other

properties as well as q.

Plot results on T-s diagram

Called a Rayleigh line

physically attainable

downstream states

S increases with heat gain to

point a which is the point of

maximum entropy (Ma =1)

53

Friction must be included for flow through

long ducts, especially if the cross-sectional

area is small.

Here, we study compressible flow with

significant wall friction, but negligible heat

transfer in ducts of constant cross section.

54

Consider 1D adiabatic flow of an

ideal gas with constant cp through

a duct with constant A with

significant frictional effects (known

as Fanno flow)

Continuity equation

X-Momentum equation

55

56

and Negligible Friction

Energy equation

CV involves no heat or work, and potential energy change is

negligible.

Entropy change

In absence of irreversibilities such as friction, entropy changes

by heat transfer only

57

and Negligible Friction

Infinite number of downstream

states 2 for a given upstream

state 1

Practical approach is to assume

various values for T2, and

calculate all other properties as

well as friction force.

Plot results on T-s diagram

Called a Fanno line

physically attainable

downstream states

s increases with friction to point

of maximum entropy (Ma =1).

Two branches, one for Ma < 1,

one for Ma >1

58

and Negligible Friction

59

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