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# Chapter 12: Compressible Flow

Eric G. Paterson
Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering
The Pennsylvania State University

Spring 2005

Note to Instructors
These slides were developed1, during the spring semester 2005, as a teaching aid for the
undergraduate Fluid Mechanics course (ME33: Fluid Flow) in the Department of Mechanical
and Nuclear Engineering at Penn State University. This course had two sections, one taught by
myself and one taught by Prof. John Cimbala. While we gave common homework and exams,
we independently developed lecture notes. This was also the first semester that Fluid
Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications was used at PSU. My section had 93 students
and was held in a classroom with a computer, projector, and blackboard. While slides have
been developed for each chapter of Fluid Mechanics: Fundamentals and Applications, I
used a combination of blackboard and electronic presentation. In the student evaluations of my
course, there were both positive and negative comments on the use of electronic presentation.
Therefore, these slides should only be integrated into your lectures with careful consideration of
your teaching style and course objectives.
Eric Paterson
Penn State, University Park
August 2005

This Chapter was not covered in our class. These slides have been developed at the request of McGraw-Hill

## Chapter 12: Compressible Flow

Objectives
Appreciate the consequences of
compressibility in gas flows
Understand why a nozzle must have a
diverging section to accelerate a gas to
supersonic speeds
Predict the occurrence of shocks and
calculate property changes across a
shock wave
Understand the effects of friction and
heat transfer on compressible flows
ME33 : Fluid Flow

## Chapter 12: Compressible Flow

Stagnation Properties
Recall definition of enthalpy

## which is the sum of internal

energy u and flow energy P/
For high-speed flows,
enthalpy and kinetic energy
are combined into
stagnation enthalpy h0

## Chapter 12: Compressible Flow

Stagnation Properties
duct with no shaft/electrical
work and no change in
elevation and potential energy

## Therefore, stagnation enthalpy

remains constant during
ME33 : Fluid Flow

## Chapter 12: Compressible Flow

Stagnation Properties
If a fluid were brought to a complete stop (V2 = 0)

## Therefore, h0 represents the enthalpy of a fluid when it

During a stagnation process, kinetic energy is
converted to enthalpy.
Properties at this point are called stagnation
properties (which are identified by subscript 0)

## Chapter 12: Compressible Flow

Stagnation Properties
If the process is also reversible,
the stagnation state is called the
isentropic stagnation state.
Stagnation enthalpy is the same
for isentropic and actual
stagnation states
Actual stagnation pressure P0,act is
lower than P0 due to increase in
entropy s as a result of fluid
friction.
Nonetheless, stagnation
processes are often approximated
to be isentropic, and isentropic
properties are referred to as
stagnation properties

## Chapter 12: Compressible Flow

Stagnation Properties
For an ideal gas, h = CpT, which allows the h0 to be
rewritten

## T0 is the stagnation temperature. It represents the

temperature an ideal gas attains when it is brought to rest
V2/2Cp corresponds to the temperature rise, and is called the
dynamic temperature

## For ideal gas with constant specific heats, stagnation

pressure and density can be expressed as

## Chapter 12: Compressible Flow

Stagnation Properties
When using stagnation enthalpies, there is no
need to explicitly use kinetic energy in the
energy balance.

## Where h01 and h02 are stagnation enthalpies at

states 1 and 2.
If the fluid is an ideal gas with constant specific
heats

## Speed of Sound and Mach Number

Important parameter in
compressible flow is the speed
of sound.
Speed at which infinitesimally
small pressure wave travels

## Consider a duct with a moving

piston
Creates a sonic wave moving to
the right
Fluid to left of wave front
experiences incremental change
in properties
Fluid to right of wave front
maintains original properties

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## Speed of Sound and Mach Number

Construct CV that encloses
wave front and moves with it
Mass balance

cancel

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Neglect
H.O.T.

## Speed of Sound and Mach Number

Energy balance ein = eout

cancel

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cancel

Neglect
H.O.T.

## Speed of Sound and Mach Number

Using the thermodynamic relation

## Combing this with mass and energy

conservation gives
For an ideal gas

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## Speed of Sound and Mach Number

Since
R is constant
k is only a function of T
Speed of sound is only
a function of
temperature

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## Speed of Sound and Mach Number

Second important
parameter is the
Mach number Ma
Ratio of fluid velocity
to the speed of sound
Ma < 1 : Subsonic

Flow regimes
classified in terms of
Ma

Ma = 1 : Sonic
Ma > 1 : Supersonic
Ma >> 1 : Hypersonic
Ma 1 : Transonic
ME33 : Fluid Flow

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## One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow

For flow through
nozzles, diffusers, and
flow quantities vary
primarily in the flow
direction
Can be approximated as
1D isentropic flow

Consider example of
Converging-Diverging
Duct
ME33 : Fluid Flow

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## One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow

Example 12-3 illustrates
Ma = 1 at the location of the
smallest flow area, called the
throat
Velocity continues to increase
past the throat, and is due to
decrease in density
Area decreases, and then
increases. Known as a
converging - diverging
nozzle. Used to accelerate
gases to supersonic speeds.

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## One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area
Relationship between V, , and A are complex
Derive relationship using continuity, energy,
speed of sound equations
Continuity

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## One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area
Derived relation (on
image at left) is the
differential form of
Bernoullis equation.
Combining this with result
from continuity gives

Using thermodynamic
relations and rearranging

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## One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area

## This is an important relationship

For Ma < 1, (1 - Ma2) is positive dA and dP have
the same sign.
Pressure of fluid must increase as the flow area of the duct
increases, and must decrease as the flow area decreases

## For Ma > 1, (1 - Ma2) is negative dA and dP have

opposite signs.
Pressure must increase as the flow area decreases, and
must decrease as the area increases

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## One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area
A relationship between dA and dV can be
derived by substituting V = -dP/dV (from the
differential Bernoulli equation)

## Since A and V are positive

For subsonic flow (Ma < 1)
For supersonic flow (Ma > 1)
For sonic flow (Ma = 1)

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dA/dV < 0
dA/dV > 0
dA/dV = 0

## One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow

Variation of Fluid Velocity with Flow Area
Comparison of flow properties in subsonic and supersonic nozzles and diffusers

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## One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow

Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases
Relations between static properties and stagnation properties in
terms of Ma are useful.
Earlier, it was shown that stagnation temperature for an ideal gas
was

in terms of Ma

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## One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow

Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases

(slide 8)

## Numerical values of T0/T, P0/P and 0/ compiled

in Table A-13 for k=1.4
For Ma = 1, these ratios are called critical
ratios
ME33 : Fluid Flow

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## One-Dimensional Isentropic Flow

Property Relations for Isentropic Flow of Ideal Gases

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## Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles

Converging or converging-diverging nozzles are
found in many engineering applications
Steam and gas turbines, aircraft and spacecraft
propulsion, industrial blast nozzles, torch nozzles

## Here, we will study the effects of back pressure

(pressure at discharge) on the exit velocity,
mass flow rate, and pressure distribution along
the nozzle

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## Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles

Converging Nozzles
State 1: Pb = P0, there is no
flow, and pressure is constant.
State 2: Pb < P0, pressure along
nozzle decreases.
State 3: Pb =P* , flow at exit is
sonic, creating maximum flow
rate called choked flow.
State 4: Pb < Pb, there is no
change in flow or pressure
distribution in comparison to
state 3
State 5: Pb =0, same as state 4.
ME33 : Fluid Flow

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## Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles

Converging Nozzles
Under steady flow conditions, mass flow rate is
constant

## Substituting T and P from the expressions on

slides 23 and 24 gives

## Mass flow rate is a function of stagnation properties,

flow area, and Ma
ME33 : Fluid Flow

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## Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles

Converging Nozzles
The maximum mass flow rate through a nozzle
with a given throat area A* is fixed by the P0 and
T0 and occurs at Ma = 1

## This principal is important for chemical

processes, medical devices, flow meters, and
anywhere the mass flux of a gas must be known
and controlled.

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## Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles

Converging-Diverging Nozzles
The highest velocity in a converging nozzle
is limited to the sonic velocity (Ma = 1),
which occurs at the exit plane (throat) of the
nozzle
Accelerating a fluid to supersonic velocities
(Ma > 1) requires a diverging flow section
Converging-diverging (C-D) nozzle
Standard equipment in supersonic aircraft and
rocket propulsion

## Forcing fluid through a C-D nozzle does not

guarantee supersonic velocity
Requires proper back pressure Pb

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## Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles

Converging-Diverging Nozzles
1. P0 > Pb > Pc
Flow remains subsonic, and
mass flow is less than for
choked flow. Diverging section
acts as diffuser

2. Pb = PC
Sonic flow achieved at throat.
Diverging section acts as
diffuser. Subsonic flow at exit.
Further decrease in Pb has no
effect on flow in converging
portion of nozzle
ME33 : Fluid Flow

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## Isentropic Flow Through Nozzles

Converging-Diverging Nozzles
3. PC > Pb > PE
Fluid is accelerated to supersonic
velocities in the diverging section as
the pressure decreases. However,
acceleration stops at location of
normal shock. Fluid decelerates and
is subsonic at outlet. As Pb is
decreased, shock approaches nozzle
exit.

4. PE > Pb > 0
3. Flow in diverging section is
supersonic with no shock forming in
the nozzle. Without shock, flow in
nozzle can be treated as isentropic.

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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Review
Sound waves are created by small pressure
disturbances and travel at the speed of sound
For some back pressures, abrupt changes in
fluid properties occur in C-D nozzles, creating
a shock wave

## Here, we will study the conditions under

which shock waves develop and how they
affect the flow.

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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Normal Shocks
Shocks which occur in a plane
normal to the direction of flow
are called normal shock
waves
Flow process through the
shock wave is highly
irreversible and cannot be
approximated as being
isentropic
Develop relationships for flow
properties before and after the
shock using conservation of
mass, momentum, and energy
ME33 : Fluid Flow

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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Normal Shocks
Conservation of mass

Conservation of energy

Conservation of momentum

Increase in entropy

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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Normal Shocks
Combine conservation of mass
and energy into a single
equation and plot on h-s
diagram
Fanno Line : locus of states
that have the same value of
h0 and mass flux

## Combine conservation of mass

and momentum into a single
equation and plot on h-s
diagram
Rayleigh line

## Points of maximum entropy

correspond to Ma = 1.
Above / below this point is
subsonic / supersonic

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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Normal Shocks
There are 2 points where the
Fanno and Rayleigh lines
intersect : points where all 3
conservation equations are
satisfied
Point 1: before the shock
(supersonic)
Point 2: after the shock
(subsonic)

## The larger Ma is before the

shock, the stronger the shock
will be.
Entropy increases from point 1
to point 2 : expected since
flow through the shock is
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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Normal Shocks
Equation for the Fanno line for
an ideal gas with constant
specific heats can be derived

line is

## Combining this gives the

intersection points

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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Oblique Shocks
Not all shocks are
normal to flow
direction.
Some are inclined to
the flow direction, and
are called oblique
shocks

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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Oblique Shocks
deflected through an
angle called the turning
angle
Result is a straight
oblique shock wave
aligned at shock angle
relative to the flow
direction
Due to the displacement
thickness, is slightly
greater than the wedge
half-angle .
ME33 : Fluid Flow

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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Oblique Shocks
Like normal shocks, Ma decreases across the
oblique shock, and are only possible if upstream
flow is supersonic
However, unlike normal shocks in which the
downstream Ma is always subsonic, Ma2 of an
oblique shock can be subsonic, sonic, or
supersonic depending upon Ma1 and .

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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Oblique Shocks
All equations and
shock tables for
normal shocks apply
to oblique shocks as
well, provided that we
use only the normal
components of the
Mach number
-Ma relationship

Ma1,n = V1,n/c1
Ma2,n = V2,n/c2

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Oblique Shocks

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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Oblique Shocks
If wedge half angle
> max, a detached
oblique shock or bow
wave is formed
Much more
complicated that
straight oblique
shocks.
Requires CFD for
analysis.
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Oblique Shocks

## Similar shock waves see for axisymmetric

bodies, however, -Ma relationship and
resulting diagram is different than for 2D bodies

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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Oblique Shocks
For blunt bodies,
without a sharply
pointed nose, = 90,
and an attached
oblique shock cannot
exist regardless of
Ma.

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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves

## Flow turns gradually as each

successful Mach wave turns
the flow ay an infinitesimal amount
ME33 : Fluid Flow

## In some cases, flow is turned in the

opposite direction across the shock
Example : wedge at angle of attack
greater than wedge half angle
This type of flow is called an expanding
flow, in contrast to the oblique shock
which creates a compressing flow.
Instead of a shock, a expansion fan
appears, which is comprised of infinite
number of Mach waves called PrandtlMeyer expansion waves
Each individual expansion wave is
isentropic : flow across entire expansion
fan is isentropic
Ma2 > Ma1
P, , T decrease across the fan

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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves
Prandtl-Meyer expansion fans also occur in
axisymmetric flows, as in the corners and trailing
edges of the cone cylinder.

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## Shock Waves and Expansion Waves

Prandtl-Meyer Expansion Waves
Interaction between shock waves and expansions
waves in over expanded supersonic jet

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## Duct Flow with Heat Transfer

and Negligible Friction
Many compressible flow problems encountered in
practice involve chemical reactions such as combustion,
nuclear reactions, evaporation, and condensation as well
as heat gain or heat loss through the duct wall
Such problems are difficult to analyze
Essential features of such complex flows can be
captured by a simple analysis method where
generation/absorption is modeled as heat transfer
through the wall at the same rate
Still too complicated for introductory treatment since flow may
involve friction, geometry changes, 3D effects

We will focus on 1D flow in a duct of constant crosssectional area with negligible frictional effects
ME33 : Fluid Flow

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## Duct Flow with Heat Transfer

and Negligible Friction
Consider 1D flow of an ideal gas
with constant cp through a duct
with constant A with heat transfer
but negligible friction (known as
Rayleigh flow)
Continuity equation

X-Momentum equation

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## Duct Flow with Heat Transfer

and Negligible Friction
Energy equation
CV involves no shear, shaft, or other forms of work, and
potential energy change is negligible.

## For and ideal gas with constant cp, h = cpT

Entropy change
In absence of irreversibilities such as friction, entropy changes
by heat transfer only

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## Duct Flow with Heat Transfer

and Negligible Friction
Infinite number of
downstream states 2 for a
given upstream state 1
Practical approach is to
assume various values for
T2, and calculate all other
properties as well as q.
Plot results on T-s diagram
Called a Rayleigh line

## This line is the locus of all

physically attainable
downstream states
S increases with heat gain to
point a which is the point of
maximum entropy (Ma =1)

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## Adiabatic Duct Flow with Friction

Friction must be included for flow through
long ducts, especially if the cross-sectional
area is small.
Here, we study compressible flow with
significant wall friction, but negligible heat
transfer in ducts of constant cross section.

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## Adiabatic Duct Flow with Friction

Consider 1D adiabatic flow of an
ideal gas with constant cp through
a duct with constant A with
significant frictional effects (known
as Fanno flow)
Continuity equation

X-Momentum equation

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## Duct Flow with Heat Transfer

and Negligible Friction
Energy equation
CV involves no heat or work, and potential energy change is
negligible.

## For and ideal gas with constant cp, h = cpT

Entropy change
In absence of irreversibilities such as friction, entropy changes
by heat transfer only

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## Duct Flow with Heat Transfer

and Negligible Friction
Infinite number of downstream
states 2 for a given upstream
state 1
Practical approach is to assume
various values for T2, and
calculate all other properties as
well as friction force.
Plot results on T-s diagram
Called a Fanno line

## This line is the locus of all

physically attainable
downstream states
s increases with friction to point
of maximum entropy (Ma =1).
Two branches, one for Ma < 1,
one for Ma >1

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## Duct Flow with Heat Transfer

and Negligible Friction

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