Hydraulic Turbine


Transfer Function


Water Turbine


Hydroelectric power
(often called hydropower) is
considered a renewable
energy source. A
renewable energy source is
one that is not depleted
(used up) in the production
of energy. Through
hydropower, the energy in
falling water is converted
into electricity without
“using up” the water.


Potential Energy Electrical Energy Electricity Kinetic Energy Mechanical Energy Hydropower to Electric 4 .

The flowing water causes the turbine to rotate.Flowing water is directed at a turbine (remember turbines are just advanced waterwheels). converting the water’s kinetic energy into mechanical energy. Hydroelectric Power .

It is a fact of nature that moving a magnet near a conductor causes an electric current. Inside the generator. . the shaft of the turbine spins a magnet inside coils of copper wire.The mechanical energy produced by the turbine is converted into electric energy using a turbine generator.

2nd edition.Boyle. 2003 World Trends in Hydropower 7 . Oxford University Press. Renewable Energy.

org World hydro production 8 .IEA.

3 TWhrs World’s Largest Dams 9 .600 MW 93.809 MW 22.200 MW Annual Production Name Country Three Gorges China Itaipú Brazil/Paragua y 1983 12.” Wikipedia.200 MW 46 TW-hrs 1942/80 6.Year Max Generation 2009 18. Canada 1971 Iron Gates Romania/Serbi a “Hydroelectricity.org 1970 5.429 MW 35 TW-hrs 2.6 TWhrs Grand Coulee United States Sayano Shushenskaya Russia 1983 6.4 TWhrs Guri Venezuela 1986 10.280 MW 11.400 MW Robert-Bourassa 5.616 MW Churchill Falls Canada 1981 Ranked by maximum power.

2nd edition. 200 low-head (less than 100 feet) medium-head (100 to 800 feet) high-head (800 or more feet) Types of Hydroelectric 10 .Boyle. Oxford University Press. Renewable Energy.

html Medium Head Example Low Head .com/hydro-powerplants.ishan-international.High Head http://www.

Introduction Water Turbine Modeling Contents .

3.Reaction Turbines Derive power 1. Francis. 2. from pressure drop across turbine Totally immersed in water Angular & linear motion converted to shaft power Propeller. and Kaplan turbines Classification of Hydro . 4.

Turgo. and crossflow turbines Classification of Hydro . 3.Impulse Turbines 1. Convert kinetic energy of water jet hitting buckets 2. No pressure drop across turbines Pelton.

20 • • • • Kaplan Francis Pelton Turgo 2 < H < 40 10 < H < 350 50 < H < 1300 50 < H < 250  (H = head in meters) Turbine Design Ranges 15 . 2nd edition. Oxford University Press. Renewable Energy.Boyle.

Renewable Energy. Oxford University Press. 2 16 nd edition.Types of Hydropower Boyle. 2003 .

"Water Turbine.com Francis Turbine – Grand Coulee Dam 17 ." Wikipedia.

"Water Turbine.com Fixed-Pitch Propeller Turbine 18 ." Wikipedia.

" Wikipedia.com Kaplan Turbine Schematic 19 ."Water Turbine.

Introduction Water Turbine Modeling Contents .

(b) the water is incompressible.• • • velocity of water in the penstock turbine mechanical power acceleration of water column The representation of the hydraulic turbine and water column in stability studies usually assumes that (a) the penstock is inelastic. and (c) hydraulic resistance is negligible Modeling .

hence.U  K uG H where U = water velocity G = gate position H = hydraulic head at gate Ku = a constant of proportionality The turbine mechanical power is proportional to the product of pressure and flow. Pm  KpHU Mechanical Power .

Change in turbine mechanical power following a unit step increase in gate position Power Over time .

may be expressed as where L = length of conduit A = pipe area d U ρ = mass density LA   A a g H dt ag = acceleration due to gravity ρLA = mass of water in the conduit ρagH = incremental change in pressure at turbine gate     Acceleration .The acceleration of water column due to a change in head at the turbine. characterized by Newton's second law of motion.

Governor with transient droop compensation .

Mechanical Governor .

Mechanical Governor .

preferably close to 0.5 Tw Electro-Hydraulic Governor Tw TM .3   Tw  1.There are two important considerations in the selection of governor settings: • Stable operation during system islanding conditions or isolated operation.15 TR   5.0   Tw  1. the reset time TR should be less than 1. the optimum choice of the temporary droop RT and reset time TR are as follows: For satisfactory loading rates.0 0. R T   2.0 s.0 0.5 s. and • Acceptable speed of response for loading and unloading under normal synchronous operation For stable operation under islanding conditions.

Conclusions .

References .