questions or

1. Don't forget to turn in your reading
questions for Ochs, 1986.
2. We will be talking about symbols on
Monday. Bring in some examples of
symbols and icons to share with the
3. We have a guest speaker on
Tuesday. Please make sure you are
well prepared for his presentation.

.Today’s Topic: Theories of language development. cont.

2)? 2. What do you think Ochs (1986) meant when she wrote that language socialization refers to both "socialization through language and socialization to language" (p.Small Group Activity: 1. How does this relate to individuals with intensive communication needs? 20 minutes! .

.Quick Write Define language socialization in your own terms.

Ways to contrast approach to language development: Language is separate from cognition Language is a subset of cognition .


Ways to contrast approaches to language development: Focus on competence Focus on performance .

4) . Aspects of the theory of syntax.Competence is “the speakerhearer’s knowledge of his language” and performance is “the actual use of language in concrete situations. p. 1965.” Chomsky.

Focus on Linguistic Competence “Linguistic theory is concerned primarily with an ideal speaker-listener. 1965. p. shifts of attention and interest.” Chomsky. Aspects of the theory of syntax. and errors… in applying his knowledge of the language in actual performance. who knows its language perfectly and in unaffected by such grammatically irrelevant conditions as memory limitations. distractions. 3) . in a completely homogeneous speech-community.

3) . as well as for the child learning the language. is to determine from the data of performance the underlying system of rules that has been mastered by the speaker-hearer and that he puts into actual performance. in the technical sense. Aspects of the theory of syntax. p. linguistic theory is mentalistic. since it is concerned with discovering a mental reality underlying actual behavior. 1965. Hence.” Chomsky.“The problem for the linguist.

What’s the “problem” for language socialization? .

p.Ochs. 11) . 1986.

What does it mean to know a language? .

feeling. 1986) .” (Ochs.What is Socialization? “.. and interactional display (covert or overt) to a novice of expected ways of thinking.

” Language Socialization (Ochs. 3) . p.“One critical area of social competence a child must acquire is the ability to recognize/ interpret what social event is taking place and to speak and act in ways that are sensitive to the context. 1986.

Social Events??? .

Attending church .

Hanging with my bud…. .

The Job Interview .

Closing the Deal .

Family Counseling Session .

Telephone Conversations .

socialization through language and socialization to use language .

say Dr. Jones” . Don’t say Bob.“Johnny.

” (Ochs.Socialization through language: “…children and other novices in society acquire tacit knowledge of principles of social order and systems of belief (ethnotheories) through exposure to and participation in language-mediated interaction. 2-3) . pp. 1986.

we… suggest that children acquire a world view as they acquire a language. 1986.Socialization through language. Language use then is a major if not the major tool for conveying sociocultural knowledge and a powerful medium of socialization. 2-3) . cont. pp.” (Ochs. In this sense. “…grammatical and conversational structures…are also culturally organized and as such expressive of local conceptions and theories about the world.

and the child's own developing communicative competence… . the responsiveness of communicative partners. bidirectional influence of the communication environment.The Transactional Model of Communication Development “This perspective emphasizes the reciprocal.

2) . this model assumes that the increasing readability or clarity of the child's communicative behavior may influence the parent's style and frequency of contingent responsiveness in ways that will further scaffold the child's developing competence during the transition to linguistic communication.Transactional Model. & Reichle. 1998. cont.” (Wetherby. Warren. …For example. p.


p. 286) ..” (Kublin et al. 1998.Another definition… “Children are viewed as active participants who learn to affect the behavior and attitudes of others through active signaling and who gradually learn to use more sophisticated and conventional means to communicate through caregivers’ contingent social responsiveness.

. because successful communication involves reciprocity and mutual negotiation.. not simply by focusing solely on the child or the caregivers. 286) . p.And… “The quality and nature of the contexts in which interaction occurs are considered to have a great influence on the successful acquisition of language and communicative behavior." (Kublin et al.. development can be understood only by analysis of the interactive context. 1998.

The Communication Environment The responsiveness of communicative partners The child’s developing communicative competence .

Today’s Main Points: 1. Children are active participants in their own language development.language is not learned without interacting with others. Children develop language within a social context -. 2. . Children learn about the way their society is organized and about their culture by learning their language. 3.

cont. we learn about how our culture is organized.: 4. Therefore. We speak differently in different contexts. By learning to speak in different situations. 5. we learn language.Main points. 6. i. . with friends versus during religious ceremonies. By participating in cultural events. active participation in meaningful communicative interactions is necessary for develop language.e.

Looking ahead… Cultural differences in the development of communication .

. Please take a minute for the minute .